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20.03.2019 | Original Paper | Ausgabe 7-11/2019 Open Access

Topics in Catalysis 7-11/2019

Solvent-free Hydrodeoxygenation of γ-Nonalactone on Noble Metal Catalysts Supported on Zirconia

Zeitschrift:
Topics in Catalysis > Ausgabe 7-11/2019
Autoren:
José Luis González Escobedo, Eveliina Mäkelä, Aki Braunschweiler, Juha Lehtonen, Marina Lindblad, Riikka L. Puurunen, Reetta Karinen
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11244-019-01161-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
José Luis González Escobedo and Eveliina Mäkelä contributed equally to this work.

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Abstract

The possibility to valorize levulinic acid (LA) dimers to lignocellulose-based biofuels via hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) was assessed using γ-nonalactone (GNL) as a model compound. Catalytic HDO experiments were performed in a batch reactor at 280 °C and at an average pressure of 57.5 bar H2. Noble metal (Ru, Rh, Pd, and Pt) catalysts supported on ZrO2. All the catalysts were active in removing oxygen from the reactant. However, the most selective catalyst for hydrocarbons (24%) was ruthenium. Unlike the other tested catalysts, Ru also provided branched hydrocarbons. In view of Ru’s comparatively high selectivity to hydrocarbons, it was tested at various reaction temperatures (220–280 °C) for 300 min. The experiments at lower temperatures resulted in less hydrocarbons and more intermediate products, such as alcohols. In total, nearly 70 products were identified, and some of the reactions that likely occurred in the HDO experiments were discussed. The production of hydrocarbons from GNL highlights the potential of LA dimers as a route to lignocellulose-based biofuels.

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