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This book revisits the traditional general approach to sport policy by adopting an entrepreneurial perspective. The respective chapters, all written by recognized experts, link a fragmented collection of treatises on entrepreneurship, public policy and sport entrepreneurship to develop a coherent, unified perspective on policy-making. The book’s central argument is that, while in the past, sport policy focused more on governance and political elements, these aspects can also be embedded into a ‘policy entrepreneurship’ perspective.

To date, most sport policy research has also tended to pursue an organizational behavior or political science approach. Breaking with that trend, the book incorporates the nascent sport entrepreneurship literature into this approach. The new strategies proposed here offer valuable resources for public policy planners and sports managers alike, two groups who need to work together to build better policy initiatives.



Entrepreneurship in Sport Policy: A New Approach

Sport has an entrepreneurial nature due to the way it can change depending on market circumstances. Unlike other industries, sport has a unique combination of profit and non-profit organisations that work together to create a competitive environment. The aim of this chapter is to highlight how a new approach to sport policy and practice is needed that incorporates an entrepreneurial dimension. There have been recent changes in the nature of sport due to increased levels of technological innovation, which requires a rethink by sport policy planners about how to incorporate entrepreneurial thinking. Automation and the use of robots are changing the way sport is viewed and played, which has positive benefits but also results in an alteration in existing practices. This chapter will focus on emerging issues regarding sport entrepreneurship and public policy with a view to highlighting future research suggestions.
Vanessa Ratten

Social Entrepreneurship and Corporate Social Responsibility in Team Sport Clubs

Two Cases from Sweden and Finland
Small and large sport clubs, in big cities or in the countryside, need to respond to external pressures created by social, financial and environmental factors. These pressures may come from the commercial environment, communities, national governing bodies, or political stakeholders. This chapter introduces the reader to the current pressures faced by Nordic sport clubs and the entrepreneurs’ role in the clubs’ development through the lens of entrepreneurship, and especially social entrepreneurship. This chapter addresses the role of the entrepreneur in relation to the triple bottom line of corporate social responsibility (CSR)—economy, environment, and society—in the context of Finnish and Swedish team sport clubs by using two football clubs as examples.
Aila Ahonen, H. Thomas R. Persson

‘It Pays to Play’: The Emergence of Innovative Planning, Occupational Devotion, and Lifestyle Entrepreneurship in Aotearoa/New Zealand

In terms of community-focused sport provision, the Aotearoa/New Zealand market place has traditionally been dominated by the small- to medium-sized, volunteer run, not-for-profit incorporated society. A change in consumer behaviour habits over the past couple of decades, however, has led to the emergence of lifestyle entrepreneurs hoping to turn their past experiences and personal passions into a sustainable full-time profession. This chapter connects the principles of occupational devotion, innovative planning, and lifestyle entrepreneurship. It also offers an innovative insight into their adoption at a local community level. A provocative piece of critical analytical practice (CAP), reveals the inspiration and innovations behind the Auckland Beach Series (ABS), a profitable summertime fixture that has been routinely attracting hundreds of serious leisure enthusiasts for over a decade. The staged monologue identifies the significance of using one’s personal strengths and established social networks, especially when proactively seeking and sustaining resources (human and financial). The recommendations illustrate importance of establishing a reputation for offering a professionally delivered community service that meets the ever-changing needs and expectations of local investors, volunteers, and the family-orientated serious leisure consumer.
Richard Keith Wright, Cindy Wiersma

Sport Innovation: An Opportunity for Technology-Based Companies Stimulated by the Brazil Olympics

The aim of this chapter is to evaluate the innovation degree and environment of Brazilian technology-based companies that produce sports devices with the support of business incubators and government encouragement. The results show the low level of innovation in these companies, even though one can observe a positive set of government initiatives.
Branca Terra, André Ribeiro de Oliveira, Mariza Almeida, Luiz Alberto Batista, João Alberto Neves dos Santos, Jana Almeida Nogueira, Leonardo Lehneman Agostinho Martins

Non-parametric Analysis of Factors Affecting the Competitive Structure of Europe’s Advanced Football Leagues

The purpose of this study was to determine the competition structure, efficiency, and productivity level of the English, German, Spanish, Italian, French, and Turkish football leagues, which were the most advanced in Europe. In this context, the competitive structure of the leagues was determined by the Concentration index, the Herfindahl–Hirschman index (HHI), and the Entropy index (EI). In addition, it was aimed to find out which leagues exhibit relatively better efficiency and productivity by modeling the factors influencing the level of competition (number of spectators, transfer expenditures, market value of the leagues) in the study. The obtained scores were modeled by non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis and the Malmquist Total Factor Productivity index to analyze performance levels of the leagues between the years 2009 and 2018. According to the results, the French, Italian, English, Spanish, Turkish, and German leagues were the most competitive, respectively. The French and Turkish leagues provided the highest level of efficiency and productivity with minimum spectator, market value, and transfer expenditure. In the model where the HHI and the EI scores were considered as output variables, while the German league achieved the best productivity level on average, the lowest productivity level occurred in the Italian and Turkish leagues.
Birol Erkan, Oğuz Kara

Brand Equity on Surf Destinations: Alaçatı Sample

The purpose of this study is to develop a model related to dimensions of surf destination and determine the opinions of sport tourists toward surf destinations. In this research, Alaçatı surfing center was selected, as a surf destination, because Alaçatı is the most famous surf destination of Turkey and different international and national competitions were organized in there. Personal information form and Destination Brand Equity Scale were used for data gathering. Researchers conceptualized the destination brand equity as five dimensions: brand awareness, brand image, brand quality, customer value, and brand loyalty. The study group consisted of 270 surfers (156 male, 114 female). Reliability and validity analyses and structural equation modeling was used for analyzing data. According to the results of the structural equation modeling, destination brand awareness, brand image, brand quality, and customer value levels of females are greater than males. It found that the destination brand awareness of married surf consumers is greater than single surf consumers and the destination customer value increase, if the education level increase. In addition, the level of destination brand loyalty of surf consumers, who want to visit again Alaçatı destination, is greater 1.13 times than other surf consumers, who do not want to visit again Alaçatı destination.
According to research findings, destination brand awareness has a positive and meaningful effect on destination brand image and destination brand quality, same as destination brand image and destination brand quality have a positive and meaningful effect on destination perceived value and destination perceived value has a positive and meaningful effect on destination brand loyalty. It found that the proposed model is a valid and useful model. In surf destinations, marketing activities are organized in order to develop the product and service quality, enhance the value of this destination for surf consumers. In addition to this, destination brand loyalty will increase and it will be provided that the surf consumers preference this destination more than others.
Yavuz Yıldız, Kadir Yıldız

A Gender Perspective of Sport-Based Entrepreneurship

Purpose: Sport-based entrepreneurship is a new theory developed to understand how sport is inherently entrepreneurial. The aim of this chapter is to develop further this theory by taking a gender approach.
Design/methodology/approach: In-depth interviews are conducted with female athletes who are entrepreneurs in order to understand the processes and context of sport-based entrepreneurship.
Findings: The findings suggest that female athletes conceptualise sport-based entrepreneurship in a different way to males, which is based on the challenges they face in becoming entrepreneurs. Moreover, there are gender imbalances in sport-based entrepreneurship that can help further develop the theory.
Research limitations/implications: As few empirical studies have been conducted on sport-based entrepreneurship, this study is amongst the first to take a gender perspective. Therefore, it further extends sport-based entrepreneurship theory and links the sport, gender and entrepreneurship literature.
Practical implications: As more female athletes become entrepreneurs, this chapter provides a way to understand the barriers they face and how policymakers and practitioners can further encourage gender equality in sport-based entrepreneurship.
Originality/value: There are limited studies on female athlete entrepreneurs so this chapter is amongst the first to take into account an interdisciplinary perspective that combines the gender and sport-based entrepreneurship literature.
Vanessa Ratten

Online C2C Interactions with Sports Brands: Insights from the #Mo Salah Brand

Online customer-to-customer interactions with sports brands on social media are gaining momentum in recent years. The salience of online brand communities in influencing sport spectators’ attitudinal dispositions warrants further investigation into the phenomenon of sports and athlete brand development. The Mo Salah brand has been emerging as an iconic athlete brand in both popular offline and online/social media. Based on the brand’s resonance online, which is a reflection of high brand equity, this research aims at exploring the cognitive, affective, and conative attitudes of football fans affiliated with the Mo Salah brand and extrapolating on the image of the brand in terms of athletic performance, attractive appearance, and marketable lifestyle as an extension to the work of Arai, Ko, and Ross (Sport Management Review 17:97–106, 2014). The research utilizes qualitative methods; particularly netnography and content analysis of online communications on social media for the #Mo Salah brand.
Noha El-Bassiouny, Sara Hamed, Hadeer Hammad, Hagar Adib, Nesma Ammar

The Future for Sport Entrepreneurship

There has been quite a bit of attention devoted to sport entrepreneurship—especially in recent years. Thus, it is time to reflect on what has been articulated so far, to explain why the sport industry’s unique characteristics make it an ideal context for the continued study of entrepreneurial phenomena, and to suggest a roadmap for future work. In suggesting future work, this chapter makes the case that for sport entrepreneurship to maintain and enhance its impact, there will need to be an increased focus on the role of technology in sport. The chapter articulates opportunities for future work in technological entrepreneurship using Ratten’s (International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 7(1):57–69, 2011) model as a guide. In sum, the chapter suggests five key focus areas: (1) sport organizations’ business strategy, (2) the continued evolution of the sport product, (3) the use of sport analytics, (4) the development of new sport offerings, and (5) the sustainability and social impact of sport.
Ted Hayduk

Sports Innovation: A Bibliometric Study

The study of sports innovation has become an important area of business research, which has led to a growing number of publications on the topic in academic journals. Despite the increasing interest in research on sports innovation the literature is still fragmented with a diverse array of disciplinary perspectives. This chapter utilises a bibliometric analysis approach to synthesise the research that helps to provide a better understanding of the topic so it has more contextual focus. The literature is analysed and critiqued in terms of its interdisciplinary nature, which leads to a discussion of promising areas for future research. This helps build the field of sports innovation as a distinct discipline that connects the literature on sports with innovation management studies. As the field is rapidly gaining popularity, this chapter will play an important part in mapping current research that provides suggestions and advice to future research about sports innovation.
João J. Ferreira, Cristina Fernandes, Vanessa Ratten, Dina Miragaia

High-Performance Management Work Systems

In this chapter, we aim to address the critique in the lack of comprehension about the emerging research in High-performance work systems (HPWS) by providing a systematic and analytic overview of the field. We aim to identify the key studies, identify main themes and provide suggestions for future research about HPWS. To do this we apply the bibliometric techniques of citation, co-citation and coupling to assess the scientific publications on the topic of HPWS. This will enable us to build a better understanding of the field in terms of geographic location of main authors and the key journals that are publishing on the topic. Based on our bibliometric approach, we find that HPWS is primarily centred around strategy, productivity, institutions and psychology. Moreover, we show that the HPWS research is centred around key authors in certain geographic locations that often work together. We interpret this as HPWS being a key field of research that will continue to grow in the future. In addition, our analysis indicates that there are gaps in the existing literature that can be filled by new sport-related theoretical and methodological approaches that take an interdisciplinary perspective.
Vanessa Ratten, Joao J. Ferreira, Cristina Fernandes
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