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The second edition of this well-received handbook is the most concise yet comprehensive compilation of materials data. The chapters provide succinct descriptions and summarize essential and reliable data for various types of materials. The information is amply illustrated with 900 tables and 1050 figures selected primarily from well-established data collections, such as Landolt-Börnstein, which is now part of the SpringerMaterials database.

The new edition of the Springer Handbook of Materials Data starts by presenting the latest CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants and provides comprehensive tables of the physical and physicochemical properties of the elements. 25 chapters collect and summarize the most frequently used data and relationships for numerous metals, nonmetallic materials, functional materials and selected special structures such as liquid crystals and nanostructured materials.

Along with careful updates to the content and the inclusion of timely and extensive references, this second edition includes new chapters on polymers, materials for solid catalysts and low-dimensional semiconductors.

This handbook is an authoritative reference resource for engineers, scientists and students engaged in the vast field of materials science.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Fundamentals

Frontmatter

1. The Fundamental Constants

Abstract
In the quantitative description of physical phenomena and physical relationships, we find constant parameters which appear to be independent of the scale of the phenomena, independent of the place where the phenomena happen, and independent of the time when the phenomena are observed. These parameters are called fundamental constants. In Sect. 1.1, we give a qualitative description of these basic parameters and explain how recommended values for the numerical values of the fundamental constants are found. In Sect. 1.2, we present tables of the most recently determined recommended numerical values for a large number of those fundamental constants which play a role in solid-state physics and chemistry and in materials science.
Werner Martienssen

2. The International System of Units (SI), Physical Quantities, and Their Dimensions

Abstract
In this chapter, we introduce the International System of Units (SI) on the basis of the SI brochure Le Système International d'unités (SI) [2.1], supplemented by [2.2]. We give a short review of how the SI was worked out and who is responsible for the further development of the system. Following the above-mentioned publications, we explain the concepts of base physical quantities and derived physical quantities on which the SI is founded, and present a detailed description of the SI base units and of a large selection of SI derived units. The base units comprise the meter, the kilogram, the second, the ampere, the kelvin, the mole, and the candela. For derived units, we describe how they are defined by equations in terms of the base physical quantities as products or ratios of the units for the base quantities. We also discuss a number of non-SI units which still are in use, especially in some specialized fields. A table (Table 2.17) presenting the values of various energy equivalents closes the chapter.
Werner Martienssen

3. Rudiments of Crystallography

Abstract
Crystallography deals basically with the question Where are the atoms in solids? The purpose of this chapter is to briefly introduce the basics of modern crystallography. The focus is on the description of periodic solids, which represent the major proportion of condensed matter. A coherent introduction to the formalism required to do this is given, and the basic concepts and technical terms are briefly explained. Paying attention to recent developments in materials research, we also discuss aperiodic, disordered, and amorphous matter. Consequently, besides the conventional three-dimensional (3-D) descriptions, the higher dimensional crystallographic approach is outlined, as well as the atomic pair distribution function used to describe local phenomena. The chapter then touches on the basics of diffraction methods, the most powerful tool kit used by experimentalists dealing with structure in solid-state research. Finally, the reader will be apprised of new developments in our understanding of order in condensed matter.
Wolf Assmus

4. The Elements

Abstract
This chapter provides tables of the physical and physicochemical properties of the elements. Emphasis is given to properties of the elements in the condensed state. The tables are structured according to the Periodic Table of the Elements. Most of the tables deal with the properties of elements of one particular group (column) of the Periodic Table. Only the elements of the first period (hydrogen and helium), the lanthanides, and the actinides are arranged according to the periods (rows) of the Periodic Table. This synoptic representation is intended to provide an immediate overview of the trends in the data for chemically related elements.
Werner Martienssen

Metals

Frontmatter

5. Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys

Abstract
Whereas the fundamental properties of all metallic elements are covered systematically and comprehensively in Chap. 4, this chapter treats magnesium which is applied as both a base and an alloying element of metallic materials (Sects. 5.1, 5.2). According to common usage, the chapter is subdivided into treatments of metallic materials, such as melting and casting, as well as heat treatment (Sect. 5.3), joining (Sect. 5.4) and corrosion behavior (Sect. 5.5). Recent developments are covered in the final Sect. 5.6.
Hajo Dieringa, Karl Ulrich Kainer

6. Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

Abstract
Aluminum alloys are the second most widely used metallic materials after steels. Their most important properties are:
  • Low density (2.7 g cm−3) which can lead to significant energy savings, especially in transportation applications
  • Good mechanical properties offering optimum tensile strength
  • Good workability permitting the most varied shapes to be produced
  • Good castability with a variety of casting techniques (sand, mold, die-casting)
  • Good machinability
  • Ease of joining using all commonly applied techniques
  • Comparatively high corrosion resistance thanks to the spontaneous formation of a strongly adherent passivating surface film in air
  • Applicability of different surface treatments High electrical and thermal conductivity, especially of unalloyed aluminum
  • Good optical properties depending on the degree of purity
  • Nonmagnetic
  • Low absorption cross section for thermal neutrons
  • Noncombustible, nonsparking
  • No health risk is associated with the use of aluminum and its alloys
  • Excellent recycling properties.
Catrin Kammer

7. Titanium and Titanium Alloys

Abstract
This chapter treats titanium as both a base component of Ti-based materials and as an alloying element of inter-metallic materials (Sect. 7.1). It is subdivided into titanium-based alloys (Sect. 7.2), intermetallic Ti-Al materials (Sect. 7.3) and TiNi shape-memory alloys (Sect. 7.4).
Hans Warlimont

8. Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys

Abstract
Fundamental properties of all metallic elements are covered systematically and comprehensively in Chap. 4. This chapter describes zirconium as both a pure and a low-alloying element of metallic materials in Sects. 8.1 and 8.2. The further sections cover its main applications, in nuclear technology (Sect. 8.3) and zirconium-based bulk glassy alloys (Sect. 8.4).
Hans Warlimont

9. Iron and Steels

Abstract
Whereas the fundamental properties of all metallic elements are covered systematically and comprehensively in Chap. 4, this chapter treats iron as both a base and an alloying element of metallic materials. The properties of metallic materials depend sensitively not only on their chemical composition and on the electronic and crystal structure of the phases formed, but also to a large degree on their microstructure, including the kind and distribution of lattice defects. The phase composition and microstructure of iron is strongly dependent, in turn, on the thermal and mechanical treatments, which are applied under well-controlled conditions to achieve the desired properties.
According to the complexity of the interrelations between the fundamental (intrinsic) and microstructure-dependent (extrinsic) properties of iron, this chapter provides a substantial amount of explanatory text.
Alfred Koethe, Hans Warlimont

10. Cobalt and Cobalt Alloys

Abstract
This chapter comprises a survey on the properties, processing, performance and applications of cobalt alloys (Sect. 10.1). It includes essential information, including on alloys for specific environments or applications. Data tables covering the compositions (Sect. 10.2), specifications, applications and properties of the most commercially important heat, corrosion and wear-resistant cobalt alloys (Sect. 10.3), as well as those used in special-purpose applications, such as implants for the human body (Sect. 10.5) and cemented carbides (Sect. 10.6).
Hans Warlimont

11. Nickel and Nickel Alloys

Abstract
This chapter surveys the properties of nickel and its alloys (Sect. 11.1). It includes essential data tables covering the highly alloyed Ni-based materials (Sect. 11.2) and Ni-based superalloys (Sect. 11.3). Section 11.4, which completes the chapter, covers Ni plating.
Hans Warlimont

12. Copper and Copper Alloys

Abstract
Copper and its alloys are widely used because of their outstanding conductivity, workability and resistance to corrosion. Selected alloys from the principal groups of copper-based materials are presented, including unalloyed coppers, high-copper alloys, brasses, and bronzes, highlighting the capability of this class of materials. The description of the alloys is presented with a strong focus on physical metallurgy, i. e., basic considerations of the phase equilibria in binary systems are drawn and linked to the mechanical and physical properties of the alloys. This chapter pinpoints the potential of the alloys based upon their properties and includes essential information important for materials selection.
Jens Freudenberger, Hans Warlimont

13. Refractory Metals and Refractory Metal Alloys

Abstract
Refractory metals belong to the 5th and 6th group of the periodic system of elements and have a melting point above 2000C. Examples are Nb, Ta, Mo and W.
This chapter provides an overview of this class of materials. After a review of different production routes, the typical compositions of commercial refractory metal alloys and their applications are described. Physical and chemical properties are listed and the recrystallization behavior, as well as the mechanical properties including low- and high-cycle fatigue, are depicted. The mechanisms leading to an increased recrystallization temperature by either doping Mo and W with rare earth oxides or by K-doping of W are explained. Furthermore, fracture mechanics and creep properties are described and an extensive compilation of materials data is included.
In addition to a high melting point, the metals Nb, Ta, Mo, and W have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, a low vapor pressure, and an excellent corrosion resistance against acids, liquid metals and ceramic melts. Mo and W have a high thermal and electrical conductivity, a high Young's modulus and mechanical properties, which strongly depend on the content of interstitial impurities such as oxygen, sulfur, phosphorous, nitrogen, carbon and boron. The interrelationships are summarized in this chapter.
Wolfram Knabl, Gerhard Leichtfried, Roland Stickler

14. Noble Metals and Noble Metal Alloys

Abstract
The properties of metallic materials depend sensitively not only on their chemical composition and on the electronic and crystal structure of the phases formed, but also to a large degree on their microstructure, including the kinds and distribution of lattice defects. The phase composition and microstructure of metallic materials are strongly dependent, in turn, on the thermal and mechanical treatments, which are applied under well-controlled conditions to achieve the desired properties.
The noble metals are characterized by their high densities, high melting temperatures, high vapor pressures, high electrical and thermal conductivities, optical reflectivities and catalytic properties. They are comparatively soft and ductile, and their hardness increases in the order \(\text{Rh}<\text{Ir}<\text{Ru}<\text{Os}\). Solid solution and dispersion hardening strengthen the alloys, while corrosion resistance against various agents decreases in the order \(\text{Ir}> \text{Ru}> \text{Rh}> \text{Os}> \text{Au}> \text{Pt}> \text{Pd}> \text{Ag}\). Being key materials in electronics and electrical engineering, the pure elements and their alloys serve as materials to manufacture high-strength, corrosion-resistant, high-temperature, and highly oxidation-resistant structural parts. The platinum group metals silver and gold are effective heterogeneous or homogeneous catalysts for a wide variety of chemical reactions. Traditional applications of noble metals and their alloys are in dentistry and jewelry, as well as in coins and medals.
Günther Schlamp

15. Lead and Lead Alloys

Abstract
Lead constitutes only about 12.5 wtppm (weight part per million) of the earth's crust, but concentrated lead ore deposits make it easy to mine. Lead and its alloys are used in a wide range of technical applications because of their low melting point, ease of casting, high density, softness and high formability at room temperature, excellent resistance to corrosion in acidic environments, attractive electrochemical behavior in many chemical environments, chemical stability in air, water and soil, and the high atomic number and stable nuclear structure. Despite their known toxicity, lead and its alloys can be handled safely and it ranks fifth in tonnage consumed (6 Mt ∕ yr), after Fe, Cu, Al, and Zn. The type of data available on different alloys depends to a great extent on the areas of application.
Frank E. Goodwin, Sivaraman Guruswamy, Hans Warlimont

16. Zinc and Zinc Alloys

Abstract
This chapter presents key facts about zinc's role in the world together with technical reasons for its widespread use. The frequency and occurrence of zinc resources are compared with present and forecast demand, showing that more than 200 years of future demand will be met by known zinc resources. An overview of the primary zinc production process is then given, including an overview of the mining, aqueous concentration, roasting, cementation and electrolytic refining steps. Mechanical, thermal and crystallographic properties of zinc are then provided, especially for the most widely produced and used grade, 99.99% (special high grade) zinc. The principal uses of zinc and its alloys are then described. The most important use of zinc is the corrosion protection of steel; the usual reactions occurring during corrosion of galvanized steel are given together with corrosion rates typical of many environments where it is used. The next most important use is zinc die casting alloys; the composition of these alloys and their engineering properties are provided. Compositions and technical characteristics of other applications including rolled and thermal sprayed zinc, as well as zinc anodes, are also given.
Frank E. Goodwin

Nonmetallic Materials

Frontmatter

17. Ceramics

Abstract
Ceramics have various definitions, because of their long history of development as one of the oldest and most versatile groups of materials and because of the different ways in which materials can be classified, such as by chemical composition (silicates, oxides and nonoxides), properties (mechanical and physical), or applications (building materials, high-temperature materials and functional materials). The most widely used, minimal definition of ceramics is that they are inorganic nonmetallic materials. In the present section we differentiate between traditional ceramics and cements, silicate ceramics, refractory ceramics, oxide ceramics, and nonoxide ceramics, being aware that there are overlaps. It should also be noted that other chapters of this Handbook cover particular groups of ceramics: glasses (Chap. 19), semiconductors (Chap. 20), nonmetallic superconductors (Chap. 21), magnetic oxides (Chap. 22), dielectrics and electrooptics (Chap. 23) and ferroelectrics (Chap. 24) and related materials.
Hans Warlimont

18. Polymers

Abstract
The physical properties of polymers depend not only on the kind of material but also on the molar mass, the molar-mass distribution, the kind of branching, the degree of branching, the crystallinity (amorphous or crystalline), the tacticity, the end groups, any superstructure, and any other kind of molecular architecture. In the case of copolymers, the physical properties are additionally influenced by the type of arrangement of the monomers (statistical, random, alternating, periodic, block, or graft). Furthermore, the properties of polymers are influenced if they are mixed with other polymers (polymer blends), with fibers (glass fibers, carbon fibers, or metal fibers), or with other fillers (cellulose, inorganic materials, or organic materials).
The tables and figures in this chapter include the physical and physicochemical properties of those polymers, copolymers, polymer blends and reinforced polymers which are widely used for scientific applications and in industry. The figures include mainly the following physical properties: stress versus strain, viscosity versus shear rate, and creep modulus versus time. However, other physical properties are also included. Additionally, the most relevant applications of the materials are given.
Manfred Dieter Lechner

19. Glasses

Abstract
This chapter has been conceived as a source of information for scientists, engineers, and technicians who need data and commercial-product information to solve their technical task by using glasses as engineering materials. It is not intended to replace the comprehensive scientific literature. The fundamentals are merely sketched, to provide a feeling for the unique behavior of this widely used class of materials.
The properties of glasses are as versatile as their composition. Therefore only a selection of data can be listed, but their are intended to cover the preferred glass types of practical importance. Wherever possible, formulas, for example for the optical and thermal properties, are given with their correct constants, which should enable the reader to calculate the data needed for a specific situation by him/herself.
For selected applications, the suitable glass types and the main instructions for their processing are presented. Owing to the availability of the information, the products of Schott AG [19.1] have a certain preponderance here. The properties of glass types from other manufacturers have been included whenever available.
Dieter Krause

Functional Materials

Frontmatter

20. Semiconductors

Abstract
The organization of this chapter follows a two-step approach. The first step corresponds to searching for the substance of interest, that is, the relevant group of substances. The second step corresponds to the physical property of interest.
This chapter has three sections, characterized by the groups of the Periodic Table that the constituent elements belong to. The first section, Sect. 20.1, deals with the elements of Group IV of the Periodic Table and semiconducting binary compounds between elements of this group (IV–IV compounds). The second section, 20.2, treats the semiconducting binary compounds between the elements of Groups III and V (III–V compounds); Sect. 20.3 treats compounds between the elements of Groups II and VI (II–VI compounds). These two sections are subdivided further according to the first element in the formula of the compound.
The elements and compounds treated in Sect. 20.1 (Group IV and IV–IV compounds) are treated as one group; the data in the tables are given for the whole group in all cases. In Sect. 20.2 (III–V compounds) and 20.3 (II–VI compounds), data are given separately for each subdivision of those sections.
For each group of substances, the physical properties are organized into four classes. These are:
1.
Crystal structure, mechanical and thermal properties
 
2.
Electronic properties
 
3.
Transport properties
 
4.
Electromagnetic and optical properties
 
These property classes, finally, are subdivided into individual properties, which are described in the text, tables, and figures.
Werner Martienssen

21. Superconductors

Abstract
Superconductors are characterized by an anomalous temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity. Below a critical temperature Tc, their resistivity drops by more than a factor of 1010. In superconductors the magnetic flux density B = μrBa induced by an externally applied field Ha is zero, like in ideal diamagnets with μr = 0 (Meißner–Ochsenfeld effect). If Ha exceeds a critical value Hc the superconductor becomes normal conducting. But the magnetic induction B decreases from Ba at the free surface to B = 0 in the interior through a layer of finite thickness characterized by the Landau penetration depth λ. The critical field varies with temperature as
$$\begin{aligned}\displaystyle H_{\text{c}}(T)&\displaystyle=H_{\text{c}}(0)[1-(T/T_{\text{c}})^{2}]\;,\quad\text{where}\\ \displaystyle H_{\text{c}}(0)&\displaystyle=H_{\text{c}}(T={\mathrm{0}}\,{\mathrm{K}})\;.\end{aligned}$$
According to the isothermal field dependence of the magnetization \(I(H_{\text{a}})=-\mu_{0}H_{\text{a}}\), two types of superconductors may be differentiated, as shown in Fig. 21.1:
  • Type I superconductors such as Pb with a sudden drop of −I, at Hc; all pure metallic elements and their dilute solid solutions belong to this group.
  • Type II superconductors such as Pb-In15 which are characterized by a lower critical field Hc1 at which the drop of −I sets in and an upper critical field Hc2 at which −I reaches 0.
Günter Fuchs, Claus Fischer, Bernhard Holzapfel, Barbara Schüpp-Niewa, Hans Warlimont

22. Magnetic Materials

Abstract
Magnetic materials consist of a wide variety of metals and oxides. Their effective properties are given by a combination of two property categories: intrinsic properties which are the atomic moment per atom pat, Curie temperature Tc, magnetocrystalline anisotropy coefficients Ki, and magnetostriction coefficients λi; as well as extrinsic properties which are essentially their coercivity Hc and their magnetization M or magnetic induction J as a function of the applied magnetic field H. Moreover, the effective properties are depending decisively on the microstructural features, texture and, in most cases, on the external geometric dimensions such as thickness or shape of the magnetic part. In some cases nonmagnetic inorganic and organic compounds serve as binders or magnetic insulators in multiphase or composite magnetic materials.
Manfred Müller, Hideki Harada, Hans Warlimont

23. Dielectrics and Electrooptics

Abstract
The present chapter describes the physical properties of dielectrics and includes the following data:
1.
Low-frequency properties, i. e., density and Mohs hardness, thermal conductivity, static dielectric constant, dissipation factor (loss tangent), elastic stiffness and elastic compliance, and piezoelectric strain
 
2.
High-frequency (optical) properties, i. e., elastooptic and electrooptic coefficients, optical transparency range, two-photon absorption coefficient, refractive indices and their temperature variation, dispersion relations (Sellmeier equations), and second and/or third-order nonlinear dielectric susceptibilities.
 
Gagik G. Gurzadyan, Pancho Tzankov

24. Ferroelectrics and Antiferroelectrics

Abstract
Ferroelectric crystals (especially oxides in the form of ceramics) are important basic materials for technological applications in capacitors and in piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and optical devices. In many cases their nonlinear characteristics turn out to be very useful, for example in optical second-harmonic generators and other nonlinear optical devices. In recent decades, ceramic thin-film ferroelectrics have been utilized intensively as parts of memory devices. Liquid crystal and polymer ferroelectrics are utilized in the broad field of fast displays in electronic equipment.
This chapter surveys the nature of ferroelectrics, making reference to the data presented in the Landolt–Börnstein data collection Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Vol. III∕36, Ferroelectrics and Related Substances (LB III∕36). The data in the figures in this chapter have been taken mainly from the Landolt–Börnstein collection. The Landolt–Börnstein volume mentioned above consists of three subvolumes:
  • Subvolume A [24.1, 24.2], covering oxides
  • Subvolume B [24.3], covering inorganic crystals other than oxides
  • Subvolume C [24.4], covering organic crystals, liquid crystals, and polymers.
Toshio Mitsui

25. Materials for Solid Catalysts

Abstract
Catalysts are used to influence both the path and the rate of chemical reactions. This is achieved by controlling the reaction barriers in such a way that intended intermediates and products are formed. The two characteristic catalytic properties are activity and selectivity. The aim of catalyst development is to obtain a catalytically active material in such a way that it maximizes the reaction rate of the successive catalytic reaction steps up to the desired product. In addition, the catalysts have to remain chemically and mechanically stable and active under the reaction conditions for a long time to ensure an economic lifetime of the catalyst.
To achieve the desired properties catalyst development should not only focus on the components required, but also on the material's structure. The most important analytical tool in catalyst development is testing of catalytic activity, looking for the optimum combination of reactants, reaction conditions, and catalyst materials. Development may be mainly empiric, or supported by other techniques, like modeling, experimental design, and/or characterization of the catalyst material to achieve a more targeted approach and to establish a continuously growing knowledge pool for the specific catalytic reaction and process parameters.
This contribution considers the heterogeneous catalyst as a functional material and provides a short overview of its components, the material parameters used, and the characterization techniques available to determine these.
Karsten Ruth, Peter Albers

Special Structures

Frontmatter

26. Liquid Crystals

Abstract
Liquid crystals (LCs) are nowadays widely used in electro-optical devices (e. g., liquid crystalline displays), for optical visualization of physical influences (heat, IR, high-frequency radiation, pressure, etc.), for nondestructive testing, as well as for thermography.
Sergei Pestov, Volkmar Vill

27. The Physics of Solid Surfaces

Abstract
The data compiled in this chapter refer to so-called clean surfaces, i. e., crystalline surfaces that are atomically clean and well characterized. Data on interfaces are dealt with only marginally, in connection with MOS devices.
The values reported in the tables are mainly averages from several different authors. In such cases the errors are given as standard deviations. Reference to the individual measurements and to the original papers is made by referring to larger compilations (mainly the four volumes of Landolt–Börnstein III/24, Physics of Solid Surfaces [27.1], or the single articles therein [27.10, 27.11, 27.12, 27.13, 27.14, 27.15, 27.16, 27.2, 27.3, 27.4, 27.5, 27.6, 27.7, 27.8, 27.9]). On the other hand, the figures are fully referenced.
Gianfranco Chiarotti

28. Nanostructured Materials

Abstract
This chapter addresses the properties of nanostructured materials considered as statistical ensembles of nanostructures. Emphasis is put on size and confinement effects, although enhancements in surface and interface properties are mentioned. After a survey and a summary of basic definitions and concepts in the introductory Sect. 28.1, the properties associated with electronic confinement are addressed in Sect. 28.2. Electronic confinement affects the spectral properties, i. e., light absorption and luminescence, mainly through quantum size effects, and the electrical conduction properties through the Coulomb blockade. Both two-dimensional systems (quantum wells) and zero-dimensional systems (quantum dots) are reviewed. Particular attention is drawn to semiconductor-doped matrices. The effects associated with confinement of electromagnetic fields are treated in Sect. 28.3. Numerical relationships and data for plasmon excitations of various metal nanoparticles can be found in this section. Magnetic nanostructures are addressed in Sect. 28.4. The two main applications of nanostructured magnetic materials, namely spin electronics, or spintronics, and ultrahigh-density data storage media, are treated. Finally, we list and briefly describe in Sect. 28.5 some generic techniques for the preparation of nanostructured materials, organized into the following groups of methods: molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE), metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), nanolithography, nanocrystal growth in matrices, and ex-situ synthesis of clusters.
Fabrice Charra, Susana Gota-Goldmann, Hans Warlimont

29. Low-Dimensional Semiconductors

Abstract
Properties of materials depend on size, in addition to the physical properties of their bulk listed in Part C of this volume. Below a value, typically in the nanometer range, effects of quantization become dominant, and periodicities lead to further confinement effects. Such dependence is widely applied to control electronic, magnetic, or other properties just by tailoring the size and shape of a given material; furthermore, materials structured on the nanoscale may have characteristic mechanical properties. The previous chapter (Chap. 28) provided a survey of the wide field of nanomaterials and their applications.
This chapter focuses on semiconductors, whose electronic and optical properties are commonly classified in terms of dimensionality, according to the number of spatial directions in which the size or structural patterns are smaller than some specific limit. The effects of electronic and optical confinement are discussed, emphasizing the basic principles and selecting only a few widely applied materials. Section 29.1 addresses electronic confinement, covering the changes of the electronic density of states in reduced dimensions and the altered binding energy of confined excitons. Examples are given for the two-dimensional (2-D) structures of quantum wells and superlattices, for one-dimensional (2-D) quantum wires, and for zero-dimensional (0-D) quantum dots. Control of optical modes is considered in Sect. 29.2. Periodic structures with a photonic bandgap in one to three dimensions are considered, and the effect of optical defects used to fabricate waveguides and resonant cavities is pointed out. Finally, this chapter covers metamaterials comprising repeat units, which create magnetic and electric resonances and allow a negative real refractive index in this frequency range.
Udo W. Pohl

Backmatter

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