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Surface spreading is the simplest, oldest, and mostly widely used method of managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Stormwater, river water, treated wastewater, and other waters are either applied to a land surface or locally impounded in infiltration basins, reservoirs, or modified stream channels. Typically, the water table is located below land surface, at least at the start of surface spreading, and the infiltrated water passes through the unsaturated zone. As infiltration progresses, the water table may rise to land surface at the spreading site. Surface spreading can be an efficient means of recharging shallow unconfined (water-table) aquifers where conditions are favorable. Infiltration basins are shallow impounded areas designed to temporarily store, infiltrate, and treat water. Hydrogeological characterization of prospective infiltration basin sites involves infiltration testing and evaluation of the hydraulic properties of the strata between the basin floor and the water table. The main operational challenge of infiltration basin systems is usually management of clogging, which is addressed through pretreatment and periodic maintenance activities.
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- Surface Spreading System—Infiltration Basins
Robert G. Maliva
- Chapter 15