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This book examines the urban legacy of the 2014 football World Cup in Brazil across the seven cities that hosted matches. The authors, all experts and natives of South America, analyse the context and impacts of hosting the World Cup for each of the host cities. The chapters use a range of background data and local knowledge and understanding to critically assess what benefits or disadvantages came along with bidding for and hosting World Cup final games, and importantly considers who the beneficiaries where and are.
It further provides detailed empirical evidence that highlights a growing trend in sporting mega events: the overestimation of benefits and an underestimation of costs involved in hosting. The book adds to the critical literature that provides a counterweight to governments' aspirations to use mega events for the purposes of development and/or globalization, irrespective of the views of their citizens.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

1. The 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil

Hosting a Sport Mega-Event in a BRIC Context
Abstract
The aim of this chapter is to establish the background to understanding the impact of the 2014 FIFA World Cup projects on the cities of an emerging country such as Brazil. In order to do this, this short introduction assesses the discourse and practice of sports mega-events organisation elsewhere. Next, the main historical, economic, political and social aspects of contemporary Brazil are addressed. After this, the reasons for the choice of Brazil are assessed by analysing the Brazilian government’s efforts to bring the mega-event to Brazil and its relationship to the recent FIFA reorganisation. Finally, the main results of the World Cup organisation are evaluated in terms of the Responsibility Matrix, the amount of public and private investments made and the reaction of society.
Eduardo Alberto Cusce Nobre

2. Belo Horizonte

The Urban Impact and Contested Legacy of a Mega-Event
Abstract
The chapter seeks to contribute to the understanding of certain urban impacts of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, within a framework of an increasing shift towards neoliberalism and market trends in planning and urban policies at the local and metropolitan levels. The chapter briefly introduces the processes of production of space in the region marked by consistent state intervention in the urban infrastructure establishing the scenario for private capital investment. This is followed by an analysis of the investments and projects related to the 2014 FIFA World Cup, highlighting the three major infrastructure investments. Although important and necessary, they helped to increase property values and promoted forced evictions, thus reinforcing existing inequalities. Investments in the stadium and the adoption of FIFA standards helped to make the Governador Magalhães Pinto stadium (popularly known as Mineirão) inaccessible to the poor, but seem to have produced little impact on its surroundings, as the district of Pampulha already possessed a recognised urbanistic, cultural and environmental importance in relation to the geography of the city. The chapter ends by arguing that the World Cup investments have increased already-existing tendencies and have helped to trigger many reactions and new urban insurgency movements, perhaps the most important legacy of the event.
Heloisa Soares de de Moura Costa, João Bosco Moura Tonucci Filho

3. Fortaleza

Real Estate Appreciation, Removals and Conflicts
Abstract
This chapter discusses the spatial impacts of the 2014 FIFA World Cup on Fortaleza, Ceará as a host city. In the capital of a metropolitan area containing more than 3.6 million inhabitants, the urban interventions caused considerable territorial impacts, especially in terms of social disparities, which have increased in recent years. In the Section 3.2, we study the economic activities that shaped Fortaleza’s urban growth by focusing on housing construction. In the Section 3.3, we analyse the elements that are part of the so-called ‘Responsibility Matrix’. Section 3.4 assesses the impacts caused not only by the projects, but also by the way in which the decision-making process took place. The next section discusses the problem of the people affected by the 2014 FIFA World Cup projects.
Luís Renato Bezerra Pequeno, Valéria Pinheiro

4. Natal

Football, Urban Coalitions and Real Estate New and Old Relations
Abstract
This chapter summarises the attempts of a research group to analyse and evaluate the urban impact following the 2014 FIFA World Cup. We focus specifically on the relations between government coalitions and the real estate sector, which are responsible for physical changes in the city of Natal, the capital of Rio Grande do Norte State, by assessing the urban dynamics and projects developed during the event. The analytical data considers variations in the supply and prices of property, the new urban mobility routes and the construction of the Arena das Dunas football stadium.
Alexsandro Ferreira Cardoso da Silva

5. Porto Alegre

The Entrepreneurial City
Abstract
The dispute to host mega-events, justified by their alleged benefits to the economic development of cities, is associated with the phenomenon of urban entrepreneurialism. The City Hall of Porto Alegre saw in the 2014 FIFA World Cup an opportunity to compete with other cities for investments in urban infrastructure and mobility projects, tourism and the modernisation of public management, and spared no effort to achieve this aim. However, out of the 18 projects proposed, only six were ready by the time of the World Cup, nine are not expected to be completed soon and three have not even started. This chapter discusses the disruption of the territory of the city of Porto Alegre and the weakening of its planning bodies as a result of hosting the World Cup.
João Farias Rovati, Clarice Misoczky de Oliveira

6. Recife

Much to Do about Nothing
Abstract
This chapter provides evidence from Recife on how large-scale urban projects were used to foster development by market processes, influencing polarized inequalities. In addition, it claims that the managerial state may be inefficient in terms of its structural weakness in favouring efficiency as opposed to shared responsibilities. In this process, new forms of governance are not sufficient to improve the conditions of impoverishment. Finally, as is widely accepted, this chapter provides evidence that institutional arrangements favouring economic growth should not be taken for granted as an indicator of long-term investments. The political economy of urban land is a crucial variable determining continuity and discontinuity. and this should not be disregarded by policy makers.
Flávio A.M. de Souza

7. Rio de Janeiro

Social and Urban Impacts of the Maracanã Stadium Renovation
Abstract
In the twenty-first century, the city of Rio de Janeiro has gained visibility on the national and international stages because it was chosen to host the 2007 Pan American Games, the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games. This chapter analyses the urban, socio-economic and spatial impacts of the renovation of the Maracanã Stadium and introduces new elements into the debate on large urban projects and their relationship with social structuring and the appropriation of urban space. After an initial presentation of the Rio de Janeiro context and of some basic information on the renovation of the stadium and its surroundings, the main conclusions are presented and developed around political, institutional, symbolic, urban-architectural, socio-environmental, economic, financial and land-related aspects.
Fabrício Leal de Oliveira, Fernanda Sánchez, Glauco Bienenstein, Giselle Tanaka

8. São Paulo

Sports Mega-Events and the East Zone Local Development
Abstract
The city of São Paulo was chosen to host the 2014 FIFA World Cup opening match. After a series of disagreements between FIFA and the local organisers, the Itaquera neighbourhood in the East Zone was chosen to house the football stadium, putting into practice plans dating back to the 1980s. A typical low-income dormitory district, the region has always suffered from infrastructure problems and lack of jobs. The World Cup brought the promise of attracting investment and jobs to the region. The aim of this chapter is to analyse the results of implementation of projects and the construction of the arena in this region, attempting to understand its main impact by taking into account the urban, economic, real estate and social consequences.
Eduardo Alberto Cusce Nobre, Jorge Bassani, Camila D’Ottaviano

9. The Cup Final Score

What Went Wrong?
Abstract
The 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil took place in 12 host cities between 12 June and 13 July. Despite all the fears about its realisation, the World Cup took place without major problems. Although from a touristic point of view the mega-event was a success, its main physical, economic and social impacts were quite questionable. The aim of this chapter is to summarise the main impacts of this mega-event and to attempt to relate them to the social unrest and major political and economic problems that Brazil is facing now.
Eduardo Alberto Cusce Nobre

Backmatter

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