To assess the influence of acidic deposition on the forest ecosystem, it is necessary to evaluate the gross amount of acidic deposition. In this paper, we discuss the variation of sulfate (SO42) and nitrate (NO3) loads as well as related concentration from 1991 to 1999 in the Hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa) plantation in Kochi, southwest Japan. The annual precipitation varied significantly from 1,700 to 3,900 mm during the study period. The annual sulfate concentration of rainfall was about 15 μmol L-1, including about 80% non sea salt sulfate, while the annual nitrate concentration of rainfall was increased. The sulfate and nitrate concentrations of the through fall and the nitrate concentration of the stem flow were equal to or slightly higher than those of rainfall. However, the sulfate concentration of the stem flow was higher than that of rainfall, 21 to 55 μmol L-1. The sulfate and nitrate loads of rainfall were measured to be 27 to 46 and 14 to 43 mmol m-2 y-1, respectively. The sulfate and nitrate loads of the through fall were the same or slightly higher than those of rainfall. In contrast, the sulfate and nitrate loads of the stem flow were less than those of rainfall. Combined sulfate loads of the through fall and the stem flow reached about 1.5 times that of the sulfate load of rainfall.
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- Sulfate and Nitrate Loads on a Forest Ecosystem in Kochi in Southwest of Japan
- Springer Netherlands