Since mid-1993 an already existing conventional MSW (municipal solid waste) composting plant (serving 80.000 population) is being redesigned as a center for recycling and treatment. This comprises not only the construction of a biowaste composting plant according to the latest state the art in engineering for the recovery of reusable, separately collected organic components of domestic waste, but also the stabilization of residual waste according to the concept of ‘cold pretreatment’. The technical conception of the plant allows capacities for a texture-adapted treatment of sewage sludge, too.The domestic waste composting facility Sciaves/Alto Adige has been in use for more than 10 years and is processing approx. 20,000 tpa of MSW. The essential components of the plant are the mechanical treatment (comminution, homogenization, sieving), conditioning and landfilling of screen rejects (facultative production of RDF), and the controlled decomposition of the organic-rich fine fraction which will be deposited or used for remediation measures.The objective of the new conception and the technical adaption being carried out at present is to treat residual wastes to enable environmentally sound disposal and to treat and subsequently utilize source separated waste streams (compost, ‘dry recyclables’). The result will be a modem, integrated waste management center with several lines of processing.Most of the already existing equipment can be further used for the processing line ‘cold pretreatment’ and only few modifications of the process have to be carried out. Since the technical optimization of the process is mainly based on a simplification of the procedure it can also be regarded as a ‘low-cost-treatment’. It is envisaged to reduce degradable components of non-utilizable wastes (no incineration plant is projected medium term) by biologic treatment before landfilling and thus establish an inactive state of the material.On the basis of a preliminary study on the large-scale separation of organic wastes from industrial and domestic sources, an integrated composting facility was planned within the existing plant, which is destined for the sole production of well marketable quality compost. During the determination of the optimal treatment procedure two crucial settings were considered by the use of semimobile and modular enlargeable plant components: firstly the slowly raising amount of biowastes in the next years and secondly the need for a flexible adaptation on varying input materials. Thus it is also possible to selectively treat less contaminated sewage sludge as well as the organic fraction of domestic waste. The central part of the facility is an intensive rotting phase in an enclosed environment which guarantees an optimal process control and a minimization of emissions (especially odour).The presented project can be regarded as a model for the adaptation of existing, but technically not up-to-date biological waste treatment systems to facilities which are suitable to modern waste management strategies. It shows that realistic approaches for development are applicable to many disposal regions in Italy which are comparable to the described situation.In Alto Adige esiste l’ordine politico di riutilizzare i rifiuti urbani biogeni dopo averli adeguatamente preselezionati presso il produttore iniziale. L’idea fondamentale di questo modo di procedere viene seguito già da tempo dalle Comunità di Val d’lsarco e Alta Val d’ Isarco che gestiscono dal 1985 presso Sciaves un impianto di compostaggio. Le autorità competenti hanno dato ora l’autorizzazione per adattare questo impianto alle esigenze attuali. Sono ogetto della progettazione sia alcune modifiche nello schema d’impianto per facilitare la gestione (tra l’altro la sostituzione necessaria di alcuni blocchi logori) che la realizzazione di un centra di raccolta differenziata primario. Quest’ ultimo comprende una zona di trasbordo per materiale riciclabilie ed una semplice unità per la selezione dei rifiuti ingombranti ed industriali.
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- Structural Changes to a MSW Composting Plant in Accordance with Modern Waste Management Concepts in Italy
Dr. Ing. Dieter Schönafinger
- Springer Netherlands