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01.09.2015 | Original Article | Ausgabe 3/2015

Sustainable Water Resources Management 3/2015

Spatio–temporal analysis of groundwater resources in Jalandhar district of Punjab state, India

Zeitschrift:
Sustainable Water Resources Management > Ausgabe 3/2015
Autoren:
Amanpreet Singh, Chandra Shekhar Sharma, A. T. Jeyaseelan, V. M. Chowdary

Abstract

Water security is widely recognised as one of the major challenges to India’s economic and social development. Groundwater level changes and its trends were assessed spatially and temporally for both pre and post-monsoon seasons in Jalandhar district, Punjab, a part of Indus basin, using geographical information system (GIS) for the period 1996–2010. The study area has been experiencing severe water problems for the past few years due to increased areas under rice cultivation lowering the groundwater table. Long-term variations of seasonal groundwater level were investigated using the statistical approaches, viz., Mann–Kendall test, Sen’s slope estimator and linear regression method. Results indicated that the average depth to water level during pre-monsoon season ranges from 7.60 to 18.69 m, whereas in post-monsoon season, the average depth to water level ranges from 5.45 to 19.30 m. The mean of water level fluctuations during pre and post-monsoon seasons was found to be −8.36 and −8.06 m, respectively. Significant declining trends are evident in the groundwater levels during the period from 1996 to 2010 in this region. The analysis of the results showed mostly decreasing trends in the time series of the study area. The percentage of wells characterized by significant decrease of groundwater level using the Mann–Kendall test was 89 % for pre-monsoon and 96 % for post-monsoon at 95 % confidence level. Slopes obtained by Sen’s estimator varied from −0.32 to −1.49 m/year, indicating decline rates of 3.2 and 14.9 m per decade. From the linear regression method, minimum and maximum declining rate of −0.49 and −1.59 m/year was obtained. Comparison of the statistical tests indicated that the significant trends detected by the Mann–Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimator were more or less confirmed by the linear regression method. This declination of groundwater level may affect most of the water-dependent activities, especially the agriculture sector, in near future. Hence, groundwater resources within the study area should be managed carefully. It is necessary to set up functional organizations and promote new rules and norms on groundwater use in this region. The result of this research raises concern about the sustainability of groundwater resources in the Jalandhar district. On the other hand, the findings of this study will assist planners and decision-makers in developing better land use and water resource management. Shifting from the current cropping pattern that consumes large quantities of water to another one that has less water requirement and also implementing advanced irrigation techniques are suggested.

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