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Über dieses Buch

This PhD thesis presents the latest findings on the tunable surface chemistry of graphene/graphene oxide by systematically investigating the tuning of oxygen and nitrogen containing functional groups using an innovative carbonization and ammonia treatment. In addition, novel macroscopic assemblies or hybrids of graphene were produced, laying the theoretical foundation for developing graphene-based energy storage devices. This work will be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students working with carbon materials, energy storage and nanotechnology.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Literature Review and Research Background

Abstract
Graphene, a two-dimensional crystal of sp2 hybridized carbon atoms which are one-atom thick, is the thinnest artificial material at present. It is the basic building block for fullerenes (0D), carbon nanotube (1D), and graphite (3D) (Fig. 1.1) (Geim in and Novoselov Nat Mater 6:183–91, [1]).
Cheng-Meng Chen

Chapter 2. Structural Evolution of the Thermally Reduced Graphene NanosheetsDuring Annealing

Abstract
Supercapacitor, also called electrochemical capacitor or ultracapacitor, is considered to be one of the newest innovations in the field of electrical energy storage. Compared to the battery devices, it is not limited by the electrochemical charge transfer kinetics of batteries, and thus owns unique advantages in high power density (10 kW kg−1), short charge/discharge duration (in seconds), and long cycle life (over a million cycles) [1, 2]. These features have made supercapacitors very popular in various applications, such as hybrid electric vehicles, electric tools, and industrial power management [3].
Cheng-Meng Chen

Chapter 3. Hierarchical Amination of Graphene for Electrochemical Energy Storage

Abstract
Recently, three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical architectures of nanosheets, nanoplates, nanotubes, nanowires, and nanospheres have attracted great interest in energy conversion and storage, nano-composites, sustainable catalysis, optoelectronics, and drug delivery systems, due to their outstanding electrochemical performance such as its ultrahigh surface-to-volume ratio, high porosity, strong mechanical strength, excellent electrical conductivity and fast mass, and electron transport kinetics [1, 2]. For example, various nanosheets, such as graphene and graphene oxide [39], layered double hydroxides [10], and natural clays [11], have been successfully applied in energy conversion and storage.
Cheng-Meng Chen

Chapter 4. Free-Standing Graphene Film with High Conductivity by Thermal Reduction of Self-assembled Graphene Oxide Film

Abstract
Graphene, as a two-dimensional crystal of sp2 conjugated carbon atoms, is viewed as a building block for carbonaceous materials of other dimensionalities including zero-dimensional fullerenes, one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, and three-dimensional (3D) graphite [1].
Cheng-Meng Chen

Chapter 5. Template-Directed Macroporous ‘Bubble’ Graphene Film for the Application in Supercapacitors

Abstract
Nanostructured carbon with assembled building blocks in diverse scales is of great importance for energy storage [13]. Graphene, as a two-dimensional crystal composed by sp2 carbon atoms, has been assembled into three-dimensional (3D) macroscopic fibers [4], films [5, 6] and hybrids [7, 8], as well as porous materials [912] with multifunctional properties and applications.
Cheng-Meng Chen

Chapter 6. SnO2@Graphene Composite Electrodes for the Application in Electrochemical Energy Storage

Abstract
Advanced energy storage and conversion is of great importance for the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and batteries, are playing a core role in balancing the energy generated by engines, solar, and wind power. Supercapacitors, or electrochemical capacitors, are energy storage devices that store charges electrostatically through the reversible adsorption/desorption of ions in the electrolyte onto active materials [1, 2], while Li-ion batteries, which consist of two electrodes that are capable of reversibly hosting Li in ionic form [35], are widely used for consumer electronics, power management, and hybrid electric vehicles.
Cheng-Meng Chen

Chapter 7. Main Conclusions and Plan of Further Work

Abstract
Thermally reduced graphene (TRG) with tailored surface chemistry was prepared by vacuum promoted thermal expansion of GO, followed by annealing at different temperatures. In one aspect, the C=O components (mainly contributed by carboxyls and carbonyls) are dramatically decreased from 8.71 at.% (GO) to only 1.40 at.% (G250), while the C(O)O related components (mainly ascribed to anhydrides and lactones) are simultaneously increased from 0.66 at.% (GO) to 1.52 at.% (G250) during annealing at 250 °C.
Cheng-Meng Chen
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