Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Theories of governance remind us that even in the context of neoliberal political economic governance, the state still has a role to play in facilitating the conditions that create the free market, as well as in participating in new types of arrangements that have formed to address the challenges of regulating global economic spheres. Often referred to as hybrid governance, these new arrangements blur the traditional responsibilities of actors from the public and private sectors, as well as from civil society. This chapter draws on theories of hybrid governance to analyze how the Wal-Mart Corporation implements its sustainability initiative in the agri-food system by drawing on the resources and activities of public and non-profit organizations. Based on qualitative research that includes a content analysis of Wal-Mart’s publicly available documents, as well as fieldwork in both the US and Honduras, this chapter demonstrates how state policies and programs facilitate the implementation of Wal-Mart’s sustainability initiative, which in the agri-food system takes the form of local produce sourcing. As an illustration of the role of the nation state in the present era of neoliberal globalization, this chapter demonstrates both how national policies created the conditions for the emergence of Wal-Mart as a powerful player in the food retailing industry, domestically and internationally, and how the state plays a role in the implementation of Wal-Mart’s programs, often through public/private partnerships. This chapter finds that relationships between Wal-Mart and public and non-profit organizations allow the company to outsource the costs, risks and responsibilities of developing local supply chains. Therefore, Wal-Mart’s sustainability program relies on public subsidies to operate. This chapter considers the implications of public subsidization of a transition to sustainability in the context of corporate sustainability initiatives.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
2012 Walmart GRR—Global Direct Farm. (2012). 2012 Global responsibility. Retrieved April 17, 2012, from http://www.walmartstores.com/sites/responsibility-report/2012/globalDirect.aspx
2012 Walmart GRR—Goals in Progress/Products. (2012). Retrieved February 17, 2013, from http://www.walmartstores.com/sites/responsibility-report/2012/goalsProducts.aspx
2012 Walmart GRR—Locally Grown Products. (2012). Retrieved February 17, 2013, from http://www.walmartstores.com/sites/responsibility-report/2012/locallyGrownSuccess.aspx
2012 Walmart GRR—Sustainable Agriculture. (2012). Retrieved February 17, 2013, from http://www.walmartstores.com/sites/responsibility-report/2012/sustainableAgriculture.aspx
Allen, P., FitzSimmons, M., Goodman, M., & Warner, K. (2003). Shifting plates in the agrifood landscape: The tectonics of alternative agrifood initiatives in California. Journal of Rural Studies, 19(1), 61–75. doi: 10.1016/S0743-0167(02)00047-5.
Allen, P., & Hinrichs, C. (2007). Buying into ‘Buy Local’: Engagements of United States local food initiatives. In D. Maye, L. Holloway, & M. Kneafsey (Eds.), Alternative food geographies: Representation and practice (p. 255). Oxford, England: Elsevier.
Bäckstrand, K. (2006). Multi-stakeholder partnerships for sustainable development: Rethinking legitimacy, accountability and effectiveness. European Environment, 16(5), 290–306. doi: 10.1002/eet.425.
Bäckstrand, K. (2012). Are partnerships for sustainable development democratic and legitimate? In P. Pattberg, F. Biermann, & S. Chan (Eds.), Public-private partnerships for sustainable development: Emergence, influence and legitimacy (p. 165). Cheltenahm, England: Edward Elgar.
Bain, C. (2010a). Governing the global value chain: GLOBALGAP and the Chilean fresh fruit industry. International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, 17(1), 1–23.
Bain, C. (2010b). Structuring the flexible and feminized labor market: GlobalGAP standards for Agricultural Labor in Chile. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 35(2), 343–370.
Bain, C., Deaton, B. J., & Busch, L. (2005). Reshaping the agri-food system: The role of standards, standard makers and third-party certifiers. In V. Higgins & G. Lawrence (Eds.), Agricultural governance: Globalization and the new politics of regulation (pp. 71–83). Abingdon, Oxon, England: Routledge.
Barham, J. (2010, December 14). Getting to scale with regional food hubs. Know Your Farmer, Know Your Food. USDA-Agricultural Marketing Service. Retrieved from http://kyf.blogs.usda.gov/category/regional-food-hub/
Barham, J., Tropp, D., Enterline, K., Farbman, J., Fisk, J., & Kiraly, S. (2012). Regional Food Hub Resource Guide: Food hub impacts on regional food systems, and the resources available to support their growth and development. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service.
Bator, F. M. (1958). The anatomy of market failure. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 72(3), 351–379. doi: 10.2307/1882231.
Berdegué, J., Balsevich, F., Flores, L., & Reardon, T. (2005). Central American supermarkets’ private standards of quality and safety in procurement of fresh fruits and vegetables. Food Policy, 30(3), 254–269.
Bitzer, V. (2012). Partnering for change in chains: The capacity of partnerships to promote sustainable change in global agrifood chains. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 15(Special Issue B), 13–38.
Bolwig, S., Ponte, S., Du Toit, A., Riisgaard, L., & Halberg, N. (2010). Integrating poverty and environmental concerns into value-chain analysis: A conceptual framework. Development Policy Review, 28(2), 173–194. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7679.2010.00480.x.
Bonanno, A., Busch, L., Friedland, W. H., & Gouveia, L. (1994). Introduction. In From Columbus to ConAgra: The globalization of agriculture and food (pp. 1–26). Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press.
Boyer, J. (2010). Food security, food sovereignty, and local challenges for transnational agrarian movements: The Honduras case. Journal of Peasant Studies, 37(2), 319–351. doi: 10.1080/03066151003594997.
Brinkerhoff, D. W. (2007). Enabling environmental partnerships: The role of good governance in Madagascar’s forest sector. In P. Glasbergen, F. Biermann, & A. P. J. Mol (Eds.), Partnerships, governance and sustainable development: Reflections on theory and practice (pp. 93–114). Cheltenham, England: Edward Elgar.
Burch, D., Dixon, J., & Lawrence, G. (2013). Introduction to symposium on the changing role of supermarkets in global supply chains: From seedling to supermarket: Agri-food supply chains in transition. Agriculture and Human Values, 30(2), 215–224. doi: 10.1007/s10460-012-9410-x.
Busch, L. (2010). Can fairy tales come true? The surprising story of neoliberalism and world agriculture. Sociologia Ruralis, 50(4), 331–351.
Busch, L., & Bain, C. (2004). New! Improved? The transformation of the global agrifood system. Rural Sociology, 69, 321–346.
Buttel, F. (2000). Ecological modernization as social theory. Geoforum, 31(1), 57–65. doi: 10.1016/S0016-7185(99)00044-5.
Campbell, H. (2005). The rise and rise of EurepGAP: European (re)invention of colonial food relations? International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, 13(2), 1–19.
Campbell, H., & Le Heron, R. (2007). Supermarkets, producers and audit technologies: The constitutive micro-politics of food, legitimacy and governance. In D. Burch & G. Lawrence (Eds.), Supermarkets and agri-food supply chains: Transformation in the production and consumption of foods (pp. 131–153). Cheltenahm, England: Egward Elgar.
Cashore, B., Auld, G., & Newsom, D. (2003). Forest certification (eco-labeling) programs and their policy-making authority: Explaining divergence among North American and European case studies. Forest Policy and Economics, 5(3), 225–247. doi: 10.1016/S1389-9341(02)00060-6.
Chavez, M. (2002). The transformation of Mexican retailing with NAFTA. Development Policy Review, 20(4), 503–513.
Cheshire, L., & Lawrence, G. (2005). Re-shaping the state: Global/local networks of association and the governing of agricultural production. In V. Higgins & G. Lawrence (Eds.), Agricultural governance: Globalization and the new politics of regulation (pp. 35–49). Abingdon, Oxon, England: Routledge.
Coley, D., Howard, M., & Winter, M. (2009). Local food, food miles and carbon emissions: A comparison of farm shop and mass distribution approaches. Food Policy, 34(2), 150–155.
Conroy, M. E. (2007). Branded! How the “Certification Revolution” is transforming global corporations. Gabriola Island, BC, Canada: New Society.
Constance, D. H., & Bonanno, A. (2000). Regulating the global fisheries: The World Wildlife Fund, Unilever, and the Marine Stewardship Council. Agriculture and Human Values, 17, 125–139.
Daniel, P. (2007). African American farmers and civil rights. The Journal of Southern History, 73(1), 3–38. doi: 10.2307/27649315.
Delind, L. (2006). Of bodies, place, and culture: Re-situating local food. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 19, 121–146. doi: 10.1007/s10806-005-1803-z.
DuPuis, E. M., & Goodman, D. (2005). Should we go “home” to eat?: Toward a reflexive politics of localism. Journal of Rural Studies, 21(3), 359–371.
Eckersley, R. (2004). The green state: Rethinking democracy and sovereignty. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Edelman, M. (2008). Transnational organizing in agrarian Central America: Histories, challenges, prospects. Journal of Agrarian Change, 8(2–3), 229–257.
Edwards-Jones, G., Millá i Canals, L., Hounsome, N., Truninger, M., Koerber, G., Hounsome, B., et al. (2008). Testing the assertion that “local food is best”: The challenges of an evidence-based approach. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 19(5), 265–274.
Esty, D., & Winston, A. S. (2006). Green to gold: How smart companies use environmental strategy to innovate, create value and build competitive advantage (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Yale University Press.
EUREPGAP. (n.d.). Retrieved June 30, 2012, from http://www2.globalgap.org/about.html
Falkner, R. (2003). Private environmental governance and international relations: Exploring the links. Global Environmental Politics, 3(2), 72–87.
Feagan, R. (2007). The place of food: mapping out the “local” in local food systems. Progress in Human Geography, 31(1), 23–42. doi: 10.1177/0309132507073527.
Feenstra, G. W. (1997). Local food systems and sustainable communities. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 12(1), 28–36.
First Lady Michelle Obama Announces Collaboration with Walmart in Support of Let’s Move! Campaign. (2011). Let’s move! Retrieved June 15, 2013, from http://www.letsmove.gov/blog/2011/01/25/first-lady-michelle-obama-announces-collaboration-walmart-support-lets-move-campaign
Foucault, M. (1991). Governmentality. In G. Buchell, C. Gordon, & P. Miller (Eds.), The Foucault effect (pp. 87–104). London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
Freidberg, S. (2004). French beans and food scares: Culture and commerce in an anxious age. New York: Oxford University Press.
Fuchs, D., Kalfagianni, A., & Arentsen, M. (2009). Retail power, private standards, and sustainability in the global food system. In J. Clapp & D. Fuchs (Eds.), Corporate power in global agrifood governance (pp. 29–59). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Fuchs, D., Kalfagianni, A., & Havinga, T. (2011). Actors in private food governance: The legitimacy of retail standards and multistakeholder initiatives with civil society participation. Agriculture and Human Values, 28, 353–367.
Gareau, B. J., & DuPuis, E. M. (2009). From public to private global environmental governance: Lessons from the Montreal Protocol’s stalled methyl bromide phase-out. Environment and Planning A, 41, 2305–2323.
Gereffi, G., & Christian, M. (2009). The impacts of Wal-Mart: The rise and consequences of the world’s dominant retailer. Annual Review of Sociology, 35(1), 573–591.
Glenna, L. L., & Mitev, G. V. (2009). Global neo-liberalism, global ecological modernization, and a swine CAFO in rural Bulgaria. Journal of Rural Studies, 25(3), 289–298. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2009.01.001.
GLOBALG.A.P—Continuous Growth: GLOBALG.A.P Passes the 100.000 Producer Mark. (n.d.). Retrieved July 6, 2012, from http://www.globalgap.org/cms/front_content.php?idart=1057
Goetz, S. J., & Swaminathan, H. (2006). Wal-Mart and county-wide poverty. Social Science Quarterly, 87(2), 211–226.
Gond, J.-P., Kang, N., & Moon, J. (2011). The government of self-regulation: On the comparative dynamics of corporate social responsibility. Economy and Society, 40(4), 640–671. doi: 10.1080/03085147.2011.607364.
González, A. A., & Nigh, R. (2005). Smallholder participation and certification of organic farm products in Mexico. Journal of Rural Studies, 21(4), 449–460. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2005.08.004.
Gonzalez-Vega, C., Chalmers, G., Quiros, R., & Rodriguez-Meza, J. (2006). Hortifruti in Central America: A case study about the influence of supermarkets on the development and evolution of creditworthiness among small and medium agricultural producers (No. microREPORT #57). The Ohio State University: United States Agency for International Development.
Guthman, J. (2007). The Polanyian way? Voluntary food labels as neoliberal governance. Antipode, 39(3), 456–478.
Guthman, J., Morris, A. W., & Allen, P. (2006). Squaring farm security and food security in two types of alternative food institutions. Rural Sociology, 71(4), 662–684.
Harvey, D. (2000). Capitalism: The factory of fragmentation (1992). In J. Timmons Roberts & A. Hite (Eds.), From modernization to globalization: Perspectives on development and social change (pp. 292–297). Malden, MA: Basil Blackwell.
Hawkes, C. (2008). Dietary implications of supermarket development: A global perspective. Development Policy Review, 26(6), 657–692. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7679.2008.00428.x.
Hendrickson, M. K., & Heffernan, W. D. (2002). Opening spaces through relocalization: Locating potential resistance in the weaknesses of the global food system. Sociologia Ruralis, 42(4), 347–369.
Hinrichs, C. C. (2003). The practice and politics of food system localization. Journal of Rural Studies, 19(1), 33–45.
Hinrichs, C. C., & Kremer, K. S. (2002). Social inclusion in a Midwest local food system project. Journal of Poverty, 6(1), 65–90.
Horlings, L. G., & Marsden, T. K. (2011). Towards the real green revolution? Exploring the conceptual dimensions of a new ecological modernisation of agriculture that could “feed the world”. Special Issue on The Politics and Policy of Carbon Capture and Storage, 21(2), 441–452. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.01.004.
Hughes, A. (2005). Responsible retailers? Ethical trade and the strategic re-regulation of cross-continental food supply chains. In N. Fold & B. Pritchard (Eds.), Cross-continental food chains (pp. 141–154). Abingdon, Oxon, England: Routledge.
Hughes, A., Buttle, M., & Wrigley, N. (2007). Organisational geographies of corporate responsibility: A UK–US comparison of retailers’ ethical trading initiatives. Journal of Economic Geography, 7(4), 491–513.
Ilbery, B., & Maye, D. (2005). Alternative (shorter) food supply chains and specialist livestock products in the Scottish-English borders. Environment and Planning A, 37(5), 823–244.
Jackson, P., Ward, N., & Russell, P. (2006). Mobilising the commodity chain concept in the politics of food and farming. Journal of Rural Studies, 22(2), 129–141. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2005.08.008.
Jessop, B. (1995). The regulation approach, governance and post-Fordism: Alternative perspectives on economic and political change? Economy and Society, 24(3), 307–333. doi: 10.1080/03085149500000013.
Kay, C. (2006). Rural poverty and development strategies in Latin America. Journal of Agrarian Change, 6(4), 455–508.
Kirwan, J. (2006). The interpersonal world of direct marketing: Examining conventions of quality at UK farmers’ markets. Journal of Rural Studies, 22(3), 301–312. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2005.09.001.
Klooster, D. (2005). Environmental certification of forests: The evolution of environmental governance in a commodity network. Journal of Rural Studies, 21(4), 403–417. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2005.08.005.
Klooster, D. (2010). Standardizing sustainable development? The Forest Stewardship Council’s plantation policy review process as neoliberal environmental governance. Geoforum, 41(1), 117–129.
Kloppenburg, J. J., Hendrickson, J., & Stevenson, G. W. (1996). Coming into the food shed. Agriculture and Human Values, 13(3), 33–42.
Konefal, J., Bain, C., Mascarenhas, M., & Busch, L. (2007). Supermarkets and Supply Chains in North America. In Supermarkets and agri-food supply chains: Transformation in the production and consumption of Foods (pp. 268–287). Cheltenham, England: Edward Elgar.
Konefal, J., Mascarenhas, M., & Hatanaka, M. (2005). Governance in the global agro-food system: Backlighting the role of transnational supermarket chains. Agriculture and Human Values, 22, 291–302.
Levinson, M. (2011). The great A&P and the struggle for small business in America. New York: Hill and Wang.
Lichtenstein, N. (2006). Wal-Mart: The face of twenty-first century capitalism. New York: The New Press.
Lichtenstein, N. (2009). The retail revolution: How Wal-Mart created a brave new world of business. New York: Metropolitan Books.
localg.a.p. (n.d.). Retrieved April 14, 2013, from http://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/what-we-do/localg.a.p./
Loeb, W. (2013, March 7). Successful global growers: What we can learn from Walmart, Carrefour, Tesco, Metro. Forbes. Retrieved July 29, 2013, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/walterloeb/2013/03/07/walmart-carrefour-tesco-metro-successful-global-growers-what-can-we-learn-from-them/
Lord, J. D. (2006). Wal-Mart supercenter market share of grocery retailing in US metropolitan areas. In S. D. Brunn (Ed.), Wal-Mart world (pp. 55–61). New York: Routledge.
Mariola, M. J. (2008). The local industrial complex? Questioning the link between local foods and energy use. Agriculture and Human Values, 25(2), 193–196.
Markelova, H., Meinzen-Dick, R., Hellin, J., & Dohrn, S. (2009). Collective action for smallholder market access. Collective Action for Smallholder Market Access, 34(1), 1–7. doi: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2008.10.001.
Marsden, T. (2004). The quest for ecological modernisation: Re-spacing rural development and agri-food studies. Sociologia Ruralis, 44(2), 129–146. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9523.2004.00267.x.
Marsden, T. (2010). Mobilizing the regional eco-economy: Evolving webs of agri-food and rural development in the UK. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 3(2), 225–244. doi: 10.1093/cjres/rsq010.
Marsden, T., Lee, R., & Thankappan, S. (2010). The new regulation and governance of food: Beyond the food crisis? New York: Routledge.
MCC Completes First Compact, Celebrates Successful Partnership with Honduras. (2010, September 17). Millenium challenge corporation. Press Release: Retrieved September 19, 2010, from http://www.mcc.gov/pages/press/release/release-091710-mcccompletesfirst
McCarthy, J. (2005). Devolution in the woods: Community forestry as hybrid neoliberalism. Environment and Planning A, 37, 995–1014.
McCarthy, J. (2006). Neoliberalism and the politics of alternatives: Community forestry in British Columbia and the United States. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 96(1), 84–104.
McCarthy, J., & Prudham, S. (2004). Neoliberal nature and the nature of neoliberalism. Geoforum, 35(3), 275–283.
McMichael, P. (1996). Globalization: Myths and realities. Rural Sociology, 61(1), 25–55.
McMichael, P. (2004). Development and social change (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
McMichael, P., & Friedmann, H. (2007). Situating the ‘Retailing revolution’. In Supermarkets and agri-food supply chains: Transformation in the production and consumption of foods (pp. 291–319). Cheltenham, England: Edward Elgar.
Mendell, M. (1989). Market reforms and market failures: Karl Polanyi and the paradox of convergence. Journal of Economic Issues, 23(2), 473–481. doi: 10.2307/4226145.
Michelson, H. (2013). Small farmers, NGOs, and a Walmart world: Welfare effects of supermarkets operating in Nicaragua. American Journal of Agricultural Economics. DOI: 10.1093/ajae/aas139
Michelson, H., Reardon, T., & Perez, F. (2012). Small farmers and big retail: Trade-offs of supplying supermarkets in Nicaragua. World Development, 40(2), 342–354. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.07.013.
Minten, B., & Reardon, T. (2008). Food prices, quality, and quality’s pricing in supermarkets versus traditional markets in developing countries. Review of Agricultural Economics, 30(3), 480–490.
Moore, K., Kleinman, D. L., Hess, D., & Frickel, S. (2011). Science and neoliberal globalization: A political sociological approach. Theory and Society, 40(5), 505–532.
Morley, A., Morgan, S., & Morgan, K. (2008). Food hubs: The “Missing Middle” of the local food infrastructure? Cardiff University: BRASS Centre. Retrieved from http://www.brass.cf.ac.uk/uploads/Food_HubKM0908.pdf
MS Area Newsletters Mississippi NRCS. (n.d.). Retrieved March 1, 2013, from http://www.ms.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/StrikeForce%20Initiative.html
Onozaka, Y., Nurse, G., & Thilmany McFadden, D. (2010). Local food consumers: How motivations and perceptions translate to buying behavior. Choices, 25(1). Retrieved from http://www.choicesmagazine.org/magazine/article.php?article=109
Painter, E. (2009). The farm-to-market value chain approach linking smallholders to Wal-Mart in Honduras (No. microREPORT #139). USAID.
Pattberg, P. H., Biermann, F., & Chan, S. (2012). Public–private partnerships for sustainable development: Emergence, influence and legitimacy. Cheltenham, England: Edward Elgar.
Polanyi, K. (1944). The great transformation: The political and economic origins of our time. Boston: Beacon.
Portes, A. (2000). Neoliberalism and the sociology of development: Emerging trends and unanticipated facts. In T. Roberts & A. Hite (Eds.), From modernization to globalization: Perspectives on development and social change (pp. 353–372). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Prevor, J. (2008, August 28). Digging into Wal-Mart’s “Locally Grown” numbers. Jim Prevor’s Perishable Pundit. Retrieved July 29, 2013, from http://www.perishablepundit.com/index.php?date=08/28/2008
Randall, A. (1983). Problem of market failure. The Natural Resources Journal, 23, 131.
Raynolds, L., Murray, D., & Heller, A. (2007). Regulating sustainability in the coffee sector: A comparative analysis of third-party environmental and social certification initiatives. Agriculture and Human Values, 24, 147–163. doi: 10.1007/s10460-006-9047-8.
Reardon, T., & Berdegué, J. A. (2002). The rapid rise of supermarkets in Latin America: Challenges and opportunities for development. Development Policy Review, 20(4), 371–388.
Reardon, T., & Timmer, C. P. (2007). Transformation of markets for agricultural output in developing countries since 1950: How has thinking changed. In R. E. Evenson & P. Pingali (Eds.), Agricultural development: Farmers, farm production and farm markets (Vol. 3, pp. 2807–2855). Amsterdam: Elsevier Press. Chapter 55.
Reardon, T., Timmer, C. P., Barrett, C. B., & Berdegué, J. (2003). The rise of supermarkets in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 85(5), 1140–1146.
Renting, H., Marsden, T., & Banks, J. (2003). Understanding alternative food networks: Exploring the role of short food supply chains in rural development. Environment and Planning A, 35, 393–411.
Rodríguez, I. (2006). Innovaciones Organizacionales de Pequeños Productores de Vegetales para Participar en Canales de Comercialización Dinámicos en Honduras (AgroPyme). Regoverning Markets Small-scale producers in modern agrifood markets. Retrieved from www.regoverningmarkets.org
Salamon, L. M. (1987). Of market failure, voluntary failure, and third-party government: Toward a theory of government-nonprofit relations in the modern welfare state. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 16(1–2), 29–49. doi: 10.1177/089976408701600104.
Schäferhoff, M., Campe, S., & Kaan, C. (2009). Transnational public-private partnerships in international relations: Making sense of concepts, research frameworks, and results. International Studies Review, 11(3), 451–474. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2486.2009.00869.x.
Schortman, A. (2010). “The children cry for Burger King”: Modernity, development, and fast food consumption in Northern Honduras. Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture, 4(3), 318–337.
Scott, L. (2005, October 24). Twenty first century leadership. Retrieved from http://walmartfacts.com/reports/2006/sustainability/documents/21stCenturyLeadership.pdf
Secretary Vilsack Launches USDA “StrikeForce” Initiative to Boost Rural Economic Growth and Opportunity | USDA Newsroom. (2013, March 26). United States Department of Agriculture. News Release No. 0054.13. Retrieved September 20, 2013, from http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?contentid=2013/03/0054.xml
Smith, A. (1925). An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations. In E. Cannan (Ed.), (Vols. I & II). London: Methuen & Co., Ltd.
Soederberg, S. (2004). American empire and “excluded states”: The millennium challenge account and the shift to pre-emptive development. Third World Quarterly, 25(2), 279–302.
Spaargaren, G., Mol, A. P. J., & Bruyninckx, H. (2006). Introduction: Governing environmental flows in global modernity. In Governing environmental flows: Global challenges to social theory (pp. 1–36). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Stevis, D., & Bruyninckx, H. (2005). Looking through the state at environmental flows and governance. In G. Spaargaren, A. P. J. Mol, & F. Buttel (Eds.), Governing environmental flows: Global challenges to social theory (pp. 107–136). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Stonich, S. C. (1991a). The political economy of environmental destruction: Food security in Southern Honduras. In Harvest of want: Hunger and food security in Central America and Mexico (pp. 45–74).
Stonich, S. C. (1991b). The promotion of non-traditional agricultural exports in Honduras: Issues of equity, environment and natural resource management. Development and Change, 22(4), 725–755. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7660.1991.tb00432.x.
StrikeForce, for Rural Growth and Opportunity. (n.d.). USDA Rural development. Georgia. Retrieved March 1, 2013, from http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/gastrikeforce.html
Stuart, D. (2009). Constrained choice and ethical dilemmas in land management: Environmental quality and food safety in California agriculture. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 22(1), 53–71. doi: 10.1007/s10806-008-9129-2.
Summers, B. (2012, July 5). Opening doors for small and mid-sized farmers in national retail markets. USDA Blog. Retrieved July 17, 2013, from http://blogs.usda.gov/2012/07/05/opening-doors-for-small-and-mid-sized-farmers-in-national-retail-markets/
Testimony of Ronald G. McCormick Senior Director, Sustainable Agriculture Produce, Floral and Local Sourcing Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. (2012). “Healthy food initiatives, local production, and nutrition.” Retrieved from http://www.ag.senate.gov/hearings/healthy-food-initiatives-local-production-and-nutrition
The Low-Wage Drag on Our Economy: Wal-Mart’s low wages and their effect on taxpayers and economic growth (Prepared by the Democratic staff of the U.S. House Committee on Education and the Workforce) (2013).
USAID and Walmart Join Forces to Help Small Farmers and Enhance Food Security in Central America. (2011, March 22). Retrieved March 28, 2011, from http://www.usaid.gov/press/releases/2011/pr110322_1.html
USDA Rural Development Mississippi hosted a Small Farmer Intensive (SFI). (2012). USDA Office of Advocacy & Outreach. Events 2012. Retrieved February 17, 2013, from http://www.outreach.usda.gov/events.htm
USDA StrikeForce Initiative Arkansas NRCS. (n.d.). Retrieved March 1, 2013, from http://www.ar.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/strikeforce.html
Walmart Announces Sustainable Product Index. (2009). Walmartstores.com: Retrieved January 16, 2010, from http://walmartstores.com/FactsNews/NewsRoom/9277.aspx
Walmart Commits to America’s Farmers as Produce Aisles Go Local. (2008, July 1). Retrieved April 30, 2010, from http://walmartstores.com/pressroom/news/8414.aspx
Walmart local sourcing expert testifies before Senate Agriculture Committee. (2012). Walmart Sustainability—The Green Room. Retrieved February 17, 2013, from http://www.walmartgreenroom.com/2012/03/walmart-local-sourcing-expert-testifies-before-senate-agriculture-committee/
Walmart Unveils Global Sustainable Agriculture Goals. (2010, October 14). Walmartstores.com. Retrieved October 15, 2010, from http://walmartstores.com/pressroom/news/10376.aspx
Watkins, S. C., Swidler, A., & Hannan, T. (2012). Outsourcing social transformation: Development NGOs as organizations. Annual Review of Sociology, 38, 285–315.
Winter, M. (2003). Embeddedness, the new food economy and defensive localism. Journal of Rural Studies, 19(1), 23–32. doi: 10.1016/S0743-0167(02)00053-0.
Wrigley, N. (2002). Transforming the corporate landscape of US food retailing: Market power, financial re-engineering and regulation. Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie, 93(1), 62–82.
Wrigley, N., Coe, N. M., & Currah, A. (2005). Globalizing retail: Conceptualizing the distribution-based transnational corporation (TNC). Progress in Human Geography, 29(4), 437–457.
- Subsidizing Sustainability: The Role of the State and Civil Society in Implementing Wal-Mart’s Local Produce Sourcing Program
J. Dara Bloom
- Chapter 4
microm, Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Avaloq/© Avaloq Evolution AG, Avaloq/© Avaloq