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The innovation economy sets new standards for global business and requires efficient innovation management to plan, execute and evaluate innovation activities, establish innovative capability and coordinate resources and capacities for innovation on an intra- and inter-organizational level. Moreover, communication of innovation is one essential impact factor of innovation success due to successful launches of innovations into markets, establishment of stakeholder relationships, and strengthened corporate reputation in the long-run. Consequently, the portfolio of communication activities for innovations has to be mastered by a company or collaborative network equal to the innovation portfolio. Thus, management of innovation and innovation communication on a strategic level play an important role in business nowadays. This new book concentrates on new approaches and methods for strategies and communications for innovations. As one part of the book, integrated perspectives on strategy and communication for innovation intend to bridge the gap between innovation management and communication management. This new book shall contribute to management science and answer current question in business. It provides cutting-edge information and offers a knowledge source for researchers, students, and business representatives who design, implement and manage innovation and innovation communication / marketing of innovation.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Strategic Perspectives on Innovation

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Challenges, Approaches, and Strategic Aspects of Innovation

The broad range of innovation types existing in the innovation economy undercores the complexity of managing innovation in corporations over time (e.g., Baldegger 2008; Davenport et al. 2006). Consequently, new approaches and concepts have been developed in recent years to describe, investigate and manage innovation processes and innovation portfolios on the strategic and operational levels, such as the framework Open Innovation (e.g., Chesbrough 2003, 2006; Gassman et al. 2010; Herzog 2008), innovation funnel (e.g., Baldegger 2008, Schilling, 2008), lead-user concept (e.g., von Hippel 1988, 2005) or user as co-creator approaches (e.g., Davenport et al. 2006; Prahalad and Krishnan 2008). In this context, collaborative arrangements and the enterprise’s innovative capability/abilities and management techniques, such as information/knowledge management, idea management, as well as patent and licence management, play a key role in managing innovation; this is especially true under strategic management view of systematic planning of innovation.

Michael Hülsmann, Nicole Pfeffermann

Chapter 2. Strategic Open Innovation: Basics, Actors, Tools and Tensions

Open innovation describes an innovation process that spans across the boundaries of an organization or research and development (R&D) department. It integrates different types of innovators to generate creative ideas and innovation concepts, regardless of their institutional affiliations. The purpose of this article is to describe underlying mechanisms and different strategies for realizing open innovation. It presents three types of innovators and their functions in innovation endeavors and introduces five tools that facilitate open innovation. Finally, challenges and core tensions are discussed as a basis for the successful management of strategic open innovation initiatives.

Notification

: This article bundles knowledge from the research project “Open-I: Open Innovation within Organizations”. It is funded by the federal ministry of research and education (BMBF) and the European social fund (ESF) (support code 01FM07053 and 01FM07054). Further information is available at:

http://www.open-i.org

.

Kathrin M. Möslein, Bastian Bansemir

Chapter 3. Challenges and Visual Solutions for Strategic Business Model Innovation

Business model innovation is a key task of an organization’s senior management team. Little is known, however, about business model innovation challenges that need to be addressed and how managers can structure the task of developing novel and commercially viable business models. This chapter analyzes the challenges an organization faces when changing the current business model and proposes visual solutions to overcome these challenges and develop new business models in existing firms. The argument supporting this proposition is developed in three stages: First, based on the existing management literature on business models, this chapter derives a set of challenges for business model innovation. Second, leveraging current visualization research, the chapter discusses several visual solutions to these specific challenges. Finally, we discuss how the characteristics of visual tools can practically support senior management teams in meeting the challenges of business model innovation.

Martin J. Eppler, Friederike Hoffmann

Chapter 4. Cognitive Diversity of Top Management Teams as a Competence-Based Driver of Innovation Capability: How to Decode Its Contribution Comprehensively

In order to gain and maintain innovation capability, organizations have to adapt their profiles and processes to perpetually changing environmental conditions. However, the resulting need for a high degree of flexibility, which includes avoiding an information undersupply by being stable but inflexible, entails the risk of an information overload. Therefore, a balance between an organization’s flexibility and its stability is needed. Top Management Team (TMT) cognitive diversity seems to constitute a promising resource, which under certain circumstances can be turned into an organizational competence, allowing for a high but stable level of organizational flexibility. Employing insights from complexity theory and adopting agent-based simulation is suggested as a further research method in order to deduce underlying causal inter-relations.

Michael Hülsmann, Meike Tilebein, Philip Cordes, Vera Stolarski

Chapter 5. Developing a Technology Intelligence Strategy to Access Knowledge of Innovation Clusters

Current times are characterised by a knowledge-based economy and fast technological change. In this difficult environment, companies compete to maintain a relevant position through innovation. In response to these challenges, many companies are currently adopting an open approach to innovation, pursuing innovation by combining internal and external resources. Technology intelligence (TI) activities support the implementation of open innovation with the systematic capture and delivery of information about threats and opportunities arising from new developments in science and technology. A popular choice for TI is to establish “listening posts” in areas of intense innovative activities, for example in regional clusters where technical information flows are known to be particularly intensive. In fact, literature suggests that in clusters vertical interactions along the value chain and horizontal interactions between competing companies help companies to capture the regional market trends and preferences and take relevant decisions concerning their future technological focus. As companies cannot afford to setup a technology outpost in every single geographic area where innovation and technological development are intense and relevant, they need to develop a TI strategy to explore remotely the science and technology that is being developed across long geographic distances. This chapter illustrates through a detailed case study of Kodak European Research (KER), how companies can organise and implement TI activities to leverage the knowledge and existence of regional clusters. It integrates two domains of research on TI and regional clusters, giving insights into how TI activities are strongly influenced by location. Through the experience of KER, this chapter explores (1) the pros and cons of becoming embedded within a cluster to take part in the “local buzz”; (2) the strategy to access knowledge of other clusters; (3) the communication strategy to manage the TI activity within and outside of the cluster.

Rani J. Dang, Letizia Mortara, Ruth Thomson, Tim Minshall

Chapter 6. Social Innovation and Interactive Value Creation as Strategic Demand for Management

The terms “open innovation” and “interactive value creation” have become guiding metaphors in the international academic debate and also in day-to-day business. On the one hand, they stimulate a paradigmatic development that involves increasing integration of the external knowledge of various different groups of actors (such as joint venture partners, companies, customers, supplier, universities, etc.). On the other hand, the two terms also characterize a set of specific internet-based methods integrating information about needs of customers. Enterprise 2.0 represents corporate and management structures that are specially designed to suit these two perspectives. They are based on a new understanding of innovation into which they feed new management practices. Management innovation and innovation management are clearly two sides of the same coin.

Ralf Kopp

Communicative Perspectives on Innovation

Frontmatter

Chapter 7. Communication of Innovation: Marketing, Diffusion, and Frameworks

In the innovation economy, communication of innovation can encompass all market-related activities in technology and innovation management on a strategic and operational level (Trommsdorff and Steinhoff 2007) to commercialize innovation successfully. This implies a need for management frameworks, for instance, regarding integrated marketing communication (e.g., Bruhn 2006, 2008, 2009) to communicate consistently and continually about innovations and innovationrelated issues. Moreover, innovation communication in corporate communication focuses on the presentation of innovations and the organization’s innovative capability to establish long-term stakeholder relationships and constructs, such as corporate reputation, on the organizational level (e.g., Mast and Zerfaß 2005; Mast et al. 2005; Zerfaß and Möslein 2009). However, communication can also be examined from a social process perspective (e.g., Rogers 1995, 2003). The communicative perspective in innovation diffusion research concentrates on three different types of communication in social systems (Peres et al. 2010) and points out managerial implications, for instance, word-of-mouth communication may represent an effective marketing tool for enterprises to systematically facilitate an individual’s decision-making processes to invest in innovation (Mazzarol 2011).

Nicole Pfeffermann, Michael Hülsmann

Chapter 8. Innovation Marketing: An Introduction

Innovation marketing has become a sector of marketing science in its own right. The reasons for the high acceptance of knowledge and methods of innovation marketing are twofold: enormous investments in new products and numerous failures. The crucial question is: what determines the success of an innovation? Why does one innovation succeed on the market, while others fail miserably? Success factors research, founded in the 1960s and expanded ever since, has unanimously identified the competitive innovation advantage – or CIA – as the most important factor for success (Trommsdorff and Steinhoff (2007). Innovationsmarketing. München: Verlag Vahlen). The CIA represents a competition-beating performance that delivers benefit to the customer, is perceived by the customer as such, that the competition cannot catch up to easily, and that can hardly be invalidated in its environment. Innovations with a CIA are more successful than imitations and marginal innovations, because they are comparatively beneficial and, in particular, address a basic conscious or subconscious need of the target customers. Moreover, major components of the CIA can be subsumed under the key word “customer focus.” Although customer focus has become the dominant management credo in recent past, its implementation in the innovation process remains difficult. One reason for this is that traditional market research methods come up against their limits when it comes to innovations. Nonetheless, intelligent methods of innovation marketing are available to overcome this bottleneck factor. As such, the CIA really represents a meta-success factor; it is more the result of professional innovation marketing than its cause.

Fee Steinhoff, Volker Trommsdorff

Chapter 9. The Role of Word of Mouth in the Diffusion of Innovation

Innovation adoption and diffusion is primarily a social rather than an economic process. As a result the role of inter-personal communications should be a key point of focus in the process of commercialisation of an innovation. This chapter examines the theory of word of mouth and its role as a potential tool in the marketing communications arena. It draws upon research undertaken in the field of consumer behaviour to examine the process of word of mouth as a two-way communications process. It also draws on research undertaken into the management of innovation to demonstrate how inter-personal communications may influence decisions to invest in a future innovation.

Tim Mazzarol

Chapter 10. An Integrated Approach to Communications in the Open Innovation Process

As innovation processes become accessible to consumers and other interested public parties in the sense of Open Innovation, Innovation Communication faces new challenges. The interface existing between internal and external commercial interests must be systematically coordinated in order to ensure that the development process is efficient and effective and that the developed innovation is successfully implemented on the market. Innovation communication plays a key role here in securing that the points liaising internal and external interests are integrated over the length of the innovation process. This is a complex task and involves coordinating communication objectives and publicity, integrating communication instruments and, not least of all, aligning the numerous target groups – from the research specialists in R&D to the Internet bloggers. The present paper uses impulses stemming from integrated communication to develop a phase-oriented concept for integrated innovation communication that is capable of guaranteeing a systematic coordination of the interfaces involved and providing a central support in promoting a satisfactory outcome for the innovation process.

Manfred Bruhn, Grit Mareike Ahlers

Chapter 11. Managing Emotions Matters: A Balanced Framework for Communicating Innovations in Companies

Nowadays, innovations are crucial for nations, the progress of societies and the success of companies. But only if they are noticed and appreciated by people in their daily lives, employees, customers, experts, academics, journalists and other opinion leaders, can they fully be effective. Therefore, communication management has to take into consideration, that the advantages of innovations can be re-evaluated from different points of view – employees worrying about their jobs, companies struggling for sustaining their competitiveness or customers who mistrust products with the label “innovative”. It is the balance between facts and figures on the one hand, and emotions on the other, which is often neglected in internal and external corporate communication. The article presents a balanced framework for creating a communication strategy for innovations and discusses results of surveys from communication directors in the top 250 companies in Germany.

Claudia Mast

Chapter 12. The Scent of Innovation: Towards an Integrated Management Concept for Visual and Scent Communication of Innovation

Can a combination of visual and scent communication be applied to communicate innovations, innovative issues or innovative capability on an organizational and collaborative network level? If so, can it positively influence a stakeholder’s adoption processes? And how can organizations or innovation networks integrate visual and scent communication in a management concept for innovation communication? The purpose of this book chapter is (1) to describe an integrated management concept of innovation communication (ICOM) including an ICOM toolbox and (2) to review literature and empirical studies on the effects of visual and scent communication, primarily published to date by scientists in marketing, in order to theoretically deduce implications for ICOM and integrate visual and scent communication as a separate strategic tool, named

sensory communication

, in the ICOM toolbox. Hence, this book chapter aims at answering the posed questions and is structured as follows: After the introduction, a developed ICOM management concept and a toolbox of strategic and operational tools for ICOM are presented. Subsequently, theoretically-driven implications for ICOM are provided based on a review of literature on visual and scent communication in sensory marketing. From a practical-oriented perspective, this book chapter also delineates examples and discusses the implementation of visual and scent communication of innovations in ICOM management. Finally, main conceptual findings and thoughts on future research agendas will be outlined.

Nicole Pfeffermann

Integrated Perspectives on Innovation

Frontmatter

Chapter 13. The Linkage Between Strategy and Communication for Innovation

Innovation has become an essential factor for companies of all sizes to survive and perform in the long-run. In particular in the competitive, dynamic environment of today’s worldwide business, an organization’s innovative capability and successfully launched innovations can represent a means for competitive advantage (e.g., Hitt et al. 2005; Trommsdorff and Steinhoff 2007). Besides the focus on innovation in an enterprise’s strategy and the evolving resources, capabilities, and core competences required in order to be innovative, a prerequisite for the desired outcomes of strategic competitiveness and above-average returns are effective strategic actions, which are embedded in the strategic management process (Hitt et al. 2005). Hence, strategy formulation and implementation are crucial for a firm’s long-term success. In this context, organizational communication can support strategy formulation through interactions with stakeholders, for instance, receiving feedback regarding market expectations (e.g., Argenti 2007; Cornelissen 2008).

Nicole Pfeffermann, Michael Hülsmann

Chapter 14. Research and Development, Innovation and Marketing: How to Convince Internal and External Stakeholders of Technological Innovations

Innovations play an ever-increasing role in companies hoping to gain and sustain a competitive advantage. However, certain technological innovations are not always perceived as something desirable and are often problematic. One problem for managers is the resistance of different kinds of stakeholders, both internally and externally. But also new structures, such as multi-sector and open innovations, pose problems. The goal of this chapter is to provide managers with insights on how to successfully launch new innovations and overcome such resistance. The chapter is based on a special issue of the

International Journal of Technology Marketing

devoted to the subject.

Alexander Brem, Mostafa Hashem Sherif, Liora Katzenstein, Kai-Ingo Voigt, Dominique Marcel Lammer

Chapter 15. A Relational Communication Strategy for Successful Collaborative Innovation in Business-to-Business Markets

This chapter contributes to our understanding of interorganisational relationships (IORs) through the presentation of a relational communication strategy that incorporates a set of propositions about the features and mechanisms of the communication process in successful collaborative innovation. We propose that relational communication provides the lubrication to the process of collaborative innovation facilitating border-less interaction between parties. We examine the nature of collaborative innovation and the importance of communication to collaborative innovation’s effective functioning in relationships. Features of our relational communication strategy in densely knit partnerships considered to be important in a successful collaborative innovation setting, include (1) high frequency, bidirectionality, informality, and indirect modalities; (2) high communication quality, dense participation, and openness of information sharing of tacit and implicit knowledge; and (3) a shared meaning base and an open communication climate. The mechanisms that we propose that firms can and do use to increase the effectiveness of communication in successful collaborative innovation include (1) interpersonal modes of communication and affiliation; (2) loose teams; (3) electronic virtual communities and open information repositories; and (4) interorganisational communities of practice. A number of examples and case vignettes are presented in order to support the need to focus attention on these issues.

Bill Donaldson, Thomas O’Toole, Mary Holden

Chapter 16. Strategic Planning for Communication of Innovation: Crowdsourcing as Social Capital

Mired in an economic recession of yet unknown parameters, organizations face an unpredictable future. In an environment where the old paradigms have failed, innovation acquires a high value and the technologies undergirding innovation become critical organizational resources. By the same reasoning, the users of Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, blogs, wikis, and other sharing platforms constitute the social capital of an information society. Yet many organizations (especially large firms and governments) fear the consequences of integrating these technologies and audiences into their operations. This chapter argues that, in 2010, the technologies best capable of supporting an innovative economy are open source in nature; the most valuable organizational asset is social capital; and strategic planning for communication of innovation must reflect the character of audiences fashioned by social media. The article suggests that some theories (e.g., open innovation, social constructionism, and reflexivity) are better than others in guiding organizations toward coping mechanisms and that practices such as crowdsourcing hold high potential for realizing the social capital in audiences.

Sherry Devereaux Ferguson

Chapter 17. Achieving Market Leadership for Innovation Through Communication

It is difficult to sell innovations successfully because they are fraught with uncertainties as, very often, their impact relies on complementary inventions which development time can fluctuate very significantly. Still, some companies have achieved significant market success with innovative products and services. An in-depth analysis shows that they rely less on technology than on their willingness to communicate with all the market players in order to expand opportunities for other participants. This chapter details the five different methods of communications they are using. The first way is to adopt a “push” communication strategy towards the market participants by offering compatibility and/or open access. The second approach is to implement a “pull” communication strategy to attract new partners by creating and managing a supportive network. The third way is a combination of the “push” and “pull” communications. The fourth technique is to actively publicize the innovation through an aggressive branding. Finally, the fifth avenue is to communicate with the world by going global in order to reach the maximum volume of users of the innovation.

Eric Viardot

Chapter 18. Innovation Communication as a Cross-Functional Dynamic Capability: Strategies for Organizations and Networks

This book chapter draws on the dynamic capability approach to specify the elements of the dynamic capability

innovation communication

necessary to maintain the management of communication processes, tools and activities regarding the communication of a corporation’s or collaborative network’s innovation portfolio in the innovation economy. Dynamic capabilities can facilitate enterprise performance in a continuously changing environment with rapid innovation and globally spread resources, capacities, and stakeholders. In this context, innovation communication enables systematically planned transactional information transmissions related to innovations, context-issues of innovations and innovative capability and addresses communication markets, resource markets and sales markets based on a chosen innovation communication strategy. As one of a corporation’s dynamic capabilities, innovation communication may not only positively influence an innovation’s diffusion or innovation reputation in environmental dynamics but may also re-shape different markets and collaborative networks as well as create and extend strategic assets to communicate innovations in a highly competitive innovation economy. After introducing a foundation of sustainable enterprise performance by dynamic capabilities in the innovation economy, this book chapter presents a conceptual definition and description of the elements of the cross-functional dynamic capability

innovation communication

including a classification system as a fundamental basis on which future research might build on, in particular to specify the dynamic capability

innovation communication

for empirical research studies. Based on the characteristics of innovation communication, strategies and strategic tools for organizations and collaborative networks are also provided to support decision-making in strategic corporate communication management.

Nicole Pfeffermann

Best Practices

Frontmatter

Chapter 19. Science Comes Alive! The Internet Film Portal DFG Science TV

Do inner values matter? And what is beauty? On the modern Internet film portal DFG Science TV research diaries including background information on research projects provide answers to those questions. In spring 2008, DFG Science TV was started and meanwhile more than 20 research projects are presented on the film portal in terms of 3-min episodes. This innovative project DFG Science TV is described in the presented book chapter with the aim to give an impression of how online communication supports presenting scientific knowledge and day-to-day research work from various disciplines. As the structure of the book chapter is concerned, the unique DFG’s concept ‘Science comes alive!’ and the project DFG Science TV with its online communication activities in the first and second series are briefly described. Subsequently, first communication effects show the successful implementation of the project DFG Science TV and the example

Love à la Darwin

highlights the characteristics and possibilities of the Internet film portal. Finally, a conclusion and an outlook on future perspectives of DFG Science TV are provided.

Eva-Maria Streier, Nicole Pfeffermann, Jörn Grapp

Chapter 20. DHL Open Innovation: Program for the Development, Deployment and Promotion of Innovative Solutions in Logistics

Innovation is a key factor for growth for business and industries. But what can be said about logistics industry? Is logistics an innovative industry? This book chapter aims at providing information about a modern program of DHL Solutions & Innovations (DSI), which represents a framework to develop, deploy and promote innovative solutions in logistics. The DSI program thus gives the answer to the questions by describing how logistic companies can position themselves and their brands with innovative solutions. Three pillars shape successful innovative solutions: DHL Innovation Partner Concept, DHL Innovation Center and DHL Innovation Projects. The explanations and selected project examples in this book chapter demonstrate the idea to globally share knowledge in the development, deployment and promotion of technologies, establish a culture of innovation, and foster the implementation of innovative solutions in logistics.

Keith Ulrich

Chapter 21. Communication Management Via Web: The Web-Based Tool ICOM Compass

This book chapter contributes to the growing field of interest

communication management via Web

by describing the Web-based tool

ICOM Compass

as a day-to-day instrument for professional communication management. In particular, ICOM Compass facilitates the management of communication activities for a company’s innovation portfolio. After introducing communication management and tools, information management supported by current Web technologies is discussed to provide an overview of the number of benefits and also limitations for communication management via the Web. Subsequently, an integrated communication approach – implemented in the Web-based tool – is briefly described. Three features will be outlined to exemplify possibilities of the Web-based tool:

ICOM Minds, ICOM IN-Stories

and

ICOM Mapping

. Furthermore, an innovation case shows an implementation scenario for high-tech industries. This book chapter aims at extending the scope of possibilities for modern communication management via Web by presenting the Web-based tool

ICOM Compass

.

Hans-Werner Jäger, Annegret Jäger

Chapter 22. Case Study Electro-Mobility: RWE Mobility

This article describes the communication strategy of energy supplier RWE in the electro-mobility business segment. RWE began developing electro-mobility as a new business segment within its strategic area in 2008. One of the highest priorities during the early stage of development was to resolve the “chicken and egg” issue of e-cars and charging infrastructure. So RWE quickly assumed the role of innovation leader amongst the European energy suppliers in the area of electro-mobility and began in 2009 to build an extensive network of smart charging infrastructure across Germany. This strategy needed to be supported with active and innovative communication. Two central pillars were chosen for this: broadly effective communication in the Internet by building up an RWE Mobility website and targeted communication within the context of the RWE Autostrom Roadshow in urban centres, where electro-mobility will establish itself faster. Both these programmes were and are backed up by active press work, the launch of an e-mobility image campaign, the building of an RWE-Mobility flagship store in Berlin and presentation at business-specific trade fairs and congresses. Not least with this active and consistent communication, RWE has been able to position itself as a contact and business partner to be taken seriously in the market for electro-mobility while at the same time enhancing its image among the population and political decision-makers.

Katja Reimann, Carolin Reichert

Chapter 23. A Holistic Approach to Communicating Innovations: Siemens and Its Environmental Portfolio

To communicate innovations successfully, it is vital to manage themes in a synchronized manner. Media relations, publications, Internet and multimedia, marketing, and internal communications must all speak with one voice. This objective has been achieved at Siemens in recent years, thanks to a central innovations communication team that uses and manages all of these media channels and serves all relevant target groups. One example of this success is the way it has dealt with the themes related to the Siemens environmental portfolio. The leading medium in this regard is the international research and innovation magazine Pictures of the Future, flanked by regular media services for the press, intranet and Internet websites, and contents delivered for marketing activities and special events such as Siemens’ Innovation Days, the EXPO in Shanghai, and international climate conferences. Innovations communication that is so broadly based can clearly show the close connections between the technological leadership of individual business units, their worldwide market position, the benefits that innovations bring for customers, and the creation of new jobs. As a result, it can make a major contribution to the company’s success.

Ulrich Eberl

Chapter 24. User-Centered Radical Innovation at Deutsche Telekom Laboratories

The necessity of appropriately dealing with the specific uncertainties in innovation development is undisputed, in both the worlds of daily business and of scientific research. Pursuing great opportunities at the price of a higher risk radical innovation projects present a particular challenge to management. In the context of radical innovation user orientation must be considered in a balanced way. Positive effects may depend upon the type of users focused on and the methods used. User characteristics like for instances technical competence or lead user criteria are considered to be important resources for radical innovation management. The paper describes the concept of user-centered radical innovation and how it is applied within Deutsche Telekom Laboratories – the corporate R&D centre of Deutsche Telekom. The concept is based on tools tailored to three innovation phases: initiation, business modelling and market driving.

Fee Steinhoff, Henning Breuer

Chapter 25. The High-Tech Innovation “ParcelRobot”: Patent Strategy and Communication Tools

This book chapter presents a case study on the “ParcelRobot”, which was a successful open innovation project in logistics industry. It focussed on a patent strategy and communication tools for the developed high-tech innovation. After introducing the open innovation process with a dialog perspective, sequential steps for the technology development are briefly described. Subsequently, a lead user-oriented perspective on the patent and licensing strategy is provided under consideration of the complex structures in the open innovation network. Several communication tools relating to four communication channels and the initial impacts of the communication activities for the high-tech innovation are presented. Results were supported by a German survey that was conducted at market launch. The market penetration activities outline the future development of the robot system. Finally, this book chapter concludes with key leanings from the open innovation project regarding the patent strategy and communication of high-tech innovations.

Moritz Rohde, Nicole Pfeffermann, Wolfgang Echelmeyer, Carsten Rasch

Backmatter

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