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In 1898, in the offices of the Roebling Company at 121 Liberty street in New York City (present day location of the ‘Ground Zero’ World Trade Center memorial), Abraham Himmelwright wrote the original necessary requirements for ideal structural fire testing to be of value. Structural fire tests performed at Himmelwright’s time were based upon an experimental methodology developed by mechanical engineer of the New York Building Department, Gus Henning in 1896 (Himmelwright 1898; Woolson 1902). Inspired to respond to the various ad-hoc structure fire tests of materials, the test series were conducted to develop “actual and relative efficiencies of different floor constructions” under fire (Himmelwright 1898). Henning would later denounce the early fire testing as fraud due to its non-representation of reality (Fig. 3.1).
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- Structural Fire Test Research Programmes for Post-tensioned Concrete
- Springer New York
- Chapter 3