Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Coagulase-negative staphylococci, mainly Staphylococcus epidermidis, are currently the most frequent cause of hospital acquired infections in the USA. Mostly, but not exclusively, S. epidermidis infections are linked to the use of implanted medical devices like central venous catheters, prosthetic joints and heart valves, pacemakers, cardiac assist devices, cerebrospinal fluid shunts, and intraocular lenses. As new molecular techniques reveal that S. epidermidis are by no means the most prominent bacteria of the skin and mucous membrane flora, the implication is that S. epidermidis has specific virulence factors, which transforms this commensal bacterial species into one of the most successful pathogens in modern medicine. A vast array of specific attachment factors for native and host protein-modified device surfaces and the ability to accumulate in adherent multilayered biofilms appear to be vital for the success of S. epidermidis as a pathogen. Biofilm formation contributes to the ability of the organism to withstand the host’s innate and acquired immune defense mechanisms and to resist antimicrobial therapy, so that device removal is a regular feature for the treatment of S. epidermidis biomaterial-associated infection. Recent developments in the understanding of S. epidermidis virulence are reviewed in this chapter.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Lewis K. Persister cells, dormancy and infectious disease. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007;5:48–56.
Hall-Stoodley L, Costerton JW, Stoodley P. Bacterial biofilms: from the natural environment to infectious diseases. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004;2:95–108.
Costerton JW, Stewart PS, Greenberg EP. Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Science. 1999;284:1318–22.
Rupp ME, Archer GL. Coagulase-negative staphylococci: pathogens associated with medical progress. Clin Infect Dis. 1994;19:231–43.
Mack D, Horstkotte MA, Rohde H, Knobloch JKM. Coagulase-negative staphylococci. In: Pace JL, Rupp ME, Finch RG, editors. Biofilms, infection, and antimicrobial therapy. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2006. p. 109–53. chap 7.
Darouiche RO. Device-associated infections: a macroproblem that starts with microadherence. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:1567–72.
Goldmann DA, Pier GB. Pathogenesis of infections related to intravascular catheterization. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1993;6:176–92.
Hidron AI, Edwards JR, Patel J, et al. NHSN annual update: antimicrobial-resistant pathogens associated with healthcare-associated infections: annual summary of data reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006–2007. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29:996–1011.
Geffers C, Gastmeier P. Nosocomial infections and multidrug-resistant organisms in Germany: epidemiological data from KISS (the Hospital Infection Surveillance System). Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2011;108:87–93.
Fontela PS, Platt RW, Rocher I, et al. Surveillance provinciale des infections nosocomiales (SPIN) program: implementation of a mandatory surveillance program for central line-associated bloodstream infections. Am J Infect Control. 2011;39:329–35.
Mermel LA. Prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132:391–402.
Raad II, Bodey GP. Infectious complications of indwelling vascular catheters. Clin Infect Dis. 1992;15:197–208.
Srinivasan A, Wise M, Bell M, et al. Vital signs: central line-associated blood stream infections–United States, 2001, 2008, and 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60:243–8.
Jukes L, Mikhail J, Bome-Mannathoko N, et al. Rapid differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci and methicillin susceptibility testing directly from growth positive blood cultures by multiplex real-time PCR. J Med Microbiol. 2010;59:1456–61.
Murdoch DR, Corey GR, Hoen B, et al. Clinical presentation, etiology, and outcome of infective endocarditis in the 21st century: the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:463–73.
Chu VH, Miro JM, Hoen B, et al. Coagulase-negative staphylococcal prosthetic valve endocarditis–a contemporary update based on the International Collaboration on Endocarditis: prospective cohort study. Heart. 2009;95:570–6.
Chu VH, Cabell CH, Abrutyn E, et al. Native valve endocarditis due to coagulase-negative staphylococci: report of 99 episodes from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis Merged Database. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:1527–30.
Chu VH, Woods CW, Miro JM, et al. Emergence of coagulase-negative staphylococci as a cause of native valve endocarditis. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:232–42.
Anguera I, Del Rio A, Miro JM, et al. Staphylococcus lugdunensis infective endocarditis: description of 10 cases and analysis of native valve, prosthetic valve, and pacemaker lead endocarditis clinical profiles. Heart. 2005;91(2):e10.
Viola GM, Awan LL, Darouiche RO. Nonstaphylococcal infections of cardiac implantable electronic devices. Circulation. 2010;121:2085–91.
Gordon RJ, Quagliarello B, Lowy FD. Ventricular assist device-related infections. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006;6:426–37.
Simon D, Fischer S, Grossman A, et al. Left ventricular assist device-related infection: treatment and outcome. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40:1108–15.
Simon TD, Hall M, Riva-Cambrin J, et al. Infection rates following initial cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement across pediatric hospitals in the United States. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2009;4:156–65.
Langley JM, Gravel D, Moore D, et al. Study of cerebrospinal fluid shunt-associated infections in the first year following placement, by the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009;30:285–8.
Conen A, Walti LN, Merlo A, et al. Characteristics and treatment outcome of cerebrospinal fluid shunt-associated infections in adults: a retrospective analysis over an 11-year period. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:73–82.
National Joint Registry England and Wales. Annual Report 2011. http://www.njrcentre.org.uk/NjrCentre/Portals/0/Documents/NJR%208th%20Annual%20Report%202011.pdf. Accessed 26 Sep 2011.
Phillips JE, Crane TP, Noy M, et al. The incidence of deep prosthetic infections in a specialist orthopaedic hospital: a 15-year prospective survey. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2006;88:943–8.
Dale H, Hallan G, Hallan G, et al. Increasing risk of revision due to deep infection after hip arthroplasty. Acta Orthop. 2009;80:639–45.
Ong KL, Kurtz SM, Lau E, et al. Prosthetic joint infection risk after total hip arthroplasty in the Medicare population. J Arthroplasty. 2009;24:105–9.
Kurtz SM, Ong KL, Lau E, et al. Prosthetic joint infection risk after TKA in the Medicare population. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010;468:52–6.
Nickinson RS, Board TN, Gambhir AK, et al. The microbiology of the infected knee arthroplasty. Int Orthop. 2010;34:505–10.
Schafer P, Fink B, Sandow D, et al. Prolonged bacterial culture to identify late periprosthetic joint infection: a promising strategy. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:1403–9.
Rohde H, Burandt EC, Siemssen N, et al. Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin or protein factors in biofilm accumulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from prosthetic hip and knee joint infections. Biomaterials. 2007;28:1711–20.
Harris LG, El-Bouri K, Johnston S, et al. Rapid identification of staphylococci from prosthetic joint infections using MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry. Int J Artif Organs. 2010;33:568–74.
Roth RR, James WD. Microbial ecology of the skin. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1988;42:441–64.
Kloos WE. Natural populations of the genus Staphylococcus. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1980;34: 559–92.
Carr DL, Kloos WE. Temporal study of the staphylococci and micrococci of normal infant skin. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1977;34:673–80.
Kloos WE, Musselwhite MS. Distribution and persistence of Staphylococcus and Micrococcus species and other aerobic bacteria on human skin. Appl Microbiol. 1975;30:381–5.
Iwase T, Uehara Y, Shinji H, et al. Staphylococcus epidermidis Esp inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and nasal colonization. Nature. 2010;465:346–9.
Grice EA, Segre JA. The skin microbiome. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011;9:244–53.
Gao Z, Tseng CH, Pei Z, et al. Molecular analysis of human forearm superficial skin bacterial biota. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:2927–32.
Grice EA, Kong HH, Renaud G, et al. A diversity profile of the human skin microbiota. Genome Res. 2008;18:1043–50.
Grice EA, Kong HH, Conlan S, et al. Topographical and temporal diversity of the human skin microbiome. Science. 2009;324:1190–2.
Otto M. Staphylococcus epidermidis - the ‘accidental’ pathogen. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009;7: 555–67.
Davis N, Curry A, Gambhir AK, et al. Intraoperative bacterial contamination in operations for joint replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1999;81:886–9 [see comments].
Byrne AM, Morris S, McCarthy T, et al. Outcome following deep wound contamination in cemented arthroplasty. Int Orthop. 2007;31:27–31.
Knobben BA, van Horn JR, van der Mei HC, et al. Evaluation of measures to decrease intra-operative bacterial contamination in orthopaedic implant surgery. J Hosp Infect. 2006;62:174–80.
Mack D, Siemssen N, Laufs R. Parallel induction by glucose of adherence and a polysaccharide antigen specific for plastic-adherent Staphylococcus epidermidis: evidence for functional relation to intercellular adhesion. Infect Immun. 1992;60:2048–57.
Mack D, Nedelmann M, Krokotsch A, et al. Characterization of transposon mutants of biofilm-producing Staphylococcus epidermidis impaired in the accumulative phase of biofilm production: genetic identification of a hexosamine-containing polysaccharide intercellular adhesin. Infect Immun. 1994;62:3244–53.
Mack D, Haeder M, Siemssen N, et al. Association of biofilm production of coagulase-negative staphylococci with expression of a specific polysaccharide intercellular adhesin. J Infect Dis. 1996;174:881–4.
Ziebuhr W, Heilmann C, Götz F, et al. Detection of the intercellular adhesion gene cluster ( ica) and phase variation in Staphylococcus epidermidis blood culture strains and mucosal isolates. Infect Immun. 1997;65:890–6.
Heilmann C, Schweitzer O, Gerke C, et al. Molecular basis of intercellular adhesion in the biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis. Mol Microbiol. 1996;20:1083–91.
Gerke C, Kraft A, Süssmuth R, et al. Characterization of the N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity involved in the biosynthesis of the Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide intercellular adhesin. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:18586–93.
Rohde H, Kalitzky M, Kröger N, et al. Detection of virulence-associated genes not useful for discriminating between invasive and commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis strains on a bone marrow transplant unit. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:5614–9.
Chokr A, Watier D, Eleaume H, et al. Correlation between biofilm formation and production of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin in clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006;296:381–6.
Hennig S, Nyunt WS, Ziebuhr W. Spontaneous switch to PIA-independent biofilm formation in an ica-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis isolate. Int J Med Microbiol. 2007;297:117–22.
Hussain M, Herrmann M, von Eiff C, et al. A 140-kilodalton extracellular protein is essential for the accumulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains on surfaces. Infect Immun. 1997;65:519–24.
Rohde H, Burdelski C, Bartscht K, et al. Induction of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation via proteolytic processing of the accumulation-associated protein by staphylococcal and host proteases. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:1883–95.
Banner MA, Cunniffe JG, Macintosh RL, et al. Localized tufts of fibrils on Staphylococcus epidermidis NCTC 11047 are comprised of the accumulation-associated protein. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:2793–804.
Tormo MA, Knecht E, Götz F, et al. Bap-dependent biofilm formation by pathogenic species of Staphylococcus: evidence of horizontal gene transfer? Microbiology. 2005;151:2465–75.
Williams RJ, Henderson B, Sharp LJ, et al. Identification of a fibronectin-binding protein from Staphylococcus epidermidis. Infect Immun. 2002;70:6805–10.
Christner M, Franke GC, Schommer NN, et al. The giant extracellular matrix-binding protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis mediates biofilm accumulation and attachment to fibronectin. Mol Microbiol. 2010;75:187–207.
Shahrooei M, Hira V, Stijlemans B, et al. Inhibition of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation by rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the SesC protein. Infect Immun. 2009;77:3670–8.
Mack D, Davies AP, Harris LG, et al. Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms: functional molecules, relation to virulence, and vaccine potential. Top Curr Chem. 2009;288:157–82.
Cramton SE, Gerke C, Schnell NF, et al. The intercellular adhesion ( ica) locus is present in Staphylococcus aureus and is required for biofilm formation. Infect Immun. 1999;67:5427–33.
McKenney D, Pouliot KL, Wang Y, et al. Broadly protective vaccine for Staphylococcus aureus based on an in vivo-expressed antigen. Science. 1999;284:1523–7.
Allignet J, Aubert S, Dyke KG, et al. Staphylococcus caprae strains carry determinants known to be involved in pathogenicity: a gene encoding an autolysin-binding fibronectin and the ica operon involved in biofilm formation. Infect Immun. 2001;69:712–8.
Frank KL, Patel R. Poly-N-acetylglucosamine is not a major component of the extracellular matrix in biofilms formed by icaADBC-positive Staphylococcus lugdunensis isolates. Infect Immun. 2007;75:4728–42.
Moretro T, Hermansen L, Holck AL, et al. Biofilm formation and the presence of the intercellular adhesion locus ica among staphylococci from food and food processing environments. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:5648–55.
Wang X, Preston III JF, Romeo T. The pgaABCD locus of Escherichia coli promotes the synthesis of a polysaccharide adhesin required for biofilm formation. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:2724–34.
Kaplan JB, Velliyagounder K, Ragunath C, et al. Genes involved in the synthesis and degradation of matrix polysaccharide in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biofilms. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:8213–20.
Darby C, Hsu JW, Ghori N, et al. Caenorhabditis elegans: plague bacteria biofilm blocks food intake. Nature. 2002;417:243–4.
Itoh Y, Wang X, Hinnebusch BJ, et al. Depolymerization of beta-1, 6-N-acetyl- d-glucosamine disrupts the integrity of diverse bacterial biofilms. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:382–7.
Bobrov AG, Kirillina O, Forman S, et al. Insights into Yersinia pestis biofilm development: topology and co-interaction of Hms inner membrane proteins involved in exopolysaccharide production. Environ Microbiol. 2008;10:1419–32.
Bobrov AG, Kirillina O, Ryjenkov DA, et al. Systematic analysis of cyclic di-GMP signalling enzymes and their role in biofilm formation and virulence in Yersinia pestis. Mol Microbiol. 2011;79:533–51.
Choi AH, Slamti L, Avci FY, et al. The pgaABCD locus of Acinetobacter baumannii encodes the production of poly-beta-1-6-N-acetylglucosamine, which is critical for biofilm formation. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5953–63.
Parise G, Mishra M, Itoh Y, et al. Role of a putative polysaccharide locus in Bordetella biofilm development. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:750–60.
Sloan GP, Love CF, Sukumar N, et al. The Bordetella Bps polysaccharide is critical for biofilm development in the mouse respiratory tract. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:8270–6.
Drewry DT, Galbraith L, Wilkinson BJ, et al. Staphylococcal slime: a cautionary tale. J Clin Microbiol. 1990;28:1292–6.
Mack D. Molecular mechanisms of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation. J Hosp Infect. 1999;43(Suppl):S113–25.
Maira-Litran T, Kropec A, Goldmann D, et al. Biologic properties and vaccine potential of the staphylococcal poly-N-acetyl glucosamine surface polysaccharide. Vaccine. 2004;22:872–9.
Mack D, Fischer W, Krokotsch A, et al. The intercellular adhesin involved in biofilm accumulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis is a linear beta-1,6-linked glucosaminoglycan: purification and structural analysis. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:175–83.
Jabbouri S, Sadovskaya I. Characteristics of the biofilm matrix and its role as a possible target for the detection and eradication of Staphylococcus epidermidis associated with medical implant infections. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010;59:280–91.
Rupp ME, Archer GL. Hemagglutination and adherence to plastic by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Infect Immun. 1992;60:4322–7.
Mack D, Riedewald J, Rohde H, et al. Essential functional role of the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin of Staphylococcus epidermidis in hemagglutination. Infect Immun. 1999;67:1004–8.
Fey PD, Ulphani JS, Götz F, et al. Characterization of the relationship between polysaccharide intercellular adhesin and hemagglutination in Staphylococcus epidermidis. J Infect Dis. 1999;179:1561–4.
Joyce JG, Abeygunawardana C, Xu Q, et al. Isolation, structural characterization, and immunological evaluation of a high-molecular-weight exopolysaccharide from Staphylococcus aureus. Carbohydr Res. 2003;338:903–22.
Sadovskaya I, Vinogradov E, Flahaut S, et al. Extracellular carbohydrate-containing polymers of a model biofilm-producing strain, Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A. Infect Immun. 2005;73:3007–17.
Tojo M, Yamashita N, Goldmann DA, et al. Isolation and characterization of a capsular polysaccharide adhesin from Staphylococcus epidermidis. J Infect Dis. 1988;157:713–22 [published erratum appears in J Infect Dis 1988 Jul;158(1):268].
McKenney D, Hübner J, Muller E, et al. The ica locus of Staphylococcus epidermidis encodes production of the capsular polysaccharide/adhesin. Infect Immun. 1998;66:4711–20.
Maira-Litran T, Kropec A, Abeygunawardana C, et al. Immunochemical properties of the staphylococcal poly-n-acetylglucosamine surface polysaccharide. Infect Immun. 2002;70:4433–40.
Mack D, Rohde H, Harris LG, et al. Biofilm formation in medical device-related infection. Int J Artif Organs. 2006;29:343–59.
Götz F. Staphylococcus and biofilms. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:1367–78.
Conlon KM, Humphreys H, O’Gara JP. icaR encodes a transcriptional repressor involved in environmental regulation of ica operon expression and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4400–8.
Chang YM, Jeng WY, Ko TP, et al. Structural study of TcaR and its complexes with multiple antibiotics from Staphylococcus epidermidis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:8617–22.
Ziebuhr W, Krimmer V, Rachid S, et al. A novel mechanism of phase variation of virulence in Staphylococcus epidermidis: evidence for control of the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin synthesis by alternating insertion and excision of the insertion sequence element IS256. Mol Microbiol. 1999;32:345–56.
Wang C, Li M, Dong D, et al. Role of ClpP in biofilm formation and virulence of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Microbes Infect. 2007;9:1376–83.
Wang L, Li M, Dong D, et al. SarZ is a key regulator of biofilm formation and virulence in Staphylococcus epidermidis. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:1254–62.
Knobloch JKM, Bartscht K, Sabottke A, et al. Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis depends on functional RsbU, an activator of the ÂB operon: differential activation mechanisms due to ethanol and salt stress. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:2624–33.
Knobloch JKM, Jäger S, Horstkotte MA, et al. RsbU dependent regulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation is mediated via the alternative sigma factor σB by repression of the negative regulator gene icaR. Infect Immun. 2004;72:3838–48.
Jäger S, Jonas B, Pfanzelt D, et al. Regulation of biofilm formation by sigma B is a common mechanism in Staphylococcus epidermidis and is not mediated by transcriptional regulation of sarA. Int J Artif Organs. 2009;32:584–91.
Conlon KM, Humphreys H, O’Gara JP. Inactivations of rsbU and sarA by IS256 represent novel mechanisms of biofilm phenotypic variation in Staphylococcus epidermidis. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6208–19.
Holland LM, O’Donnell ST, Ryjenkov DA, et al. A staphylococcal GGDEF domain protein regulates biofilm formation independently of c-di-GMP. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:5178–89.
Tormo MA, Marti M, Valle J, et al. SarA is an essential positive regulator of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm development. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:2348–56.
Xu L, Li H, Vuong C, et al. Role of the luxS quorum-sensing system in biofilm formation and virulence of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Infect Immun. 2006;74:488–96.
Rowe SE, Mahon V, Smith SG, et al. A novel role for SarX in Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm regulation. Microbiology-Sgm. 2011;157:1042–9.
Wang X, Niu C, Sun G, et al. ygs is a novel gene that influences biofilm formation and the general stress response of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Infect Immun. 2011;79:1007–15.
Wang C, Fan J, Niu C, et al. Role of spx in biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010;59:152–60.
Mack D, Becker P, Chatterjee I, et al. Mechanisms of biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus: functional molecules, regulatory circuits, and adaptive responses. Int J Med Microbiol. 2004;294:203–12.
Kong KF, Vuong C, Otto M. Staphylococcus quorum sensing in biofilm formation and infection. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006;296:133–9.
Mack D, Davies AP, Harris LG, et al. Microbial interactions in Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2007;387:399–408.
O’Gara JP. ica and beyond: biofilm mechanisms and regulation in Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;270:179–88.
Fey PD, Olson ME. Current concepts in biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Future Microbiol. 2010;5:917–33.
Knobloch JK, Horstkotte MA, Rohde H, et al. Evaluation of different detection methods of biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2002;191:101–6.
Gill SR, Fouts DE, Archer GL, et al. Insights on evolution of virulence and resistance from the complete genome analysis of an early methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain and a biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strain. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:2426–38.
Vuong C, Kocianova S, Voyich JM, et al. A crucial role for exopolysaccharide modification in bacterial biofilm formation, immune evasion, and virulence. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:54881–6.
Cerca N, Jefferson KK, Maira-Litran T, et al. Molecular basis for preferential protective efficacy of antibodies directed to the poorly acetylated form of staphylococcal poly-N-acetyl-beta-(1–6)-glucosamine. Infect Immun. 2007;75:3406–13.
Dobinsky S, Kiel K, Rohde H, et al. Glucose related dissociation between icaADBC transcription and biofilm expression by Staphylococcus epidermidis: evidence for an additional factor required for polysaccharide intercellular adhesin synthesis. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:2879–86.
Rohde H, Knobloch JKM, Horstkotte MA, et al. Correlation of biofilm expression types of Staphylococcus epidermidis with polysaccharide intercellular adhesin synthesis: evidence for involvement of icaADBC genotype-independent factors. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2001; 190:105–12.
Bateman A, Holden MT, Yeats C. The G5 domain: a potential N-acetylglucosamine recognition domain involved in biofilm formation. Bioinformatics. 2005;21:1301–3.
Roche FM, Meehan M, Foster TJ. The Staphylococcus aureus surface protein SasG and its homologues promote bacterial adherence to human desquamated nasal epithelial cells. Microbiology. 2003;149:2759–67.
Roche FM, Massey R, Peacock SJ, et al. Characterization of novel LPXTG-containing proteins of Staphylococcus aureus identified from genome sequences. Microbiology. 2003;149:643–54.
Corrigan RM, Rigby D, Handley P, et al. The role of Staphylococcus aureus surface protein SasG in adherence and biofilm formation. Microbiology. 2007;153:2435–46.
Geoghegan JA, Corrigan RM, Gruszka DT, et al. Role of surface protein SasG in biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:5663–73.
Conrady DG, Brescia CC, Horii K, et al. A zinc-dependent adhesion module is responsible for intercellular adhesion in staphylococcal biofilms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105: 19456–61.
Schommer NN, Christner M, Hentschke M, et al. Staphylococcus epidermidis uses distinct mechanisms of biofilm formation to interfere with phagocytosis and activation of mouse macrophage-like cells 774A.1. Infect Immun. 2011;79:2267–76.
Timmerman CP, Fleer A, Besnier JM, et al. Characterization of a proteinaceous adhesin of Staphylococcus epidermidis which mediates attachment to polystyrene. Infect Immun. 1991;59:4187–92.
Veenstra GJ, Cremers FF, van Dijk H, et al. Ultrastructural organization and regulation of a biomaterial adhesin of Staphylococcus epidermidis. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:537–41.
Macintosh RL, Brittan JL, Bhattacharya R, et al. The terminal a domain of the fibrillar accumulation-associated protein (Aap) of Staphylococcus epidermidis mediates adhesion to human corneocytes. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:7007–16.
Sun D, Accavitti MA, Bryers JD. Inhibition of biofilm formation by monoclonal antibodies against Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A accumulation-associated protein. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005;12:93–100.
Hu J, Xu T, Zhu T, et al. Monoclonal antibodies against accumulation-associated protein affect eps biosynthesis and enhance bacterial accumulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis. PLoS One. 2011;6:e20918.
Harris LG, Bexfield A, Nigam Y, et al. Disruption of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms by medicinal maggot Lucilia sericata excretions/secretions. Int J Artif Organs. 2009;32:555–64.
Vandecasteele SJ, Peetermans WE, Merckx R, et al. Reliability of the ica, aap and atlE genes in the discrimination between invasive, colonizing and contaminant Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates in the diagnosis of catheter-related infections. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2003;9:114–9.
Stevens NT, Tharmabala M, Dillane T, et al. Biofilm and the role of the ica operon and aap in Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates causing neurosurgical meningitis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008;14:719–22.
Cucarella C, Solano C, Valle J, et al. Bap, a Staphylococcus aureus surface protein involved in biofilm formation. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:2888–96.
Potter A, Ceotto H, Giambiagi-Demarval M, et al. The gene bap, involved in biofilm production, is present in Staphylococcus spp. strains from nosocomial infections. J Microbiol. 2009;47:319–26.
Christensen GD, Baldassarri L, Simpson WA. Colonization of medical devices by coagulase-negative staphylococci. In: Bisno AL, Waldvogel FA, editors. Infections associated with indwelling medical devices. Washington, DC: American Society of Microbiology; 1994. p. 45–78. Chap 3.
Rupp ME, Ulphani JS, Fey PD, et al. Characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide intercellular adhesin/hemagglutinin in the pathogenesis of intravascular catheter-associated infection in a rat model. Infect Immun. 1999;67:2656–9.
Rupp ME, Fey PD. In vivo models to evaluate adhesion and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Methods Enzymol. 2001;336:206–15.
Rupp ME, Ulphani JS, Fey PD, et al. Characterization of the importance of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin/hemagglutinin of Staphylococcus epidermidis in the pathogenesis of biomaterial-based infection in a mouse foreign body infection model. Infect Immun. 1999;67:2627–32.
Rupp ME, Fey PD, Heilmann C, et al. Characterization of the importance of Staphylococcus epidermidis autolysin and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin in the pathogenesis of intravascular catheter-associated infection in a rat model. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:1038–42.
Li H, Xu L, Wang J, et al. Conversion of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains from commensal to invasive by expression of the ica locus encoding production of biofilm exopolysaccharide. Infect Immun. 2005;73:3188–91.
Begun J, Gaiani JM, Rohde H, et al. Staphylococcal biofilm exopolysaccharide protects against Caenorhabditis elegans immune defenses. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:526–40.
Monk AB, Boundy S, Chu VH, et al. Analysis of the genotype and virulence of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from patients with infective endocarditis. Infect Immun. 2008;76:5127–32.
Vuong C, Voyich JM, Fischer ER, et al. Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) protects Staphylococcus epidermidis against major components of the human innate immune system. Cell Microbiol. 2004;6:269–75.
Kristian SA, Birkenstock TA, Sauder U, et al. Biofilm formation induces C3a release and protects Staphylococcus epidermidis from IgG and complement deposition and from neutrophil-dependent killing. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:1028–35.
Cerca N, Jefferson KK, Oliveira R, et al. Comparative antibody-mediated phagocytosis of Staphylococcus epidermidis cells grown in a biofilm or in the planktonic state. Infect Immun. 2006;74:4849–55.
Maira-Litran T, Kropec A, Goldmann DA, et al. Comparative opsonic and protective activities of Staphylococcus aureus conjugate vaccines containing native or deacetylated Staphylococcal Poly-N-acetyl-beta-(1–6)-glucosamine. Infect Immun. 2005;73:6752–62.
Jäger S, Mack D, Rohde H, et al. Disintegration of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms under glucose-limiting conditions depends on the activity of the alternative sigma factor sigmaB. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:5577–81.
Zimmerli W, Waldvogel FA, Vaudaux P, et al. Pathogenesis of foreign body infection: description and characteristics of an animal model. J Infect Dis. 1982;146:487–97.
Francois P, Tu Quoc PH, Bisognano C, et al. Lack of biofilm contribution to bacterial colonisation in an experimental model of foreign body infection by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2003;35:135–40.
Chokr A, Leterme D, Watier D, et al. Neither the presence of ica locus, nor in vitro-biofilm formation ability is a crucial parameter for some Staphylococcus epidermidis strains to maintain an infection in a guinea pig tissue cage model. Microb Pathog. 2007;42:94–7.
Fluckiger U, Ulrich M, Steinhuber A, et al. Biofilm formation, icaADBC transcription, and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin synthesis by staphylococci in a device-related infection model. Infect Immun. 2005;73:1811–9.
Zimmerli W, Lew PD, Waldvogel FA. Pathogenesis of foreign body infection. Evidence for a local granulocyte defect. J Clin Invest. 1984;73:1191–200.
Vandecasteele SJ, Peetermans WE, Merckx R, et al. Expression of biofilm-associated genes in Staphylococcus epidermidis during in vitro and in vivo foreign body infections. J Infect Dis. 2003;188:730–7.
Kaplan JB, Ragunath C, Ramasubbu N, et al. Detachment of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans biofilm cells by an endogenous beta-hexosaminidase activity. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:4693–8.
Kaplan JB, Ragunath C, Velliyagounder K, et al. Enzymatic detachment of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:2633–6.
Mehlin C, Headley CM, Klebanoff SJ. An inflammatory polypeptide complex from Staphylococcus epidermidis: isolation and characterization. J Exp Med. 1999;189:907–18.
Vuong C, Durr M, Carmody AB, et al. Regulated expression of pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules in Staphylococcus epidermidis: quorum-sensing determines pro-inflammatory capacity and production of phenol-soluble modulins. Cell Microbiol. 2004;6:753–9.
Yao Y, Sturdevant DE, Otto M. Genomewide analysis of gene expression in Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms: insights into the pathophysiology of S. epidermidis biofilms and the role of phenol-soluble modulins in formation of biofilms. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:289–98.
Cheung GY, Rigby K, Wang R, et al. Staphylococcus epidermidis strategies to avoid killing by human neutrophils. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001133.
Wang R, Khan BA, Cheung GY, et al. Staphylococcus epidermidis surfactant peptides promote biofilm maturation and dissemination of biofilm-associated infection in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:238–48.
Vaudaux PE, Lew DP, Waldvogel FA. Host factors predeposing to and influencing therapy of foreign body infections. In: Bisno AL, Waldvogel FA, editors. Infections associated with indwelling medical devices. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology; 1994. p. 1–29. Chap 1.
Mack D, Bartscht K, Dobinsky S, Horstkotte MA, Kiel K, Knobloch JKM, Schäfer P. Staphylococcal factors involved in adhesion and biofilm formation on biomaterials. In: An YH, Friedman RJ, editors. Handbook for studying bacterial adhesion: principles, methods, and applications. Totowa: Humana Press; 2000. p. 307–30. Chap 20.
Espersen F, Wilkinson BJ, Gahrn-Hansen B, et al. Attachment of staphylococci to silicone catheters in vitro. APMIS. 1990;98:471–8.
Hogt AH, Dankert J, Feijen J. Adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus to a hydrophobic biomaterial. J Gen Microbiol. 1985;131:2485–91.
Hogt AH, Dankert J, Feijen J. Adhesion of coagulase-negative staphylococci to methacrylate polymers and copolymers. J Biomed Mater Res. 1986;20:533–45.
Hogt AH, Dankert J, Hulstaert CE, et al. Cell surface characteristics of coagulase-negative staphylococci and their adherence to fluorinated poly(ethylenepropylene). Infect Immun. 1986;51:294–301.
Pascual A, Fleer A, Westerdaal NA, et al. Modulation of adherence of coagulase-negative staphylococci to teflon catheters in vitro. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1986;5:518–22.
Muller E, Takeda S, Shiro H, et al. Occurrence of capsular polysaccharide/adhesin among clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci. J Infect Dis. 1993;168:1211–8.
Ludwicka A, Jansen B, Wadstrom T, et al. Attachment of staphylococci to various synthetic polymers. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1984;256:479–89.
Mack D, Bartscht K, Fischer C, et al. Genetic and biochemical analysis of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm accumulation. Methods Enzymol. 2001;336:215–39.
Patel JD, Ebert M, Ward R, et al. S. epidermidis biofilm formation: effects of biomaterial surface chemistry and serum proteins. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2007;80:742–51.
Heilmann C, Hussain M, Peters G, et al. Evidence for autolysin-mediated primary attachment of Staphylococcus epidermidis to a polystyrene surface. Mol Microbiol. 1997;24:1013–24.
Li DQ, Lundberg F, Ljungh A. Characterization of vitronectin-binding proteins of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Curr Microbiol. 2001;42:361–7.
Zoll S, Patzold B, Schlag M, et al. Structural basis of cell wall cleavage by a staphylococcal autolysin. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000807.
Higashi JM, Wang IW, Shlaes DM, et al. Adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis and transposon mutant strains to hydrophobic polyethylene. J Biomed Mater Res. 1998;39:341–50.
Izano EA, Amarante MA, Kher WB, et al. Differential roles of poly-N-acetylglucosamine surface polysaccharide and extracellular DNA in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:470–6.
Qin Z, Ou Y, Yang L, et al. Role of autolysin-mediated DNA release in biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Microbiology. 2007;153:2083–92.
Patti JM, Allen BL, McGavin MJ, et al. MSCRAMM-mediated adherence of microorganisms to host tissues. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1994;48:585–617.
Heilmann C, Thumm G, Chhatwal GS, et al. Identification and characterization of a novel autolysin (Aae) with adhesive properties from Staphylococcus epidermidis. Microbiology. 2003;149:2769–78.
Nilsson M, Frykberg L, Flock JI, et al. A fibrinogen-binding protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Infect Immun. 1998;66:2666–73.
Hartford O, O’Brien L, Schofield K, et al. The Fbe (SdrG) protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis HB promotes bacterial adherence to fibrinogen. Microbiology. 2001;147:2545–52.
Arciola CR, Campoccia D, Gamberini S, et al. Presence of fibrinogen-binding adhesin gene in Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from central venous catheters-associated and orthopaedic implant-associated infections. Biomaterials. 2004;25:4825–9.
Sellman BR, Timofeyeva Y, Nanra J, et al. Expression of Staphylococcus epidermidis SdrG increases following exposure to an in vivo environment. Infect Immun. 2008;76:2950–7.
Pei L, Flock JI. Functional study of antibodies against a fibrogenin-binding protein in Staphylococcus epidermidis adherence to polyethylene catheters. J Infect Dis. 2001;184:52–5.
Rennermalm A, Nilsson M, Flock JI. The fibrinogen binding protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis is a target for opsonic antibodies. Infect Immun. 2004;72:3081–3.
Vernachio JH, Bayer AS, Ames B, et al. Human immunoglobulin G recognizing fibrinogen-binding surface proteins is protective against both Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis infections in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:511–8.
Guo B, Zhao X, Shi Y, et al. Pathogenic implication of a fibrinogen-binding protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis in a rat model of intravascular-catheter-associated infection. Infect Immun. 2007;75:2991–5.
Hussain M, Heilmann C, Peters G, et al. Teichoic acid enhances adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to immobilized fibronectin. Microb Pathog. 2001;31:261–70.
Bowden MG, Visai L, Longshaw CM, et al. Is the GehD lipase from Staphylococcus epidermidis a collagen binding adhesin? J Biol Chem. 2002;277:43017–23.
Arrecubieta C, Lee MH, Macey A, et al. SdrF, a Staphylococcus epidermidis surface protein, binds type I collagen. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:18767–76.
Arrecubieta C, Toba FA, von Bayern M, et al. SdrF, a Staphylococcus epidermidis surface protein, contributes to the initiation of ventricular assist device driveline-related infections. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000411.
Kogan G, Sadovskaya I, Chaignon P, et al. Biofilms of clinical strains of Staphylococcus that do not contain polysaccharide intercellular adhesin. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006; 255:11–6.
Frank KL, Hanssen AD, Patel R. icaA is not a useful diagnostic marker for prosthetic joint infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:4846–9.
Dice B, Stoodley P, Buchinsky F, et al. Biofilm formation by ica-positive and ica-negative strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis in vitro. Biofouling. 2009;25:367–75.
Kozitskaya S, Olson ME, Fey PD, et al. Clonal analysis of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates carrying or lacking biofilm-mediating genes by multilocus sequence typing. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:4751–7.
Frebourg NB, Lefebvre S, Baert S, et al. PCR-Based assay for discrimination between invasive and contaminating Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. J Clin Microbiol. 2000; 38:877–80.
Arciola CR, Baldassarri L, Montanaro L. Presence of icaA and icaD genes and slime production in a collection of staphylococcal strains from catheter-associated infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:2151–6.
Maki DG, Weise CE, Sarafin HW. A semiquantitative culture method for identifying intravenous-catheter-related infection. N Engl J Med. 1977;296:1305–9.
Petrelli D, Zampaloni C, D’Ercole S, et al. Analysis of different genetic traits and their association with biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from central venous catheter infections. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006;25:773–81.
Cafiso V, Bertuccio T, Santagati M, et al. Presence of the ica operon in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis and its role in biofilm production. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004;10:1081–8.
Ninin E, Caroff N, Espaze E, et al. Assessment of ica operon carriage and biofilm production in Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates causing bacteraemia in bone marrow transplant recipients. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006;12:446–52.
de Silva GD, Kantzanou M, Justice A, et al. The ica operon and biofilm production in coagulase-negative staphylococci associated with carriage and disease in a neonatal intensive care unit. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:382–8.
Klingenberg C, Aarag E, Ronnestad A, et al. Coagulase-negative staphylococcal sepsis in neonates. Association between antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation and the host inflammatory response. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:817–22.
Bradford R, Abdul MR, Daley AJ, et al. Coagulase-negative staphylococci in very-low-birth-weight infants: inability of genetic markers to distinguish invasive strains from blood culture contaminants. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006;25:283–90.
Pien BC, Sundaram P, Raoof N, et al. The clinical and prognostic importance of positive blood cultures in adults. Am J Med. 2010;123:819–28.
Galdbart JO, Allignet J, Tung HS, et al. Screening for Staphylococcus epidermidis markers discriminating between skin-flora strains and those responsible for infections of joint prostheses. J Infect Dis. 2000;182:351–5.
Arciola CR, Campoccia D, Gamberini S, et al. Search for the insertion element IS256 within the ica locus of Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical isolates collected from biomaterial-associated infections. Biomaterials. 2004;25:4117–25.
Koskela A, Nilsdotter-Augustinsson A, Persson L, et al. Prevalence of the ica operon and insertion sequence IS256 among Staphylococcus epidermidis prosthetic joint infection isolates. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:655–60.
Klug D, Wallet F, Kacet S, et al. Involvement of adherence and adhesion Staphylococcus epidermidis genes in pacemaker lead-associated infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2003; 41:3348–50.
Boelens JJ, Zaat SA, Meeldijk J, et al. Subcutaneous abscess formation around catheters induced by viable and nonviable Staphylococcus epidermidis as well as by small amounts of bacterial cell wall components. J Biomed Mater Res. 2000;50:546–56.
Broekhuizen CA, de Boer L, Schipper K, et al. Peri-implant tissue is an important niche for Staphylococcus epidermidis in experimental biomaterial-associated infection in mice. Infect Immun. 2007;75:1129–36.
Broekhuizen CA, Sta M, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CM, et al. Microscopic detection of viable Staphylococcus epidermidis in peri-implant tissue in experimental biomaterial-associated infection, identified by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Infect Immun. 2010;78:954–62.
- Staphylococcus epidermidis in Biomaterial-Associated Infections
M.D., F.R.C. Path. Dietrich Mack
Angharad P. Davies
Llinos G. Harris
Johannes K.-M. Knobloch
Thomas S. Wilkinson
- Springer New York
- Chapter 2
Neuer Inhalt/© ITandMEDIA, Best Practices für die Mitarbeiter-Partizipation in der Produktentwicklung/© astrosystem | stock.adobe.com