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Über dieses Buch

This book attempts to provide insights into the achievement of a sustainable urban form, through spatial planning and implementation; here, we focus on planning experiences at the levels of local cities and some metropolitan areas in Asian countries. This book investigates the impact of planning policy on spatial planning implementation, from multidisciplinary viewpoints encompassing land-use patterns, housing development, transportation, green design, and agricultural and ecological systems in the urbanization process. We seek to learn from researchers in an integrated multidisciplinary platform that reflects a variety of perspectives, such as economic development, social equality, and ecological protection, with a view to achieving a sustainable urban form.​

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Overview: Spatial Planning for Achieving Sustainable Urban Forms

Abstract
In this chapter, as an introduction and summary of this book, we will summarize its key contributions regarding the role of public actors in the implementation of spatial planning. We will introduce each chapter, showing how it will contribute to the book’s main conclusions.
Zhen-jiang Shen, Mitsuhiko Kawakami

Urbanization and Sustainable Society: Section Urbanization and Planning Approach

Frontmatter

Chapter 2. The Possibility of Sharing Spatial Data and Research Cooperation Within East Asia Countries

For Sustainable and Balanced Regional Growth
Abstract
For the stable growth of East Asia, a common spatial development perspective, which proposes sustainable and balanced development for the whole region, will be necessary in the future. Three East Asian countries in particular—Japan, China, and Korea—have practiced the interchange of people, money, and information in various fields, but they have not realized the common fruit that should be the result of essential cooperation and coordination. This chapter proposes the possibility of sharing spatial data and research cooperation by referring to a case involving ESDI (European Spatial Data Infrastructure) and ESPON (European Spatial Planning Observation Network) of the EU. The first steps in such a cooperative effort would include developing spatial indicators, analyzing trends, and constructing visual representations of the research results, all of which would assist in understanding the East Asian region and each country’s situation. Such progress would also serve as (1) the basis for regional cooperation in spatial development planning, (2) a visual indicator showing balanced development in each region, (3) educational material to enhance the Asian identity, and (4) an assessment indicator for concentrated investment in backward regions. As a follow-up to the maps created for this project, several tasks should be carried out for setting up an East Asian Spatial Data Infrastructure: (1) produce a common seamless map from the national to the regional level showing existing conditions, (2) set comparable regional units based on population and territory size, (3) unify statistical units and comparable regional units by collecting data under the same definitions, and (4) increase the range of use by integrating the global map with regional statistical data. To implement these processes, cooperation and collaboration among related nations and research institutions are necessary.
Kyung-rock Ye

Chapter 3. A Study on Classification of Downtown Areas Based on Small and Medium Cities in Korea

Abstract
The purpose of this research is to analyze the deterioration of small-to-medium cities and their downtowns, and classify the types of decline. One of this study’s features, therefore, is the categorization of the pattern of urban growth, with an accurate demarcation of the downtown area. Another feature is the priority order of the urban regeneration policies to be implemented by the central and local governments, arrived at by analyzing the characteristic indexes. The results of the categorization of the case cities will be used as source materials for urban regeneration projects spearheaded by the local government. The categories—regional-wide, citywide, and downtown-wide approach types—will help decide the priority order of the urban regeneration policies of the central government.
Bum-hyun Lee

Chapter 4. Significance and Limitations of the Support Policy for Marginal Hamlets in the Strategy of Self-sustaining Regional Sphere Development

Abstract
In Japan, less-favored areas known as “marginal hamlets” have multiplied rapidly, and the continuous care of such areas has been major problem for national land-use planning. This research aims to scrutinize how the positioning and directionality of the support for marginal hamlets are defined in the National Spatial Plan, the plan’s compatibility in solving the problems of a broad area and the requests from individual marginal hamlets, and the plan’s limitations. We conducted a field survey at Monzen town in Wajima City, Ishikawa Prefecture, and carried out the study’s purpose through a comparative analysis on the future image of bottom-up and top-down processes.
The analysis revealed that many residents had a strong inclination toward settlement; a majority of them stated that they would stay in the town regardless of depopulation. In contrast, farmland management had already reached its limit. When arable land near an area under cultivation was abandoned, it became clear that the resulting external diseconomy would make the idle field impossible to manage.
We propose three steps to achieve a consensus among stakeholders. First, determine how much manpower and funds are needed to support marginal hamlets. Second, find out how these capital resources can be obtained from inside the depressed area. Third, if such capital resources cannot be obtained, determine the necessary revisions in the support policy for marginal hamlets.
Ryohei Yamashita, Tomohiro Ichinose

Chapter 5. Continuity of Relations Between Local Living Environments and the Elderly Moved to a Group Living

Abstract
“Ageing in place” is becoming a key issue in the ageing society. As such, the location of nursing homes is an important factor in designing suitable facilities for the elderly. It is important for the elderly to maintain their own daily living environments, even if they have to move to group care facilities or nursing homes. However, many facilities for the care-requiring elderly were traditionally built in serene countryside locations. Therefore, to claim that there was significant continuity in the relationships of those facilities’ residents to their environments would have been difficult. In this chapter, we examine the continuity of relationships experienced by residents in a group care facility with the physical and human aspects of their daily living environments. As a case study, we selected a group care facility for the elderly with dementia located in a city in which a majority of residents moved in from surrounding communities in Japan. Then, we conducted on-site observations of the behaviors and remarks of residents when they went out. Observations indicated that some form of continuity of relationships with daily living environments was experienced by some residents. We suggest that there is a correlation between one’s living-hub history and the status of the continuity of one’s relationship with the daily living environment after moving into a group care facility. We then discuss the conditions and significance of this continuity. Our study shows the significance of moving into a facility close to one’s former daily living environment in order to maintain a relationship with it.
Tatsuya Nishino

Chapter 6. The Use of Indicators to Assess Urban Regeneration Performance for Climate-Friendly Urban Development: The Case of Yokohama Minato Mirai 21

Abstract
Climate change is one of the greatest challenges in the twenty-first century. Immediate actions are required to slow down climate change and address its impacts on human life and settlements. Cities can play crucial roles in this respect, as they not just contribute to causes of climate change but also are under severe threat from its impacts. Urban regeneration projects can provide opportunities to make cities more climate-friendly and less vulnerable. However, the potential role of urban regeneration in tackling climate change is not sufficiently recognized. In many cities, integration between urban regeneration projects and climate policy is still weak. Besides, limited methods exist to evaluate the performance of urban regeneration projects for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Considering these challenges, this chapter is intended to elaborate on use of indicators to assess the progress achieved in urban regeneration projects toward climate-friendly urban development. The chapter presents the findings of a research on the case of Minato Mirai 21 Project in Yokohama, which is a prominent waterfront redevelopment over brownfield sites. The project has converted former shipyards and railroad yards into mixed-use and high-density urban quarter with a working and resident population of 70,000 people at present. A set of 34 indicators grouped under six performance categories is developed and applied to MM21 project. Research findings not only indicate the extent of achievements in MM21 project toward climate-friendly urban development but also highlight the strengths and weaknesses in using indicators for assessing urban regeneration performance.
Osman Balaban

Chapter 7. Imagination and Practice of Collaborative Landscape, Ecological, and Cultural Planning in Taiwan: The Case of Taichung County and Changhua County

Abstract
“Landscape” is an issue normally neglected in the field of urban and regional development in Taiwan. However, an urban development policy, entitled Urban–rural Landscape Improvement Movement, was officially launched by the central government of Taiwan in 1999 to improve environmental quality and establish liveable human settlements. Based on the successful Community Empowerment Movement, Urban–rural Landscape Improvement Movement is intended to demonstrate positive integration among natural ecological preservation, local cultural uniqueness, and rapid urban development. With endeavors to enact and implement Landscape Law and Landscape Master Plan at the local government level, such an intention to link landscape, ecological, and cultural urbanism with urban development is gradually becoming possible. This chapter demonstrates a 2-year endeavor to implement Landscape Master Plan and Townscape Renaissance Project in Changhua County and Taichung County, which are located in the central region of Taiwan. It first depicts the course and content of Urban–rural Landscape Improvement Movement and reveals policy planning deliberation set by the central government. The interrelationship among landscape consultants, Landscape Master Plan, and the basic government level/grassroots organizations constructs a comprehensive mechanism to execute the movement. Second, it describes the process of Townscape Renaissance Project at the local government level and places great emphasis on the institutional horizontal integration between counties. Third, it further explores the cross-county collaboration and cooperation. A joint, collaborative project, entitled Green Station Greenway, is now subsidized by the central government and endeavors to promote sustainable development in urban–rural planning at the regional level. The Green Station Greenway project is intended to turn the historic areas or traditional districts of towns and cities along with Taiwan Railway routes into more sustainable and ecological environments.
Li-wei Liu, Pei-yin Ko

Urbanization and Sustainable Society: Section Housing and Transportation

Frontmatter

Chapter 8. Sustainable-Oriented Study on Conservation Planning of Cave-Dwelling Village Culture Landscape

Abstract
The village cultural landscape of China is being challenged by the New Rural Construction and rapid urbanization. One of the dominant theories on the conservation of the village cultural landscape proposes that it can be protected through ecotourism, which is based on the concept of sustainable development. In line with the theory, this chapter discusses the guideline for the sustainable conservation of the village cultural landscape by means of village ecotourism. Gaoxigou, a cave-dwelling village, was used as a case study to analyze the key elements of the village cultural landscape, discuss the resources of village ecotourism, explore the relationship between the elements and resources, and examine and apply the guidelines for conservation planning and design. With the implementation of the guidelines, the author explored the sustainable conservation planning method of the cave-dwelling village’s cultural landscape and hopes to provide some references for the future protection of the village cultural landscape.
An-rong Dang, Yan Zhang, Yang Chen

Chapter 9. Characteristic of Sustainable Location for Townhouse Development in Bangkok and Greater Metropolitan Area, Thailand

Abstract
This study examines the relationship between the location and development of townhouses in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, which has expanded considerably to cover a greater area. This rapid growth has caused many problems, particularly in the environment and quality of living for residents. The townhouse is an alternative residential type that is a response to the needs of the middle class. The objective of the study is to examine location characteristics for optimal townhouse development. The analysis explored the proper location for townhouses to provide understanding of the relationship between location and the time periods of housing development since 1967. The research revealed that each area has different characteristics that influenced housing settlements, and the numbers of projects differ significantly in each part of the city, depending on the urban context and the social and economic situations. Moreover, townhouse settlements have been diffused from inner-city Bangkok to the suburbs, while the suburban fringe has been in need of proper residential areas from 1977 to 2006 (the end date of the study). This movement demonstrates trends in the location of townhouses or housing developments that may help private developers in choosing potential sustainable locations for their new projects. This research may also aid city planners in formulating urban regulation guidelines to control or support townhouse development in the future.
Siwaporn Klimalai, Kiyoko Kanki

Chapter 10. Modeling Housing Demand Structure: An Example of Beijing

Abstract
In this chapter, a housing demand model is developed for classifying households with different needs and estimating the appropriate dwelling size for different households. The model is then applied to explore the housing demand of Beijing residents with questionnaire survey data. With a “surplus demand” indicator being incorporated to the model, the “true demands” of various families for dwelling size are predicted. The results contribute to the decision support of housing policies.
Xiao-lu Gao

Chapter 11. The Role of the Knowledge Community and Transmission of Knowledge: A Case of Bicycle SMEs in Taiwan

Abstract
In the era of the knowledge economy, knowledge comprises the core of economic growth, making the exploration of the spatial organization of knowledge generation an important issue. This study clarifies the knowledge generation process. In terms of the development mode, the Taiwanese bicycle industry can be geographically divided into northern, central, and southern regions. Each area possesses its own independent system with related and cooperative factories. Dajia, located in central Taiwan, is the most mature of the three. The geographical closeness of and industrial cooperation between community structures allow them to share resources, reduce deal prices, and promote professional investment. Even social networks can be exploited to produce and promote creativity. Therefore, this investigation proposed utilizing knowledge groups to understand spatial organizational style, with particular reference to villages. The study results demonstrate that the knowledge activities conducted in Dajia bicycle village are determined by the composition of the village, cooperation within the industry, and effective support from industrial and social resources.
Jen-te Pai, Tai-shan Hu

Chapter 12. Acceptability of Personal Mobility Vehicles to Public in Japan: Results of Social Trial in Toyota City

Abstract
Many challenges have to be dealt with to create and maintain a low-carbon transport society. One representative technological innovation that is being considered to assist in achieving this goal is a personal mobility vehicle (PMV). A key factor in successfully introducing PMVs for use in the future is understanding social acceptability, i.e., whether the public will accept the new transport innovation. The goal of this study is to gain an understanding of the basic attitudes of the general public toward PMVs and the significant sociopsychological factors that influence the acceptance of PMVs by society. A brief overview of studies pertaining to PMVs is presented. A trial held in the city of Toyota is summarized, and the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents are analyzed. The intended uses of PMVs are examined using principal component analysis and type I quantification theory, and the empirical results are discussed. Conclusions are drawn, and suggestions for further study are made.
Ryosuke Ando, Ang Li, Yasuhide Nishihori, Noriyasu Kachi

Chapter 13. Urban Form, Transportation Energy Consumption, and Environment Impact Integrated Simulation: A Multi-agent Model

Abstract
More energy is being consumed as urbanization spreads. Extensive research has found that a dominant share of urban energy consumption belongs to transportation energy, which has a strong relationship with urban form in the intracity level. However, little attention has been paid to the relationship between urban form, transportation energy consumption, and its environmental impact in the inner-city level. This chapter aims to investigate the impact of urban form, namely, the land-use pattern, distribution of development density, and the number and distribution of job centers on the residential commuting energy consumption (RCEC). We developed a multi-agent model for the urban form, transportation energy consumption, and environmental impact integrated simulation (FEE-MAS). Numerous distinguishable urban forms were generated using the Monte Carlo approach in the hypothetical city. On the one hand, the RCEC for each urban form was calculated using the proposed FEE-MAS; on the other hand, we selected 14 indicators (e.g., Shape Index, Shannon’s Diversity Index, and Euclidean Nearest Neighbor Distance) to evaluate each generated urban form using the tool FRAGSTATS, which is loosely coupled with the FEE-MAS model. Afterward, the quantitative relationship between the urban form and RCEC was identified using the calculated 14 indicators and RCEC of all generated urban forms. Several conclusions were drawn from simulations conducted in the hypothetical city: (1) the RCEC may vary three times for the same space with various urban forms; (2) among the 14 indicators for evaluating urban form, the patch number of job parcels is the most significant variable for the RCEC; (3) the RCECs of all urban forms generated obey a normal distribution; and (4) the shape of an urban form also exerts an influence on the RCEC. In addition, we evaluated several typical urban forms—e.g., compact/sprawl, single center/multicenters, traffic-oriented development, and greenbelt—in terms of the RCEC indicator using our proposed model to quantify those conventional planning theories. We found that not all simulation results obey widely recognized existing theories. The FEE-MAS model can also be used for evaluating plan alternatives in terms of transportation energy consumption and environmental impact in planning practice.
Ying Long, Qi-zhi Mao, Zhen-jiang Shen

Chapter 14. Mapping Walking Accessibility, Bus Availability, and Car Dependence: A Case Study of Xiamen, China

Abstract
As stated in the existing literature, travel behavior and transportation choice are closely related to urban forms and the built environment. The study presented in this chapter attempts to conduct a citywide evaluation of the walking accessibility to urban facilities and the availability of public transport, as well as relevant potential car dependence. By taking the city of Xiamen, China, as a case study, the current study generates some useful information vis-à-vis both public transport and urban facility providers, by illustrating the city’s spatial patterns and identifying problematic areas. The methodology developed in this study might also serve as a reference for future studies.
Hui Wang

Landscape and Ecological System, Sustainable Development: Section Green Design and Landscape

Frontmatter

Chapter 15. Effects of Green Curtains to Improve the Living Environment

Abstract
A green curtain means vertical planting of vines over a building surface. It is expected to improve indoor thermal environment of the building in summer, because it has a number of leaves shading a wall surface and windows of the building. However, it is also supposed to be obstacles to natural ventilation. Some experiments were done to confirm these environmental performances of green curtains. Model green curtains for the experiments were made of bitter gourd vines. A questionnaire survey for green curtain users was also carried out in Hamamatsu, Japan, to collect data about the amount of energy saved by green curtains and about the effect of green curtains on natural ventilation in residential houses. Results of the experiments and the survey indicate obvious effects of green curtains on indoor thermal environment.
Masashi Kato, Tsukasa Iwata, Norimitsu Ishii, Kimihiro Hino, Junichiro Tsutsumi, Ryo Nakamatsu, Yoshitaka Nishime, Koji Miyagi, Masakazu Suzuki

Chapter 16. A Comparison of Green Roof Systems with Conventional Roof for the Storm Water Runoff

Abstract
The overall goal of this chapter is to understand how extensive green roofs influence the storm water runoff reduction for typical Japanese rainfall patterns and to propose a new concept for controlling storm water runoff in densely populated cities. In this study, we calculated the effect on storm water reduction in an urban area and compared the delay time and runoff volume for three roof types: a traditional green roof system, a green roof system with a drainage layer, and a conventional roof. First, to examine how drainage layer thickness affects storm water reduction, runoff was examined for green roof systems with drainage layers of various thicknesses (25, 30, 40, 45, and 55). A typical Japanese rainfall pattern called “local torrential rainfall” with a rate of 150 mm/h was used in an experiment to demonstrate the effect of drainage layer thickness on storm water reduction. The mean storm water reduction was least at 30 mm (0.005 L/min), with a maximum of 45 mm (0.169 L/min), and the mean runoff coefficient was the lowest at 45 mm (C = 0.63) and highest at 30 mm (C = 0.97). Next, to estimate the effect that roof structure has on storm water reduction, runoff was calculated for the three different roof types in a case study involving 17 flood-prone districts in Chiyoda Ward, Tokyo, Japan. The storm water volume was calculated assuming that traditional green roofs or green roofs with a drainage layer were installed on buildings in a commercial district, on public facilities, and on buildings in an industrial district. Runoff volume was simulated for typical Japanese rainfall events: a local torrential rainfall (July 4, 2000) and a typhoon (August 27, 1993). The calculation results revealed the following: the traditional green roof was able to reduce the peak runoff to 71.7 %, and the extensive green roof with a drainage layer was able to reduce the peak runoff to 57.1 %. Finally, we discuss the significance of green roof systems on new storm water control strategies in urban areas of Japan.
Sachiko Kikuchi, Hajime Koshimizu

Chapter 17. Evaluation and Regulation of Ecological Security When Implementing Urban Planning: Review and Suggestions for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development in China

Abstract
It is important to carry out planning evaluation and regulation of ecological security (PERES) after implementing urban planning, which is the most urgent demand in China’s national-level urban planning according to China’s national strategic target for intensive urbanization. In this chapter, the importance of research on PERES is discussed after related literature review, and a method for PERES is designed in order to integrate ecological planning and sustainability into urban planning process in China. The suggested PERES system should include (1) determining the key bottlenecks in the implementation of urban planning, (2) identifying the basic elements of the evaluation and regulation of urban ecological security, (3) developing criteria to evaluate ecological security, (4) ecological safety monitoring, and (5) building regulations and a system of spatial regulations.
Lin-yu Xu, Zhi-feng Yang

Landscape and Ecological System, Sustainable Development: Section Agriculture and Ecological System

Frontmatter

Chapter 18. An Investigation of Changes in the Urban Shadow of Beijing Metropolis Under Agricultural Structural Adjustment in China

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to clarify changes in agricultural production, especially medicinal crop production, in Zhengzhang Village, which is located in the urban shadow of Beijing Metropolis under agricultural structure adjustment. In addition, the reasons behind the changes were analyzed. This study discusses the prospects of the developmental trends of agricultural production and farm management in farm households in the urban shadow of Beijing Metropolis. The People’s Republic of China (hereafter, China) started to implement agricultural structure adjustment in 1999. In particular, to prepare for China’s entry in the World Trade Organization (WTO), the government strengthened the quality control on some agricultural products that constitute part of China’s agricultural structure adjustment. Zhengzhang has a tradition of medicinal crop production, and from the time the Reform and Opening Policy was introduced, farm households have developed the business of cultivating and processing medicinal crops in order to increase their income. However, since 1999, due to the lack of capital to improve processing facilities, some farm households have had to abandon the business. At the same time, other farm households that were short of farmhands abandoned medicinal crops and shifted to food crops, which provided lower but stable income. As a result, medicinal crop production in Zhengzhang Village is dwindling under the agricultural structure adjustment, and the income polarization among farm households is becoming more defined. These changes can be mainly attributed to government policy adjustments. Other factors, such as market forces, the social situation, and globalization, also played major roles. This study carried out a detailed field survey of land use and farm management in farm households.
Dai Wang, Yue-fang Si, Wen-zhong Zhang, Wei Sun

Chapter 19. The Spatial Planning of Agricultural Production in Beijing Toward Producing Comfortable and Beautiful Living Environment

Abstract
Since 1984, Beijing’s rapid economic growth and urbanization have been heading into resource and environmental problems, such as cropland decrease, environmental deterioration, and traffic jams. Therefore, more space for glades and trees is needed to improve the urban environment. However, the central government’s decision to maintain 227,000 ha of cropland for national food security created a dilemma for Beijing: the need to choose between keeping the cropland or planting more trees and enlarging the glades. Actually, people can use the croplands to serve both purposes—food production and eco-environmental service—because croplands are multifunctional anyway. Besides food production, croplands also have ecological, landscape, cultural, and tourism roles, especially in megacities. This chapter analyzed land use and crop structure based on the land-use survey and agricultural statistic data while discussing the existing state of agriculture, including economic profit, labor cost, water resource depletion, and environmental impact. This study then proposed a four-ring agricultural pattern that radiates outward from the city center and exploits the multifunctional nature of croplands: an inner-city ring providing urban beautification with flowers and grass; a city-skirt ring with fruit trees, grain crops, and grass, from which intensive agriculture should be prohibited; a suburban plain ring for efficient, intensive agriculture; and lastly, the mountainous regions, for ecological conservation and unique agricultural products. This way, cultivation is combined with landscaping and ecological protection to give Beijing a more comfortable and beautiful living environment. The proposed spatial planning of agriculture is different from the traditional agricultural ring pattern identified by Thünen in 1826, but it inherits and develops the thought illustrated in Garden Cities of Tomorrow, a book written by Howard in 1945.
Feng-rong Zhang, Hua-fu Zhao

Chapter 20. Simplified Ecological Planning Method for Sustainable Landscape Management by Humantope Index: Patterns of Land-Use Continuity, Historical Land Use and Landownership

Abstract
The adaptability of the McHarg planning method seems high. However, separated multiple ecological factors must be evaluated for every land-use proposal. The LPPV method needs only two factors (layers): potential natural vegetation and land form. Nevertheless, the artificial environment such as a city area cannot be evaluated using the vegetation division pattern. An actual adaptation of these two methods is limited for reasons above. Also, these divisions by physical and biological index require agreements at many landowners and local administrations. Hence, the purpose of this chapter is to propose a shortened planning process that incorporates the advantages of McHarg and LPPV methods using a smaller number of indices in a society’s environmental division for environmental management guidelines. We set up the hypothesis that there is the possibility that past land-use patterns could be treated as a result of land evaluation of people. We focused on three important human-induced land patterns to develop the Humantope index: (1) continuity and stability of land use, (2) traditional land-use-adapted local environment and (3) landownership as spatial management result. Hence, our Humantope index is a highly informative synthesis and corresponding to natural environment and artificial environment. Moreover, Humantope index would be a simplified procedures compared to those of complex one like the rank evaluation of McHarg and potential vegetation estimates of LPPV. It is convenient to link concerns of landowners and local administrations because the Humantope division could be easily acceptable for landowners and local administration unit.
Misato Uehara

Chapter 21. Land Cover Analysis with High-Resolution Multispectral Satellite Imagery and Its Application for the CO2 Flux Estimation

Abstract
The global warming caused by CO2 greenhouse effect becomes a world wide critical issue nowadays. In order to make suitable and sustainable policies for fully managing and monitoring the CO2 emission and reduction, the identification of CO2 volume and spatial distribution is highly crucial for the local environmental authorities. Therefore, an indirect measurement method using land cover classes and their CO2 emission estimation per unit area driven from the sample survey or statistical analysis was proposed in this chapter. To prove the feasibility, Boryeong and Yoengi cities in South Korea were selected as the two test sites, and CO2 emission maps covering these areas were produced using the proposed method. One of the key factors for a successful mapping of CO2 emission was to produce an accurate land cover map over the test site. To achieve this, the Rapideye satellite imagery with characteristics of high-resolution and multispectral was chosen as the main data source for land cover analysis. Together with the SPOT satellite images and GIS land-use data, the accurate land cover map was created. The emission ratio of each land cover type was subsequently applied on the land cover map to produce CO2 emission map and also estimate the total CO2 flux.
Jung-Rack Kim, Shih-Yuan Lin, Eun-Mi Chang, In-Hee Lee, He-Won Yun

Landscape and Ecological System, Sustainable Development: Section Vulnerability of Urban System

Frontmatter

Chapter 22. Taiwan’s Five Major Metropolitan Areas of Taiwan Vulnerability Assessment of Flood Disaster Comparison Study

Abstract
This study explores the connotations of vulnerability, the proposed indicators of vulnerability using the Fuzzy Delphi expert panel, and the establishment of an indicators system. Afterward, a multi-criteria assessment of the Analytic Hierarchy Process and Analytic Network Process was applied to be able to identify the indicators of the vulnerability of urban class relations and the weight of the metropolitan area, in order to finalize the vulnerability and resilience of the indicators system. Finally, the proposed assessment framework was applied to the five major metropolitan areas in Taiwan as an empirical analysis. Research results satisfied all relevant vulnerability assessments, including exposure, sensitivity, and resilience; Fuzzy Delphi survey was utilized to adjust the indicators system for the metropolitan areas of Taiwan to establish the vulnerability of the flood disaster assessment framework. This study also found that hardware and software infrastructure, preparedness, and response capabilities and the ability to reconstruct and rehabilitate the assessment of vulnerability get more than half the weight. The study considers the opinions of different decision-making groups to assess the typhoon hazard vulnerability of each metropolitan area. The overall typhoon hazard vulnerability is Tainan> Taichung> Taoyuan Chungli> Kaohsiung> Taipei. Comparisons were made of the different aspects of vulnerability indicators for each area, and some policy suggestions were proposed, such as the following: (1) through hazard information, integrate and establish a complete disaster-prevention database; (2) strengthen preparation, emergency responsiveness, and resilience and adaptation ability; (3) balance the needs of disaster prevention among all regions; and (4) undertake preparation and disaster-prevention planning in different scales.
Jen-te Pai

Chapter 23. The Post-Disaster Reconstruction and Socioeconomic Vulnerabilities in the Historical Site of an Island City: A Case Study of a Fire Incident in Nan-Gan Township, Lien-Chiang County, Taiwan

Abstract
The case of Chun-You Street fire in downtown Nan-Gan Township revealed problems in Lien-Chiang County (also known as the Matsu Islands), such as conflicts in reconstructing post-disaster historical areas and the socioeconomic vulnerability to disasters. The changing urban form during previous decades generated politically oriented planning policies, tourism development policies, a unique population, and socioeconomic vulnerability. This study used a participatory observation methodology and in-depth interviews to investigate the following issues of the Chun-You Street fire: (1) the diversity of the county emergency management system during the response stage and the unique recovery process of a historical site that is based on the clan system, (2) the vulnerabilities caused by residents’ experiences in lacking daily supplies and the custom to store great amounts of materials, and (3) victims’ unclear property rights and land uses pertaining to past verbal agreements creating an obstacle to the recovery of a historical area.
Chi-tung Hung, Wen-yen Lin, Ju-yin Cheng

Chapter 24. Sustainable Communities in Hilly, Mountainous and Heavy Snowfall Areas

Abstract
Japan has large hilly and mountainous areas with heavy snowfall. Because of severe population decrease arising from the aging society, many communities in such areas have become quite vulnerable to natural disasters. In addition, public help in disaster reduction has been weakened because of difficulties in public finance. In order to consider sustainable communities in these circumstances, it is necessary to examine the power of both mutual and self-help. In this study, we examine some approaches to coping with severe snow disasters in several communities in hilly, mountainous, and heavy snowfall areas. First, problems arising from winter are considered through information from researching more than 300 local governments in heavy snowfall areas in Japan. Second, the outcomes of case studies in Semboku City in Akita Prefecture in northern Japan are discussed. The results show the importance of residents’ associations and such local groups. In addition, by enhancing communication among the communities, these kinds of workshops are important for strengthening the power of mutual support.
Asako Yuhara, Kyung-rock Ye

Chapter 25. A Vulnerability Study from Water Perspective on the Largest City of China

Abstract
This chapter presents a preliminary study on the vulnerability of the Chongqing City to water-related hazards. The focus is on the factors that cause its vulnerability. The findings suggest that the root of its flood-related vulnerability may be the combination of its riparian development and the construction of the Three Gorges Dam downstream of the city.
Guang-wei Huang, Zhen-jiang Shen

Backmatter

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