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Über dieses Buch

This timely book examines how the South African National Defence Force has adapted to the country’s new security, political and social environment since 1994. In South Africa’s changed political state, how has civilian control of the military been implemented and what does this mean for ‘defence in a democracy’? This book presents an overview of the security environment, how the mission focus of the military has changed and the implications for force procurement, force preparation, force employment and force sustainability.

The author addresses other issues, such as:

· the effect of integrating former revolutionary soldiers into a professional armed force

· the effect of affirmative action on meritocracy, recruitment and retention

· military veterans, looking at the difficulties they face in reintegrating back into society and finding gainful employment

· gender equality and mainstreaming

· the rise of military unions and why a confrontational, instead of a more corporatist approach to labour relations has emerged

· HIV/AIDS and the consequences this holds for the military in terms of its operational effectiveness.

In closing, the author highlights key events that have caused the SANDF to become ‘lost in transition and transformation’, spelling out some lessons learned. The conclusions she draws are pertinent for the future of defence, security and civil-military relations of countries around the world.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Historical Overview: Transition and Transformation

Abstract
South Africa’s Post-Apartheid Military: Lost in Transition and Transformation focuses on the processes of defence transformation within the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) since the new democratic dispensation in 1994. The book has three objectives. The first is to examine how the SANDF adapted to the new security environment in terms of its shift in mission focus. The second is to evaluate the effect the changed ‘political environment’ has had on civil-military relations. The third is to look at how the military has adapted to the new social and legal environment in terms of its human resource policies and practices. This chapter provides some historical context and describes the scope of the book, before addressing the first theme in Chap. 2, namely how the SANDF has adapted its organisational structure to meet changing mission requirements.
Lindy Heinecken

Chapter 2. The New Security Environment: Shifting Mission Priorities and Organisational Restructuring

Abstract
In many respects, South Africa confronted the same challenges as other Western countries in trying to find the right balance in terms of personnel, operations and capital expenditure. The difficulties of executing secondary tasks within the confines of being structured, trained, funded and deployed for its primary mission—warfare—are captured in the voices of soldiers deployed on peacekeeping missions.
Lindy Heinecken

Chapter 3. Peace Missions: Preparing for and Deployment on Peacekeeping Operations

Abstract
Related to the changed security environment, this chapter describes the context and nature of the deployment on peacekeeping missions and how the SANDF has sought to prepare and deploy its forces for an ever-widening spectrum of tasks. Based on interviews with soldiers, the chapter expands upon shortcomings in their training and education, difficulties in dealing and interacting with other actors, the operational challenges they experience and the psychological stress of these missions.
Lindy Heinecken

Chapter 4. Civil-Military Relations: Civil Control, Oversight and the Demilitarisation of Society

Abstract
At this point, the focus moves to the political context. This chapter focuses on civil-military relations and more specifically on civil control and oversight mechanisms and effectiveness. The argument is made that one of the reasons why civil control has become problematical is because South Africa has become demilitarised, leading to an ever-widening civil-military gap. With fewer and fewer people knowledgeable about military matters, this has weakened civil control, oversight and accountability.
Lindy Heinecken

Chapter 5. Political Reform: Integration, Representivity and Managing Diversity

Abstract
Still in the political realm, this chapter examines the process of integration and cultural transformation associated with the integration of the various armed forces and the political different tensions that emerged. From here the discussion moves on to the effect of affirmative action, and the ensuing debates around meritocracy. The final section argues that although the SANDF is a representative military, it has tended not to value diversity, which has affected recruitment, retention, the image of the SANDF and, ultimately, military effectiveness.
Lindy Heinecken

Chapter 6. Military Veterans: The Challenges of Reintegration and Compensation

Abstract
Somewhat outside of the SANDF, this chapter focuses on military veterans and the typical challenges they face in settling back into civilian society. The effect of the ‘total institution’ on the ‘habitus’ of military veterans, and the impact this has on economic, political and social reintegration is deliberated. The chapter ends with the discussion on how military veterans are being compensated and the political dynamics underlying this.
Lindy Heinecken

Chapter 7. Gender Equality: The Complexities of Gender Integration

Abstract
The last three chapters address some pressing human-resource issues affecting defence transformation. This chapter looks at the challenges that gender integration has evoked, and how the debates have shifted from exclusion to inclusion and the need to ‘re-gender’ the military. Included is a section on the experiences of women on peacekeeping missions, and the effect the operational context has on their ability to make a unique, or specific contribution towards peace and security.
Lindy Heinecken

Chapter 8. Fair Labour Practices: Dealing with the Impact of HIV/AIDS

Abstract
Still on the topic of human resources, this chapter focuses on HIV/AIDS, highlighting the threats HIV/AIDS has posed to the operational capacity and effectiveness of the SANDF. The controversial issue of HIV testing and the legal cases that have obliged the SANDF to introduce a more nuanced approach to the management of HIV/AIDS are unpacked. The final section reflects on these issues in relation to the deployment of HIV-positive members on peacekeeping operations, including the wider ramifications this holds for military families infected and affected by this disease.
Lindy Heinecken

Chapter 9. Military Unions: Moving from Accommodation to Confrontation to Subversion

Abstract
This chapter debates the factors that have facilitated the emergence and institutionalisation of military unions. The chapter assesses the evolution of their relationship with the Department of Defence, and examines why, unlike in other European countries, a distinct culture of confrontational pluralism emerged. The final section deliberates how the military has tried to parry the union challenge through the appointment of the Defence Force Service Commission, a revised grievance structure and Military Ombudsman.
Lindy Heinecken

Chapter 10. Conclusion: Critical Reflections

Abstract
Finally, this chapter offers some critical reflections on the issues raised in relation to the various dimensions of defence transformation.
Lindy Heinecken

Backmatter

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