Skip to main content

2021 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

12. Staving off the Protectionist Slide: Snowden and the Struggle to Keep Britain Open

Aktivieren Sie unsere intelligente Suche, um passende Fachinhalte oder Patente zu finden.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

Traditionally, the interwar collapse of European and international integration is thought to have been overdetermined in its causes and redundant in its scope. International decline, combined with protectionist interests and ideology at home, made Britain abandon its signature free trade policy and embrace an Imperial Preference system in 1932. However, this narrative veils the intense debate during 1929–1931 over whether the Labour Government’s internationalist trade policies should be sacrificed for the sake of the economically consolidating the British Empire. When leading intellectuals and policymakers found themselves compelled to embrace tariffs and preferences in the hope of addressing the economic slump, Britain’s Chancellor of the Exchequer Philip Snowden launched a powerful defence of free trade, effectively staving off Britain’s introduction of protectionism in 1930.

Sie haben noch keine Lizenz? Dann Informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 340 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Versicherung + Risiko




Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Fußnoten
1
The McKenna import duties (on cars, cycles, musical instruments, clocks and cinema films) were introduced by the Coalition Government in 1915 as a temporary wartime measure during the First World War, but continued after the war’s end. In 1924, they were yielding £3 million a year, under their shelter car-production industry that emerged in the Midlands. See Cross (1966, 204).
 
2
UK Parliamentary Papers, House of Commons Debate (hereafter HC Deb.) 9 July 1929, vol. 229 c747.
 
3
The National Archives of the United Kingdom (TNA), Records of the Cabinet Office (hereafter CAB), Cabinet Meeting Minutes. CAB 23/64/10, 24 June 1930, 201.
 
4
Capoccia and Kelemen (2007, 341) emphasize the enduring impact of choices made by actors during critical junctures in history which close off alternative options.
 
5
TNA, Records of the Public Record Office (hereafter PRO), James Ramsey MacDonald Papers. PRO 30/69/1753, MacDonald Diaries, 18 August 1931.
 
6
UK Parliamentary Papers, House of Lords Debate (hereafter HL Deb.) 17 September 1931 Vol. 82 cc64–94.
 
7
See TNA, Cabinet Minutes. CAB 23/68/21, 1 October 1931, 326–27; CAB 23/68/22, 2 October 1931, 334–37; CAB 23/68/23, 5 October 1931, 341–43.
 
8
MacDonald wrote to Baldwin, “As to ourselves – Snowden, as you know, is going out. He had warned me of that three or four months ago, and before we thought of anything like this happening I had been discussing with him whether or not he would like to go to the House of Lords”. PRO 30/69/1314, Ramsey MacDonald to Stanley Baldwin, 5 September 1931.
 
9
Snowden (1934, 999): “I had suggested Mr. Runciman for this position because of his pronounced of Free Trade. He had been regarded as one of the strongest free traders in the country, holding his views with unshakeable tenacity. How tragically mistaken I was later events proved”!
 
10
MacDonald noted, “Snowden looked unusually unkempt & unshaven as though growing moustache or beard, cold, repelling, vindictive. I am disheartened”. PRO 30/69/1753, MacDonald Diaries, 28 September 1932.
 
Literatur
Zurück zum Zitat Boyce, Robert W. D. 1987. British Capitalism at the Crossroads 1919–1932: A Study in Politics, Economics, and International Relations. New York: Cambridge University Press. Boyce, Robert W. D. 1987. British Capitalism at the Crossroads 1919–1932: A Study in Politics, Economics, and International Relations. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Cain, Peter. J., and Antony G. Hopkins. 2001. British Imperialism, 1688–2000. 2nd ed. New York: Longman. Cain, Peter. J., and Antony G. Hopkins. 2001. British Imperialism, 1688–2000. 2nd ed. New York: Longman.
Zurück zum Zitat Capie, Forrest. 1980. “The Pressure for Tariff Protection in Britain, 1917–31.” Journal of European Economic History 9 (2): 431–47. Capie, Forrest. 1980. “The Pressure for Tariff Protection in Britain, 1917–31.” Journal of European Economic History 9 (2): 431–47.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1983. Depression and Protectionism: Britain Between the Wars. Boston: Allen & Unwin. ———. 1983. Depression and Protectionism: Britain Between the Wars. Boston: Allen & Unwin.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1998. “The Sources and Origins of Britain’s Return to Protection, 1931–2.” In Free Trade and Its Reception 1815–1960. Freedom and Trade: Volume I, edited by Andrew Marrison, 246–77. London: Routledge. ———. 1998. “The Sources and Origins of Britain’s Return to Protection, 1931–2.” In Free Trade and Its Reception 1815–1960. Freedom and Trade: Volume I, edited by Andrew Marrison, 246–77. London: Routledge.
Zurück zum Zitat Capoccia, Giovanni, and R. Daniel Kelemen. 2007. “The Study of Critical Junctures: Theory, Narrative, and Counterfactuals in Historical Institutionalism.” World Politics 59 (3): 341–69.CrossRef Capoccia, Giovanni, and R. Daniel Kelemen. 2007. “The Study of Critical Junctures: Theory, Narrative, and Counterfactuals in Historical Institutionalism.” World Politics 59 (3): 341–69.CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Churchill, Winston S. n.d. “Literary: ‘Short Biographies’: Proofs 2.” In Winston S. Churchill Papers, CHAR 8/591. Churchill Archives Centre, Cambridge, UK. Churchill, Winston S. n.d. “Literary: ‘Short Biographies’: Proofs 2.” In Winston S. Churchill Papers, CHAR 8/591. Churchill Archives Centre, Cambridge, UK.
Zurück zum Zitat Craig, F. W. S., ed. 1970. British General Election Manifestos 1918–1966. Chichester, UK: Political Reference Publications. Craig, F. W. S., ed. 1970. British General Election Manifestos 1918–1966. Chichester, UK: Political Reference Publications.
Zurück zum Zitat Cross, Colin. 1966. Philip Snowden. London: Barrie and Rockliff. Cross, Colin. 1966. Philip Snowden. London: Barrie and Rockliff.
Zurück zum Zitat The Daily Telegraph. 1930. “Bankers and Fiscal Policy: A Recognition of Changed World Condition.” July 5. Bank of England ADM10/44, Bank of England Archives. The Daily Telegraph. 1930. “Bankers and Fiscal Policy: A Recognition of Changed World Condition.” July 5. Bank of England ADM10/44, Bank of England Archives.
Zurück zum Zitat Drummond, Ian M. 1972. British Economic Policy and the Empire 1919–1939. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd. Drummond, Ian M. 1972. British Economic Policy and the Empire 1919–1939. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1974. Imperial Economic Policy 1917–1939: Studies in Expansion and Protection. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.CrossRef ———. 1974. Imperial Economic Policy 1917–1939: Studies in Expansion and Protection. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat E.A.C. [1930] 1977. “The Economists’ Report. Report Committee of Economists. P.R.O., Cab. 58/151, E.A.C. (H.)127, 24 October 1930.” In The Economic Advisory Council, edited by Susan Howson and Donald Winch, 180–243. New York: Cambridge University Press. E.A.C. [1930] 1977. “The Economists’ Report. Report Committee of Economists. P.R.O., Cab. 58/151, E.A.C. (H.)127, 24 October 1930.” In The Economic Advisory Council, edited by Susan Howson and Donald Winch, 180–243. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat The Economist. 1930. “The Imperial Conference.” The Economist. November 22. Historical Archive. The Economist. 1930. “The Imperial Conference.” The Economist. November 22. Historical Archive.
Zurück zum Zitat Eichengreen, Barry. 1981. Sterling and the Tariff, 1929–32, Princeton Studies in International Finance. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Studies in International Finance, Department of Economics, Princeton University. Eichengreen, Barry. 1981. Sterling and the Tariff, 1929–32, Princeton Studies in International Finance. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Studies in International Finance, Department of Economics, Princeton University.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1984. “Keynes and Protection.” The Journal of Economic History 44 (2): 363–73.CrossRef ———. 1984. “Keynes and Protection.” The Journal of Economic History 44 (2): 363–73.CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1992a. Golden Fetters: The Gold Standard and the Great Depression, 1919–1939. New York: Oxford University Press. ———. 1992a. Golden Fetters: The Gold Standard and the Great Depression, 1919–1939. New York: Oxford University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1992b. “The Eternal Fiscal Question: Free Trade and Protection in Britain, 1860–1929.” In Protectionism in the World Economy, edited by Forrest Capie, 162–90. Aldershot: E. Elgar. ———. 1992b. “The Eternal Fiscal Question: Free Trade and Protection in Britain, 1860–1929.” In Protectionism in the World Economy, edited by Forrest Capie, 162–90. Aldershot: E. Elgar.
Zurück zum Zitat Eichengreen, Barry, and Douglas A. Irwin. 1993. “Trade Blocs, Currency Blocs and the Reorientation of World Trade in the 1930s.” NBER Working Paper Series, No. 4445. Cambridge, MA. Eichengreen, Barry, and Douglas A. Irwin. 1993. “Trade Blocs, Currency Blocs and the Reorientation of World Trade in the 1930s.” NBER Working Paper Series, No. 4445. Cambridge, MA.
Zurück zum Zitat Fearon, James D. 1991. “Counterfactuals and Hypothesis Testing in Political Science.” World Politics 43 (2): 169–95.CrossRef Fearon, James D. 1991. “Counterfactuals and Hypothesis Testing in Political Science.” World Politics 43 (2): 169–95.CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Gilpin, Robert. 1975. U.S. Power and the Multinational Corporation: The Political Economy of Foreign Direct Investment. New York: Basic Books. Gilpin, Robert. 1975. U.S. Power and the Multinational Corporation: The Political Economy of Foreign Direct Investment. New York: Basic Books.
Zurück zum Zitat Gourevitch, Peter A. 1986. Politics in Hard Times: Comparative Responses to International Economic Crises. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Gourevitch, Peter A. 1986. Politics in Hard Times: Comparative Responses to International Economic Crises. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Hirst, Francis W. 1925. From Adam Smith to Philip Snowden: A History of Free Trade. London: T. Fisher Unwin Ltd. Hirst, Francis W. 1925. From Adam Smith to Philip Snowden: A History of Free Trade. London: T. Fisher Unwin Ltd.
Zurück zum Zitat Howson, Susan, and Donald Winch. 1977. The Economic Advisory Council 1930–1939. A Study in Economic Advice during Depression and Recovery. New York: Cambridge University Press. Howson, Susan, and Donald Winch. 1977. The Economic Advisory Council 1930–1939. A Study in Economic Advice during Depression and Recovery. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Imperial Conference, 1930: Summary of Proceedings. 1930. London: His Majesty’s Stationary Office. Imperial Conference, 1930: Summary of Proceedings. 1930. London: His Majesty’s Stationary Office.
Zurück zum Zitat Irwin, Douglas A. 1989. “Political Economy and Peel’s Repeal of the Corn Laws.” Economics and Politics I (1): 41–59.CrossRef Irwin, Douglas A. 1989. “Political Economy and Peel’s Repeal of the Corn Laws.” Economics and Politics I (1): 41–59.CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 2005. Keynes and the Macroeconomics of Protection. In Against the Tide: An Intellectual History of Free Trade, 189–205. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ———. 2005. Keynes and the Macroeconomics of Protection. In Against the Tide: An Intellectual History of Free Trade, 189–205. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 2011. Peddling Protectionism: Smoot-Hawley and the Great Depression. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ———. 2011. Peddling Protectionism: Smoot-Hawley and the Great Depression. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 2012. Trade Policy Disaster: Lessons from the 1930s. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ———. 2012. Trade Policy Disaster: Lessons from the 1930s. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Jones Jr., Joseph M. 1934. Tariff Retaliation: Repercussions of the Hawley-Smoot Bill. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Jones Jr., Joseph M. 1934. Tariff Retaliation: Repercussions of the Hawley-Smoot Bill. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Jovitt, Tony. 1987. “Philip Snowden and the First World War.” In Philip Snowden: The First Labour Chancellor of the Exchequer, edited by Keith Laybourn and David James, 39–57. Bradford: Bradford Libraries and Information Service. Jovitt, Tony. 1987. “Philip Snowden and the First World War.” In Philip Snowden: The First Labour Chancellor of the Exchequer, edited by Keith Laybourn and David James, 39–57. Bradford: Bradford Libraries and Information Service.
Zurück zum Zitat Keohane, Robert O. 1984. After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Keohane, Robert O. 1984. After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Keynes, John Maynard. 1931a. “Economic Notes on Free Trade. I—‘The Export Industries’.” The New Statesman and Nation, March 28, 175–76. London School of Economics (LSE) Library: Main Collection Journals. Keynes, John Maynard. 1931a. “Economic Notes on Free Trade. I—‘The Export Industries’.” The New Statesman and Nation, March 28, 175–76. London School of Economics (LSE) Library: Main Collection Journals.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1931b. “Economic Notes on Free Trade. II—‘A Revenue Tariff and the Cost of Living’.” The New Statesman and Nation, April 4, 211. ———. 1931b. “Economic Notes on Free Trade. II—‘A Revenue Tariff and the Cost of Living’.” The New Statesman and Nation, April 4, 211.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1931c. “Economic Notes on Free Trade. III—‘The Reaction of Imports and Export’.” The New Statesman and Nation, April 11, 242–43. ———. 1931c. “Economic Notes on Free Trade. III—‘The Reaction of Imports and Export’.” The New Statesman and Nation, April 11, 242–43.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1931d. “Proposal for a Revenue Tariff. By J. M. Keynes.” The New Statesman and Nation, March 7, 53–54. ———. 1931d. “Proposal for a Revenue Tariff. By J. M. Keynes.” The New Statesman and Nation, March 7, 53–54.
Zurück zum Zitat Keynes, John Maynard, and G. D. H. Cole. [1930] 1977. “The Economic Outlook. Report by Chairman (Mr. J. M. Keynes) and Mr. G. D. H. Cole. E. A. C. (H.) 85, 2 May 1930.” In The Economic Advisory Council, edited by Susan Howson and Donald Winch, 174–77. New York: Cambridge University Press. Keynes, John Maynard, and G. D. H. Cole. [1930] 1977. “The Economic Outlook. Report by Chairman (Mr. J. M. Keynes) and Mr. G. D. H. Cole. E. A. C. (H.) 85, 2 May 1930.” In The Economic Advisory Council, edited by Susan Howson and Donald Winch, 174–77. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Kindleberger, Charles P. 1986. The World in Depression, 1929–1939. Berkeley: University of California Press. Kindleberger, Charles P. 1986. The World in Depression, 1929–1939. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Krasner, Stephen D. 1976. “State Power and the Structure of International Trade.” World Politics 28 (3): 317–47.CrossRef Krasner, Stephen D. 1976. “State Power and the Structure of International Trade.” World Politics 28 (3): 317–47.CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1978. Defending the National Interest: Raw Materials Investments and US Foreign Policy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ———. 1978. Defending the National Interest: Raw Materials Investments and US Foreign Policy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Laybourn, Keith. 1987. “Philip Snowden: The Road from Leeds to the Lords.” In Philip Snowden: The First Labour Chancellor of the Exchequer, edited by Keith Laybourn and David James, 59–80. Bradford Libraries and Information Service. Laybourn, Keith. 1987. “Philip Snowden: The Road from Leeds to the Lords.” In Philip Snowden: The First Labour Chancellor of the Exchequer, edited by Keith Laybourn and David James, 59–80. Bradford Libraries and Information Service.
Zurück zum Zitat The Manchester Guardian. 1931. “Tariff Truce Shelved: Time Not Ripe for Application Geneva Decision a Moral Obligation on Governments.” June 20. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. The Manchester Guardian. 1931. “Tariff Truce Shelved: Time Not Ripe for Application Geneva Decision a Moral Obligation on Governments.” June 20. ProQuest Historical Newspapers.
Zurück zum Zitat Marrison, Andrew. 1996. British Business and Protection, 1903–1932. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Marrison, Andrew. 1996. British Business and Protection, 1903–1932. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Morning Post. 1930. “The Bankers’ Blow to Free Trade: An Epoch-making Event in National Life. Political Situation: Strong Industrial Support for the Manifesto.” July 5. Bank of England ADM10/44, Bank of England Archives. Morning Post. 1930. “The Bankers’ Blow to Free Trade: An Epoch-making Event in National Life. Political Situation: Strong Industrial Support for the Manifesto.” July 5. Bank of England ADM10/44, Bank of England Archives.
Zurück zum Zitat The New York Times. 1931. “Empire Conference for 1931 Postponed: Parley Is Deferred Because of Elections in Australia and New Zealand. Britain Opposed Agenda Greater Tariff Preferences Seen as Impossible as Long as Snowden Is in Office.” June 7. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. The New York Times. 1931. “Empire Conference for 1931 Postponed: Parley Is Deferred Because of Elections in Australia and New Zealand. Britain Opposed Agenda Greater Tariff Preferences Seen as Impossible as Long as Snowden Is in Office.” June 7. ProQuest Historical Newspapers.
Zurück zum Zitat Robbins, Lionel. 1931. “A Reply to Mr. Keynes by Lionel Robbins.” The New Statesman and Nation, March 14, 98–99. London School of Economics (LSE) Library: Main Collection Journals. Robbins, Lionel. 1931. “A Reply to Mr. Keynes by Lionel Robbins.” The New Statesman and Nation, March 14, 98–99. London School of Economics (LSE) Library: Main Collection Journals.
Zurück zum Zitat Rooth, Tim. 1992. British Protectionism and the International Economy: Overseas Commercial Policy in the 1930s. New York: Cambridge University Press. Rooth, Tim. 1992. British Protectionism and the International Economy: Overseas Commercial Policy in the 1930s. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Self, Robert C. 1986. Tories and Tariffs: The Conservative Party and the Politics of Tariff Reform, 1922–1932. New York: Garland Publishing. Self, Robert C. 1986. Tories and Tariffs: The Conservative Party and the Politics of Tariff Reform, 1922–1932. New York: Garland Publishing.
Zurück zum Zitat Simmons, Beth A. 1994. Who Adjusts? Domestic Sources of Foreign Economic Policy During the Interwar Years. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRef Simmons, Beth A. 1994. Who Adjusts? Domestic Sources of Foreign Economic Policy During the Interwar Years. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Snowden, Philip. 1930. The Menace of Protection: Speech Delivered at Free Trade Hall, Manchester, October 20, 1930. London: The Labour Party. Snowden, Philip. 1930. The Menace of Protection: Speech Delivered at Free Trade Hall, Manchester, October 20, 1930. London: The Labour Party.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1934. An Autobiography: Volume Two 1919–1934. London: Ivor Nicholson and Watson Limited. ———. 1934. An Autobiography: Volume Two 1919–1934. London: Ivor Nicholson and Watson Limited.
Zurück zum Zitat Streit, Clarence K. 1930. “Britain May Abandon Tariff Truce Pact, Geneva Is Warned.” The New York Times, September 14. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Streit, Clarence K. 1930. “Britain May Abandon Tariff Truce Pact, Geneva Is Warned.” The New York Times, September 14. ProQuest Historical Newspapers.
Zurück zum Zitat The Times (London). 1930. “Empire Trade. The Bankers’ Statement. Effect on Party Policy.” The Times, July 5. Digital Archive. The Times (London). 1930. “Empire Trade. The Bankers’ Statement. Effect on Party Policy.” The Times, July 5. Digital Archive.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1930. “Work for the Conference.” The Times, July 14. Digital Archive. ———. 1930. “Work for the Conference.” The Times, July 14. Digital Archive.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1930. “Dominions and Preference. Lords Vote Against Government.” The Times, December 3. Digital Archive. ———. 1930. “Dominions and Preference. Lords Vote Against Government.” The Times, December 3. Digital Archive.
Zurück zum Zitat The Times of India. 1930. “Commonwealth Trade: Empire Unity T.U.C. Committee’s Suggestions.” June 28. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. The Times of India. 1930. “Commonwealth Trade: Empire Unity T.U.C. Committee’s Suggestions.” June 28. ProQuest Historical Newspapers.
Zurück zum Zitat Trentmann, Frank. 2007. Free Trade Nation: Commerce, Consumption, and Civil Society in Modern Britain. New York: Oxford University Press. Trentmann, Frank. 2007. Free Trade Nation: Commerce, Consumption, and Civil Society in Modern Britain. New York: Oxford University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Williamson, Philip. 1992. National Crisis and National Government: British Politics, the Economy and Empire, 1926–1932. New York: Cambridge University Press. Williamson, Philip. 1992. National Crisis and National Government: British Politics, the Economy and Empire, 1926–1932. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Wrench, David J. 1984. “‘Cashing in’: The Parties and the National Government, August 1931-September 1932.” Journal of British Studies 23 (2): 135–53.CrossRef Wrench, David J. 1984. “‘Cashing in’: The Parties and the National Government, August 1931-September 1932.” Journal of British Studies 23 (2): 135–53.CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Young, Ralph A. 1928. “Great Britain’s Recent Trend toward Protection.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 135: 189–250.CrossRef Young, Ralph A. 1928. “Great Britain’s Recent Trend toward Protection.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 135: 189–250.CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat The National Archives of the United Kingdom (TNA), Kew, United Kingdom. The National Archives of the United Kingdom (TNA), Kew, United Kingdom.
Zurück zum Zitat CAB 23, War Cabinet and Cabinet: Minutes. CAB 23, War Cabinet and Cabinet: Minutes.
Zurück zum Zitat CAB 24, War Cabinet and Cabinet: Memoranda (GT, CP and G War Series). CAB 24, War Cabinet and Cabinet: Memoranda (GT, CP and G War Series).
Zurück zum Zitat PRO 30/69, James Ramsey MacDonald Papers. PRO 30/69, James Ramsey MacDonald Papers.
Zurück zum Zitat House of Commons Debates, 5th series. House of Commons Debates, 5th series.
Metadaten
Titel
Staving off the Protectionist Slide: Snowden and the Struggle to Keep Britain Open
verfasst von
Oksana Levkovych
Copyright-Jahr
2021
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-47102-6_12