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Über dieses Buch

Activities performed in organizations are coordinated via communication

between the people involved. The sentences used to communicate are naturally structured by subject, verb, and object. The subject describes the actor, the verb the action and the object what is affected by the action. Subject-oriented Business Process Management (S-BPM) as presented in this book is based on this simple structure which enables process-oriented thinking and process modeling.

S-BPM puts the subject of a process at the center of attention and thus

deals with business processes and their organizational environment from a new perspective, meeting organizational requirements in a much better way than traditional approaches. Subjects represent agents of an action in a process, which can be either technical or human (e.g. a thread in an IT system or a clerk). A process structures the actions of each subject and coordinates the required communication among the subjects. S-BPM provides a coherent procedural framework to model and analyze business processes: its focus is the cooperation of all stakeholders involved in the strategic, tactical, and operational issues, sharing their knowledge in a networked structure.

The authors illustrate how each modeling activity through the whole development lifecycle can be supported through the use of appropriate software tools. The presentation style focuses on professionals in industry, and on students specializing in process management or organizational modeling. Each chapter begins with a summary of key findings and is full of examples, hints, and possible pitfalls. An interpreter model, a toolbox, and a glossary summarizing the main terms complete the book. The web site www.i2pm.net provides additional software tools and further material.

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Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Open Access

1. Thinking of Business Processes Systematically

Abstract
Today, the success of organizations is not only based on their products and services but rather on their capability to (re)design their business processes in a flexible and dynamic way (Scheer et al. 2007).
Albert Fleischmann, Werner Schmidt, Christian Stary, Stefan Obermeier, Egon Börger

Open Access

2. From Language Acquisition to Subject-Oriented Modeling

Abstract
In this chapter, we first reflect the origin and development of human thinking, acting, and natural language. Then, we introduce subject-oriented business process modeling by describing its main features and constructs intended to support organizational development steps. The focus of S-BPM modeling is on subjects as these are the active actors or systems in organizational development processes. Such a focus allows expressing knowledge in terms of natural language sentence semantics, as we do in natural language: a sentence consists of a subject, a predicate, and an object.
Albert Fleischmann, Werner Schmidt, Christian Stary, Stefan Obermeier, Egon Börger

Open Access

3. The Integrated S-BPM Process Model

Abstract
Subject-oriented business process management does not only include the opportunity to transfer information expressed in natural language with minimal effort into a model. It also allows a continuous change of business processes in a structured way. The S-BPM method itself is subject-oriented, with actors (subjects) at the focus. In the following, we explain the coordinated S-BPM activity bundles (predicates) that are executed by the respective actors. The object in S-BPM is the process itself. In this way, the S-BPM process model can be fully specified by its inherent elements and logic of description. This self-referentiality reflects the consistency of the approach.
Albert Fleischmann, Werner Schmidt, Christian Stary, Stefan Obermeier, Egon Börger

Open Access

4. Subject-Oriented Process Analysis

Abstract
Process analysis is a central bundle of activities of the S-BPM process model. Once an S-BPM project is started, analysis is paramount. It denotes a purposeful collection and evaluation of relevant process information in preparation for the next steps of the process model. Such process information includes existing descriptions of business processes, current process specifications (e.g., ARIS diagrams), measurements, and analyses of key performance indicators, or other documentation for quality assurance.
Albert Fleischmann, Werner Schmidt, Christian Stary, Stefan Obermeier, Egon Börger

Open Access

5. Modeling Processes in a Subject-Oriented Way

Abstract
As the distinction between design time and runtime of models is essential to the understanding of modeling, we first distinguish between models and instances. Then, we explain what role S-BPM stakeholders play in the course of modeling. Subsequently, the individual modeling constructs are described. We distinguish here between basic and extension constructs.
Albert Fleischmann, Werner Schmidt, Christian Stary, Stefan Obermeier, Egon Börger

Open Access

6. Subject-Oriented Modeling by Construction and Restriction

Abstract
In the previous chapter, we have discussed modeling in detail. For this purpose, a variety of constructs are available. When putting them to practice, modelers can proceed along two fundamentally different ways: modeling by construction and modeling by restriction.
Albert Fleischmann, Werner Schmidt, Christian Stary, Stefan Obermeier, Egon Börger

Open Access

7. Subject-Oriented Validation of Processes and Process Models

Abstract
Once a process has been modeled (see Chap. 5), it is advisable to validate and optimize the process and its model, before the model is implemented in the organization and IT. In this chapter, we discuss the validation.
Albert Fleischmann, Werner Schmidt, Christian Stary, Stefan Obermeier, Egon Börger

Open Access

8. Subject-Oriented Optimization of Processes

Abstract
In Chap. 7, we have described validation, which ensures the effectiveness of business processes. Its goal is to make sure that a process delivers the results as described by analysis. When optimizing, the efficiency of processes is at the focus of interest, in order to achieve the desired results with the least possible expenditure of time and resources. Efficiency targets are set in the course of analysis in the form of reference values of performance parameters derived from a corporate strategy.
Albert Fleischmann, Werner Schmidt, Christian Stary, Stefan Obermeier, Egon Börger

Open Access

9. Organization-Specific Implementation of Subject-Oriented Processes

Abstract
In the previous chapters, we have described how business processes of an organization are mapped to a process model by the subject-oriented method. The result is then validated and optimized as required. The process is now specified to the extent that it can be used in the organization. This step is referred to in terms of the S-BPM process model as an organization-specific implementation. With this, abstract subjects become real-life employees, the subjects are embedded into the organization.
Albert Fleischmann, Werner Schmidt, Christian Stary, Stefan Obermeier, Egon Börger

Open Access

10. IT-Implementation of Subject-Oriented Business Processes

Abstract
IT has achieved a high level of penetration in many organizations. Without IT support, many business processes cannot be handled in an economically beneficial way. For this reason, the careful and on-demand mapping of processes to information and communication technology is an important task. This applies for cases where employees are involved, as well as for operations in which a high degree of automation is striven for. A suitable and well-fitting software environment plays a significant role here. However, the challenge in many cases is an existing heterogeneous landscape of systems and services, in which each of the components fulfills specific tasks, and for which all of these components need to be integrated into an overall solution for adequate process support.
Albert Fleischmann, Werner Schmidt, Christian Stary, Stefan Obermeier, Egon Börger

Open Access

11. Subject-Oriented Monitoring of Processes

Abstract
Optimized and implemented processes go live after their final acceptance sign-off. This means that they are executed in the course of ongoing business operations, in the organization and IT environment described in the previous chapters. Experience reveals that process execution here is exposed over time to changes to a variety of influencing factors. These can negatively affect the process performance and thus increasingly decrease value generation, if not addressed properly. An example of such factors is the rapid, nonpredicted increase in parallel occurring instances of customer inquiries in a bidding process. This can lead to an increase in turnaround time for quotations, with the risk that potential customers switch to competitors.
Albert Fleischmann, Werner Schmidt, Christian Stary, Stefan Obermeier, Egon Börger

Open Access

12. A Precise Description of the S-BPM Modeling Method

Abstract
This chapter presents a precise formulation of the S-BPM constructs discussed in the preceding chapters. We express them in the form of an abstract SBD-interpreter, which yields a precise, controllable definition of the subject behavior in SBDs, the so-called semantics of SBDs. Furthermore, this definition establishes a solid scientific foundation for the S-BPM method to support a guarantee of the implementation correctness of the interpreter by the Metasonic modeling tool.
Albert Fleischmann, Werner Schmidt, Christian Stary, Stefan Obermeier, Egon Börger

Open Access

13. Tools for S-BPM

Abstract
In the following sections, we provide insights into jBOOK, jSIM, and the Metasonic Suite, exemplifying a set of tools for each activity bundle in the development process for business process applications. jBOOK is a documentation tool to support subject-oriented analysis. jSIM can be used by Actors to simulate processes based on subject-oriented models on the computer.
Albert Fleischmann, Werner Schmidt, Christian Stary, Stefan Obermeier, Egon Börger

Open Access

14. S-BPM Method by Comparison

Abstract
This book provides comprehensive insights into the subject-oriented methodology. In addition to deriving and justifying the concept, we have developed a subject-oriented process model for dealing with models. To complete the picture with respect to BPM, we examine the extent to which other methods also comprise subject-oriented elements. The focus on subjects while reflecting standard sentence semantics of natural language can be spotted in the canon of existing approaches for modeling business processes in various places. The following overview of essential diagrammatic or formal modeling methods for business processes shows the different links of existing approaches to the modeling categories subject, predicate, and object. The respective approaches are comparatively described.
Albert Fleischmann, Werner Schmidt, Christian Stary, Stefan Obermeier, Egon Börger

Open Access

15. Conclusion

Abstract
As shown in the previous chapters, continuous sociotechnical system development is based on models. In case of appropriate support through modeling and implementation technology, stakeholders (i.e., all actors involved in business operations) may adjust the implementation of business process models according to their individual needs without additional development costs. This can be achieved if process descriptions are directly executable, and so enable a seamless alignment between modeling and execution.
Albert Fleischmann, Werner Schmidt, Christian Stary, Stefan Obermeier, Egon Börger

Backmatter

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