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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the First International Congress on Sports Science Research and Technology Support, icSPORTS 2013, Held in Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, in September 2013. The 7 full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 90 submissions. The papers highlight the benefits of kinds of technologies for sports, either in general, or regarding particular cases of application.



Effect of the Environment on the Sport Performance: Computer Supported Training - A Case Study for Cycling Sports

The effect of weather and environmental conditions on sports has been extensively studied over the last few years. Most of the outdoor sport activities, and in particular endurance sports, are strongly influenced by the variation of meteorological parameters.
Notwithstanding the conditions of the outdoor environment are often not considered when evaluating sport performances, as if they were not important, the sport performances are strongly related to the environmental conditions.
The aim of this paper is to assess how much atmospheric variables may influence both the athletic performance and the comfort level for different sport disciplines. The analysis of a case study, focused on the cycling sport, shows how the computer supported training can help the Coaches and the Athletes to consider simultaneously the sport performance and the environmental data.
Alessandro Pezzoli, Elena Cristofori, Matteo Moncalero, Fiorella Giacometto, Andrea Boscolo, Roberto Bellasio, Jacopo Padoan

Video-Based Soccer Ball Detection in Difficult Situations

The interest in video-based systems for acquiring and analyzing player and ball data of soccer games is increasing in several domains such as media and professional training. Consequently, tracking systems for live acquisition of quantitative motion data are becoming widely used. The interest for such systems is especially high for training purposes but the demands concerning the precision of the data are very high. Current systems reach a satisfying precision due to heavy interaction of operators. In order to increase the level of automation while retaining a constantly high precision, more robust tracking systems are required. However, this demand is accompanied by an increasing trend to stand-alone, mobile, low-cost soccer tracking systems due to cost concerns, stadium infrastructure, media rights etc. As a consequence, the live data acquisition has to be accomplished by using only a few cameras so that there are generally only few perspectives of the players and the ball. In addition, only low-resolution images are available in many cases. The low-resolution images strongly exacerbate the problem of detection and tracking the soccer ball. Apart from the challenge that arises from the appearance of the ball, situations where the ball is occluded by the players make the detection of the ball difficult. The lower the number of the cameras is, the lower generally is the number of available perspectives - and thus the more difficult it is to gather precise motion data. This paper presents a soccer ball detection approach that is applicable to difficult situations such as occluded cases. It handles low-resolution images from single static camera systems and can be used e.g. for ball trajectory reconstruction. The performance of the approach is analyzed on a data set of a Bundesliga match.
Josef Halbinger, Juergen Metzler

Application and UI Design for Ergonomic Heart Rate Monitoring in Endurance Sports: Realizing an Improved Tool for Health and Sports Activities on Base of Android Smartphone Programming and ANT+

During endurance sports training, heart rate conveniently can be used as proportional measure for the current physical effort of an on-going workout. Accordingly, it is advantageous during such exercises to obtain monitoring information about the actual heart rate for having an instrument of controlling the demand level of an activity. Today, the market offers a broad variety of sports computers, which allow display and tracking of heart rate, but their usability and appropriateness appear rather limited in terms of an efficient application in daily training. In particular, major restrictions are numerical displays of the in-time measures with tiny letters or an unfiltered print-out of spurious values, since the recording is not always precise, but sometimes disturbed from various reasons. Fortunately, upcoming new technologies like programmable smartphone devices and ANT+ communication standard for sports sensors do allow developing new and optimized applications and systems also for sports and health purposes. In the work here, a convenient heart rate monitor was developed that aims at improved user-friendliness in combination with elaborated signal-conditioning for preventing any spurious and misguiding displays. Few simple button presses put the sportsman into the position of performing efficiently activities within the desired endurance training range. As result, a system is described that is feasible for easy-to-use and efficient sports monitoring, especially during daily workouts.
Hans Weghorn

Modelling Peloton Dynamics in Competitive Cycling: A Quantitative Approach

We propose an agent-based model for peloton dynamics in competitive cycling. It aims to generate the very complex behaviour observed in real-life competitive cycling from a collection of agents with simple rules of behaviour. Cyclists in a peloton try to minimize their energy expenditure by riding behind other cyclists, in areas of reduced air resistance. Drafting cyclists spend considerably less energy than frontrunners, making the strategies in the sport to be based around trailing as much as possible. We quantify energy expenditure and recovery in relation to cyclists’ positions in the peloton. Finally, we analyse the results and try to compare them to real-life behaviour of competitive pelotons.
Erick Martins Ratamero

Analyzing the Sensorimotor Training Using Wireless Sensors: Studying the Effects of Balance Boards with Different Dimensions of Instability

Over the time the popularity of the application of the sensorimotor training in the fields of prevention, therapy, rehabilitation as well as for the improvement of the athletic performance increased. Nonetheless, the impact of the training on the body is not yet fully investigated. Actually, the experiences of the physiotherapist as well as the conditions of the practice determine the therapy planning. For a more detailed look of the effects of the sensorimotor training on the body, two setups were investigated. In the first part, the behavior of two students was studied on three exercisers. Here the EMG data and the motion data were analyzed. Additionally, different tests for the investigation of the laterality of the hands and the feet were made. In the second part, the behavior of the left and the right body side was analyzed for 16 subjects. The results revealed that the major work for the maintenance of the equilibrium is done by the distal musculature. Furthermore, it was shown that there is a different behavior of the musculature at both body sides. Additionally, it has been proven that each test person had an individual behavior on the exercisers. Consequently, further investigations were needed to make general assumptions regarding the impact of the training on the body.
Angelina Thiers, Annett l’Orteye, Katja Orlowski, Thomas Schrader

Scenarios for Sharing Good Practices in Sport Management

The European football governing body (UEFA) has developed a programme to share good practices in the management of sport. It includes blended learning (face-to-face and on-line interactive courses), knowledge sharing platforms and a 3D virtual stadium. The programme consists in collecting existing practices, creating new practices, organising them into an on-line platform and combining them into learning scenarios. Typical knowledge management issues are addressed such as integrating contextual and generic knowledge or yet turning tacit into explicit knowledge. The scenarios include libraries of good practices in the form of learning objects (videos and documents) as well as hints to solve critical problems in each of the domains of sport management.
André Boder, Christophe Barthe, Antoine Sacoun

Application of Mobile Technologies in the Preparations for Long Distance Running

Fast development of mobile ICT technologies enabled and imposed their implementation in business and sports. As mobile technologies enable quick two-way communication, independent of the present location of athletes, their trainer or expert hardware and software systems, it is significantly important to utilize the advantages of that kind of communication to maximize the chances of achieving excellent results in a specific training process. This paper shows one ORT (Online Running Trainer) system, which was developed for preparations of marathon runners. It describes algorithms for calculation of training equivalents of set and achieved trainings, which was used for the success analysis of every micro cycle of the training process. By using available telecommunication channels, ORT system communicates with users in real time. It analyses their performance and, if necessary, dynamically corrects their training parameters to achieve better results in needed moment. Described methods are verified on a selected sample of runners.
Ladislav Havaš, Vladimir Medved, Zoran Skočir


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