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2019 | Buch

Stereotype in Marketing und Werbung

Interdisziplinäre Perspektiven auf kulturspezifische Wissensrepräsentationen


Über dieses Buch

Der Band vereinigt Beiträge verschiedenster Disziplinen zu Stereotypen in Werbung und Marketing. Schwerpunkte liegen auf Risiken und Potenzialen von Stereotypen in der Markt- und Personalkommunikation, auf ihrer Bedeutung im Nation/Place Branding sowie auf sozialen Stereotypisierungen in unterschiedlichen Kontexten (u.a. in Markenkommunikation, B2B, HRM). Der Begriff des Stereotyps hat sich – so das Ergebnis – fachübergreifend in Sprach-, Kommunikations-, Medien-, Werbe- und Wirtschaftswissenschaft als ein Konzept bewährt, das Einsichten über kultur-, zeit- und branchenspezifische Orientierungs- und Identifikationsangebote in der Unternehmenskommunikation verspricht.


Werbung ist ein nicht zu vernachlässigender Teil gesellschaftlicher Kommunikation. Da Werbung unter anderem die Aufgabe hat, Lebensstile zu propagieren, die die jeweils eigenen Produkte und Dienstleistungen als wünschenswert oder gar notwendig erscheinen lassen, bietet sie der Gesellschaft über ihr Kommunikationsangebot zwangsläufig mentale und kognitive Orientierungsmuster (Grimm/Rota 2012: bes. 918). Sozialwissenschaftlicher Konsens ist.
Nina Janich

Stereotype und Werbung –grundsätzliche Überlegungen

Werbung nach der Werbung
For more than 30 years, the advertising industry has perennially complained about the severe structural crisis that it has suffered from. By the end of the 1980’s, from the industry’s perspective it seemed that “the party’s over”. Already in the mid-1990s, advertising was regarded as dead. Yet, in spite of all the complaints articulated by business representatives, the 1990s were an important starting point for the advertising business rather than its termination: A quest for the reinvention of advertising began, a quest for new styles of expression, new channels of dissemination, new strategies, and new alliances in the advertising business. Ironically, yet consequently, the advertising industry put its entire focus on those technologies that had initially seemed to threaten the advertising business and its economic subsistence: digital media.
Guido Zurstiege
Stereotypenverwendung in der Werbung und das Konzept der multiple identities – ein Widerspruch?
Stereotypes, not least national stereotypes, remain as popular as ever in advertising. But are such fossilized (thought) patterns really still to be utilized in a convincing manner? Are their usage, in our world marked by a transformational dynamic of great speed and the necessity to act in a quick and flexible manner, not actually completely absurd? How may one, indeed, square the homogeneity, generalizing and complexity-reduction of stereotypes in advertising with the increasingly complex and differentiated worldview and the multiple identities of the consumers of these advertisements? This essay asks these questions and attempts to formulate answers, drawn from contemporary social scientific and cultural studies perspectives.
Jürgen Bolten

Nationale Stereotype und Stereotypisierungen im Place Branding

Diskursinnovationen im Luxemburger Nation Branding? Eine kritische Bestandsaufnahme
“Who are we? Where do we want to position ourselves?” Answers to questions such as these are currently being sought in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg through a Nation Branding process initiated by the government. Ever since the 2014 ‘Luxleaks’ Affair it was clear that the image of the country is vulnerable and sometimes negatively influenced by perceptions of the financial sector. To correct this, innovative ways that break away from current stereotypes should be developed in order to create a new and positive image of the country. This article reviews these efforts and analyses the Nation Branding debate that is taking place in the media. Are the foundations for a different perception of Luxembourg already being created?
Sebastian Reddeker
Heterostereotype des Deutschen in der dänischen Werbung und in Namen dänischer Unternehmen
After having been rather negative for a long period of time, Danish stereotypes of Germany seem to be somewhat more positive recently. In Danish advertising, national hetero-stereotypes of Germany, German and the Germans are used in different genres every now and then. In one particular linguistic manifestation, however, the new positive picture of Germany in Denmark seems to stand out, namely in names of companies, enterprises, associations, etc. Therefore, this article sets out to investigate the extent and the quality of German language in Danish companies’ names. Two Danish databases of Danish companies were systematically searched for company names containing specific German elements. The results show that there are indeed a number of company names which contain a variety of elements referring to Germany, the German language and to stereotypes about Germans. The findings are interpreted on the background of the improved image of Germany in Denmark, while they also reveal something about Denmark and the Danes. More research is needed, though, in order to support the explanations suggested in this study.
Martin Nielsen
Zur Langlebigkeit von Stereotypen im Tourismusdiskurs. Hotelwerbung am Gardasee in der Belle Époque und im Zeitalter des digitalen Marketing
The paper presents the results of a pragma-linguistic study comparing the advertising practices of Grand Hotels on the shores of Lake Garda (during the Belle Èpoque and in the present day) addressing a German-speaking target audience. The analysis focuses in particular on the role of cultural stereotypes in tourism discourse moving from the unidirectional communication modes of printed advertisements of the early 20th century to the interactive, consumer-generated modes of today’s electronic word-of-mouth-communication.
Alessandra Lombardi
sonnenklar.TV – Multimodale Stereotype und Wissensrepräsentationen im Reiseteleshopping
In 2000, the tourism industry in Germany introduced teleshopping as a way of advertising and selling travels. This paper analyses a number of offers for various destinations presented by sonnenklar.TV, the only teleshopping channel that is still on the market in Germany. This analysis will demonstrate what kinds of (national) stereotypes are used in which modes (images, language, music). Moreover, it will show if the usage of stereotypes depends on the type of offer (Offer of the Week vs. Travel of the Day).
Sabine Wahl

Stereotypisierung gesellschaftlicher Gruppen

Genderdarstellungen in Schweizer Publikumszeitschriften. Zu Einsatz und Akzeptanz von Stereotypen jenseits von Sprach- und Kulturgrenzen
Different cultures construct diverse realities, a fact that manifests itself, for example, in advertising. Translating texts therefore should not be reduced to translating mere words but to translating meaning in a way that is acceptable to the targeted culture. By comparing texts and images from the marketing communication of two big companies (weekly newspapers) qualitatively, we revealed differences in culture and cultural acceptance in the German- and Frenchspeaking parts of Switzerland. One such example can be found in stereotyping gender roles.
Sascha Demarmels, Monika Simon
Healthy, wealthy Westerners – Stereotypien des Alterns in Gesellschaft, Werbung und Medien
The aging of society and whole populations imposes one of the greatest cultural challenges in Western culture. Although the ideal of beauty and youth keeps its stronghold in advertising and popular music, the demographic and societal changes are undeniable. History bears no example what it means to exist in a sociocultural environment where the future belongs to the older part of the population and youth is of interest only to a minority.
Dominik Pietzcker

Stereotype in unternehmerischen und kommunikativen Prozessen

(Visuelle) Stereotype in deutschen und französischen Nachhaltigkeitsberichten
In the last years, sustainability or CSR-reports have been the object of considerable research. One explanation for this growing interest is the great challenge for big companies to find a balance between regulation and rhetorical exigence in the dialog with stakeholders. Due to recent scandals like in the Bangladesh Garment industry, German and French Companies of the Stock Market (DAX and CAC-40) tend to legitimate their relation with suppliers in introducing the topic „responsibility in the supply chain“ in their CSR-reports. This decision leads to the question of whether authors of this type of reports face the complexity of the visual and textual representation of the creation of value in the supply chain. The purpose of this article is to bring together findings of different research areas like Organizational Research in order to analyse the use of image in the legitimization work of twenty German and French Companies in their supply chain. Whereas the quantitative presentation of the financial performance and the Corporate Social Responsibility in CRS-reports or integrated reports tend to become more and more similar due to the prescription of Organizations like the GRI, our study could demonstrate that the argumentation in the first part of the reports and particularly in the use of images in their description of the dialogue with stakeholder has more similarity with the strategy of the „storytelling“. That is, most companies self-define the frame of their handling and the elements of their success stories. The question is if this strategy is really adequate in reducing the growing mistrust in our societies.
Magdalène Lévy-Tödter
Business-to-Business-Geschäftsbeziehungen: Das Aufbrechen stereotyper Beziehungsformen durch Social Media
Goods and services traded in the Business-to-Business (B2B) sector can be characterized by high complexity. This complexity can be reduced through comprehensive information and knowledge transfers. The still remaining unaccounted rest can be handled through personal relationships. The notion to handle the personal relationship by social media is obvious but not widely used in the day to day business practice. As part of a research project on B2B and social media 18 qualitative interviews were conducted with Swiss companies in the B2B sector. Although the interviewed companies are aware of the potentials of social media, which they occasionally test in various fields, the sustained use of social media for direct promotions is not common. A stereotyp which is about to change.
Brigitte Gasser, Anja Janoschka

Stereotype in Marketing und Werbung – Bewertungen von Risiken und Potenzialen

„Die wollen eh nur verkaufen!“. Warum Stereotype stärker wirken als Imagekampagnen
The semantic phenomenon of each industry’s language stereotype is not yet well known. But a growing number of companies recognizes this threat: The social experience and social negotiation lead to knowledge structures built of stereotypical patterns. Those stereotypical patterns make it nowadays hard for companies in certain industry sectors to overcome their negative reputation, e.g. in the financial sector, the insurance sector and the energy sector. Traditional image campaigns are insufficient so break down sector-specific social knowledge and conventions.
In this article the semantic phenomenon of sector-specific stereotypes is explained. It shows how modern aspects and methods of Applied Linguistics and Semantics provide effective impact on such problems.
Inga Ellen Kastens
Steuerung der Wahrnehmung von Dienstleistungsqualität durch den Einsatz typischer Qualitätsinformationen
Service outcomes are basically intangible. Therefore it is difficult for consumers to evaluate the service quality prior to their consumption. For this reason potential customers usually rate the service environment as well as tangible service attributes to make a quality evaluation within the buying process. The service provider can use tangible service elements to send dedicated quality information to reach dedicated marketing objectives – e.g. catch the attention of new customers or create a specific image in the market.
This article discusses the perception of such quality information within the scope of service consumption based on the concepts of cognitive patterns and stereotypes. The effects of typical and untypical service attributes on consumers are discussed. Above that the article shows levers for service companies to apply tangible elements in the service environment that are either perceived typical or untypical to achieve positive and desired behaviors by consumers.
Dirk Steffen
Stereotype und negative Emotionen in Marketing und Kommunikation
Recent examples, such as the consumer protests in China in 2014, show the role of negative consumer emotions and their consequences for companies. Here stereotypes also play a role. In marketing communication practice stereotypes are applied to improve potential customers’ identification with the product, brand, or company. It is commonly assumed that stereotypes positively affect customers’ product perception and corporate perception. However, sociologists also demonstrated negative effects of stereotypes. Accordingly, stereotypes can also trigger negative emotions, thus an analysis from a marketing perspective is required. The objective of this paper is to examine the effect of stereotypes in corporate communications on customers’ negative emotions and resulting consequences for the customer-supplier relationship. The analysis is based on findings from stereotype research in psychology, sociology, and emotion theory.
Marie-Christin Papen
Customer Education. Eine interdisziplinäre Diskussion zu Risiken und Potenzialen von Stereotypen
Against the background of in marketing recently established so-called “Relationship Marketing”, which examines the design of relationships of companies to their stakeholders, it is increasingly discussed to transfer theories from sociology and psychology to marketing. One specific area is the issue of “customer education”. This is the starting-point of the present contribution: Beginning with a state of the art for this research field, the opportunities and risks of such approaches will be discussed stereotype-based from an interdisciplinary perspective and solutions will be offered.
Jana Stolz-Römmermann, Florian U. Siems, Thomas Niemand
Stereotype in Relationship Marketing und Human Resource Management. Impulse für eine interdisziplinäre Betrachtung
Research fields are often considered individually in business science depending on their function within the company. As a consequence, sub-disciplines, such as marketing and human resource management, have continuously evolved separately and spawned a valuable specialization. Meanwhile relationship marketing provides an advancement of knowledge, which could be useful for human resource management and vice versa. The present paper deals with the question whether and how the reintegration of relationship marketing and human resource management is beneficial. Using the example of research on stereotypes, the two sub-disciplines are merged and their potential for cross-fertilisation is shown.
Josephine Dölz
Stereotype in Marketing und Werbung
herausgegeben von
Prof. Dr. Nina Janich
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