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This chapter is a summary of corruption in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. It situates corruption in its historical and spatial context, noting the role of the “resource curse” in driving it. The empirical analysis explores the varying levels of severity, maps corruption scores, bribery rates, and includes a correlation analysis. It then turns to a case study of Turkey. The next section addresses corruption in the Arab world, followed by a case study of Saudi Arabia. It then offers case studies of Israel and Iran. The conclusion reiterates the major findings, notes the most modernized Middle Eastern states tend to have the lowest levels of corruption, criticizes anti-corruption campaigns as hollow rhetoric, and offers steps to mitigate corruption in the future.
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- Spatiality of Corruption in the Middle East and North Africa
- Chapter 4
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen