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State of the Art in Computer Graphics Aspects of Visualization This is the fourth volume derived from a State of . . . the Art in Computer Graphics Summer Institute. It represents a snapshot of a number of topics in computer graphics, topics which include visualization of scientific data; modeling; some aspects of visualization in virtual reality; and hardware architectures for visu­ alization. Many papers first present a background introduction to the topic, followed by discussion of current work in the topic. The volume is thus equally suitable for nonspecialists in a particular area, and for the more experienced researcher in the field. It also enables general readers to obtain an acquaintance with a particular topic area sufficient to apply that knowledge in the context of solving current problems. The volume is organized into four chapters - Visualization of Data, Modeling, Virtual Reality Techniques, and Hardware Architectures for Visualization. In the first chapter, Val Watson and Pamela Walatka address the visual aspects of fluid dynamic computations. They discuss algorithms for function-mapped surfaces and cutting planes, isosurfaces, particle traces, and topology extractions. They point out that current visualization systems are limited by low information transfer bandwidth, poor response to viewing and model accuracy modification requests, mismatches between model rendering and human cognitive capabilities, and ineffective interactive tools. However, Watson and Walatka indicate that proposed systems will correct most of these problems.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction

Introduction

State of the Art in Computer Graphics — Aspects of Visualization
Abstract
This is the fourth volume derived from a State of the Art in Computer Graphics Summer Institute. It represents a snapshot of a number of topics in computer graphics, topics which include visualization of scientific data; modeling; some aspects of visualization in virtual reality; and hardware architectures for visualization. Many papers first present a background introduction to the topic, followed by discussion of current work in the topic. The volume is thus equally suitable for nonspecialists in a particular area, and for the more experienced researcher in the field. It also enables general readers to obtain an acquaintance with a particular topic area sufficient to apply that knowledge in the context of solving current problems.
David F. Rogers, Rae A. Earnshaw

Visualization of Data

Frontmatter

Visual Analysis of Fluid Dynamics

Abstract
Many visual analysis systems have been created to enhance understanding of computer simulations of complex phenomena. Several visualization techniques have emerged as favorites for analysis of fluid dynamics: function-mapped surfaces, function-mapped cutting planes, and isosurfaces are widely used for viewing scalar values. The favorites for analysis of vector fields are particle traces and topology extractions. Algorithms used for these techniques are given. The major limitations of current visualization systems are the relatively low bandwidth of information from the workstation to the human, the inability to view or modify the accuracy of the rendering, the inability to match the human cognitive capabilities, and the ineffectiveness of the interactive controls for 3D viewing or manipulating 3D objects. Current research outlined in this paper indicates that these limitations are being overcome. Present trends are for an order of magnitude improvement in visualization capabilities each four years. Those wishing to create visualization software in the future are encouraged to design for the high-performance visualization hardware expected to be the norm in a few years, to make their systems fully 3D and interactive, to use pseudostandards such as Motif and Open GL, and to design scenes to match the human cognitive capabilities. Within a few years, the new visualization systems will make our current visualization systems as obsolete as computer punched cards.
Val Watson, Pamela P. Walatka

Modeling and Visualization of Empirical Data

Abstract
Many engineering and scientific applications in such diverse disciplines as medicine, biomedical research, geophysics, and robotics depend on the modeling and visualization of empirical data. Although the sources of data for each of these applications differ and considerable domain knowledge may be necessary to interpret the data, there is a great deal of commonality in the required modeling and visualization techniques. In this paper, we explore techniques in registration, segmentation, 3D reconstruction, and rendering, which are common to applications that depend on empirical data. The emphasis is on volumetric data sampled on regular grids, with examples from radiology, neuroscience, embryology, geophysics, and computer vision.
Ingrid Carlbom

Comparing Methods of Interpolation for Scattered Volumetric Data

Abstract
This report describes the methodology and some of the results of an empirical study devoted to comparing methods of interpolating scattered volumetric data. The data is represented by (xi, yi, zi,; Fi), i = 1, …, N, where Pi = (xi, yi, zi) represents the independent data variables, and Fi is the dependent data variable. No assumptions about the distribution of independent data sites is made except that the points are distinct. Several methods for constructing a function F such that F(Pi) = Fi, i = 1, …, N, are described and compared. The comparisons are based upon test functions, data sets, and an interactive program for visualizing and comparing the graphs of different models.
Gregory M. Nielson, John Tvedt

Modeling

Frontmatter

Abstraction, Context, and Constraint

Abstract
The design process and the assembly of thousands of components can only be supported by systems that use a variety of presentational abstractions to reduce screen complexity. Reduction of screen complexity is required to allow the designer to focus on important detail, provide uncluttered overviews, reveal relationships, and facilitate interactive manipulation. Providing a wide selection of presentational abstractions to reduce screen complexity introduces a specification, management, and control challenge and often has the side effect of hiding features and context that are necessary in specifying or visualizing interrelationships. We explore strategies for managing abstraction, context, and constraint to minimize ambiguity in interaction and presentation.
Roy Hall, Mimi Bussan

Topological Modeling of Phenomena for a Visual Computer

Abstract
Visualization models are diverse because their application areas are wide and varied. Examples of attempts to integrate the models occur in the areas of fractals and finite elements. However, little has been done to integrate visualization models based on more general and abstract characteristics derived from differential or topological considerations. Higher-order abstraction modeling allows us to link computer vision with computer graphics in a visual computer. In scientific, industrial, and medical applications, it is increasingly important to be able to compare the model with the observed images. Visualizing complexity requires higher-order abstraction modeling.
Tosiyasu L. Kunii

Volume Rendering Strange Attractors

Abstract
We consider approximation and rendering techniques for strange attractors that arise in the study of chaotic dynamical systems. We propose that the ideal represention of a strange attractor is a volume rendering of its invariant probability measure, and provide efficient data structures and convergence criteria for the task.
Dietmar Saupe, Wayne Tvedt

Virtual Reality Techniques

Frontmatter

Stereo Computer Graphics

Abstract
Stereo computer graphics is rapidly becoming an important part of computer aided geometric design, visualization, virtual reality systems, and many other applications of computer graphics. The improvements in speed, resolution, and economy in graphics workstations, as well as the development of liquid crystal polarizing shutters and parallax barrier methods, help make interactive stereo an important and useful capability. We discuss perception and implementation issues as well as some recent research in algorithm and graphics user interface design for stereo applications in a workstation environment.
David F. McAllister

Synthetic Experience

Abstract
A taxonomy is proposed to classify all varieties of technologically-mediated experience. This includes virtual reality and teleoperation, and also earlier devices such as the microscope and telephone. The model of mediated interaction assumes a sensor-display link from the world to the human, and an action-actuator link going back from the human to the world, with the mediating technology transforming the transmitted experience in some way. The taxonomy is used to classify a number of example systems.
Warren Robinett

Hardware Architectures for Visualization

Frontmatter

Architectures for 3D Graphics Display Hardware

Abstract
The interactivity required for effective visualization places high demands on graphics hardware. The traditional graphics pipeline has been stretched to extremes in order to meet this demand, but it is due for a restructuring. This overview examines the growing capability of graphics hardware, with special attention paid to rapid display of complex scenes, to addition of features that improve image quality, and to the flexibility needed to serve a wide range of graphics applications.
Turner Whitted

Backmatter

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