Statistical quality control and reliability (RAMS) tests are performed to estimate or demonstrate quality and reliability characteristics on the basis of data collected from sampling tests. Estimation leads to point or interval estimate, marked with ^ in this book; demonstration is a test of a given hypothesis on an unknown characteristic. Estimation and demonstration of an unknown probability is given in Section 7.1 for a defective probability p and in Section 7.2.1 for some reliability figures. Procedures for steady-state availability estimation and demonstration are in Section 7.2.2. Estimation and demonstration of a constant failure rate λ (or MTBF for MTBF = 1/λ) are discussed in depth in Sections 7.2.3. The case of an MTTR is considered in Section 7.3. Basic models for accelerated tests are introduced in Section 7.4, with regard also to multiple failure mechanisms. Goodness-of-fit tests based on graphical and analytical procedures are summarized in Section 7.5. General reliability data analysis, including test on nonhomogeneous Poisson processes and trend tests, are discussed in Section 7.6; models for reliability growth in Section 7.7. A careful introduction to the mathematical foundations for this chapter is in Appendix A8. Selected examples illustrate the practical aspects, andto simplify the notation, sample is used for random sample (taken from a very large, homogeneous lot), mean for expected value and independent for mutually, statistically, stochastically independent; furthermore, indices S i (p. 3) are omitted in this chapter ( S0 is assumed for R, R(t), PA, λ, MTBF), and estimated (or empirical) values are marked with ˆ .
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