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Über dieses Buch

This compilation on sustainability issues in civil engineering comprises contributions from international experts who have been working in the area of sustainability in civil engineering. Many of the contributions have been presented as keynote lectures at the International Conference on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure (ICSCI) held in Hyderabad, India.
The book has been divided into core themes of Sustainable Transportation Systems, Sustainable Geosystems, Sustainable Environmental and Water Resources and Sustainable Structural Systems. Use of sustainability principles in engineering has become an important component of the process of design and in this context, design and analysis approaches in civil engineering are being reexamined to incorporate the principles of sustainable designs and construction in practice. Developing economies are on the threshold of rapid infrastructure growth and there is a need to compile the developments in various branches of civil engineering and highlight the issues. It is this need that prompted the composition of this book. The contents of this book will be useful to students, professionals, and researchers working on sustainability related problems in civil engineering. The book also provides a perspective on sustainability for practicing civil engineers who are not directly researching the problems but are affected by the concerns in the course of their profession. The book can also serve to highlight to policy makers and governing bodies the need to have a mandate for sustainable infrastructural development.



Sustainable Transportation Systems


Chapter 1. Sustainable Usage of Construction and Demolition Materials in Roads and Footpaths

The increase in generation of waste from construction activities along with significant increase in global population has led to increasing focus and research on reuse of waste material. In this paper, the application of construction and demolition (C&D) materials in road works is reviewed and discussed. C&D materials were evaluated by laboratory testing methods to assess their viability for reuse in roads and footpaths. Several unique field case studies where C&D materials have been used are also reported. C&D materials studied include recycled concrete aggregate (RCA), crushed brick (CB), reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), fine recycled glass (FRG), and waste rock (WR). C&D materials were found to be suitable for road and footpath applications such as embankment fills, pavement base/subbase, and pipe bedding applications.
Arul Arulrajah, Mahdi M. Disfani, Suksun Horpibulsuk

Chapter 2. A Few Dilemmas Pertaining Transportation Infrastructures and Their Sustainability

This paper deals with transportation infrastructures. It focuses on the estimate of benefits and costs (agency, user and environmental externalities) deriving from the application of the following main concepts (dilemmas): (i) transition towards pervious pavements, (ii) ‘hyper-’monitoring tendency (continuous monitoring of pavement structural condition), (iii) reinforcement tendency (increase of the expected life of a pavement due to reinforcement) and (iv) ‘hyper-’recycling tendency (high percentage of recycling in road pavements). A method is set up. Consequences in terms of the present value of the assets costs are estimated.
Filippo G. Pratico

Chapter 3. Bitumen-Stabilised Materials for Sustainable Road Infrastructure

Cold in-place recycling (CIPR) consists of milling existing distressed pavement-layer materials to a predetermined depth and mixing it with foamed bitumen (FB) or emulsion along with virgin aggregates. The mixture of reclaimed asphalt pavement material, foamed binder, active filler and fresh aggregates is called as bitumen-stabilised material (BSM). The mix design, material characterisation and design of pavement structures with BSM are currently in the development stages world over.
One of the key questions to be answered while designing and constructing pavements with BSM mix is the characterisation of the BSM under all the ranges of temperature, confinement conditions and life. It is expected that BSM mix can show behaviour similar to that of a granular material or a bituminous material at different stages of compaction, active filler content and confinement conditions during the design life.
In this chapter, the factors affecting the foaming process are discussed. The characterisation of BSM mixes carried out by the researchers is explained. The evaluation of sections which were constructed using CIPR technology in India is also discussed, and the needed research is highlighted.
M. K. Nivedya, A. Veeraragavan

Chapter 4. Sustainable Transportation for Indian Cities: Role of Intelligent Transportation Systems

This chapter looks at how intelligent transportation systems can help create a sustainable transportation plan for a city through improvements in the efficiency of system. The chapter attempts to argue that a proper measure of efficiency of transportation systems will lead to a more sustainable system. The chapter also highlights the issues that need attention in order to create a sustainable urban mobility plan.
Partha Chakroborty

Chapter 5. Economic Sustainability Considerations in Asphalt Pavement Design

The present article briefly highlights the thought process involved in economizing an asphalt pavement structure, while its thicknesses are designed from structural considerations. The need for building a sustainable infrastructure encourages development of alternative materials and technologies. This brings in changes to the original design solution. Thus, the present article discusses how the economic sustainability considerations are involved in the asphalt pavement design process.
Animesh Das

Chapter 6. Sustainable Design of Indian Rural Roads with Reclaimed Asphalt Materials

Designing low-volume roads (LVRs) or rural roads without having premature failures, in terms of heavy rutting and fatigue cracking, has always been a challenging task for the design engineers. This is especially due to the design procedures followed to obtain the pavement thickness which is completely based on the subgrade soil properties and the expected traffic volume. The current design procedure in India neglects the properties of the pavement material in base/subbase layers which will, in principle, provide structural support to the traffic loading. Hence, there is a need to revisit the design methodology by adopting the damage analysis of these pavement layers. Besides, the longevity of the pavement system can be improved by adopting sustainable pavement materials such as a combination of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) material and virgin aggregates (VA). This study focuses on developing a design chart for selecting the thickness of base layer for low-volume roads when 80 % RAP material and 20 % VA mixture treated with different dosages of fly ash are used based on damage analysis. For the damage analysis, resilient modulus and unconfined compressive strength of the pavement layers are necessary to adopt in pavement analyses software such as KENLAYER and IITPAVE. The resilient modulus data was obtained from repeated loading triaxial tests in this study. Damage analysis has been performed in KENLAYER to obtain the desired pavement thickness calculated corresponding to a design life of 10 years. In addition, the fatigue and rutting strains developed in the pavement layers due to a standard wheel load obtained from KENLAYER are compared with the data obtained from IITPAVE software. It is noticed that based on the damage analysis, the base layer thickness has been reduced by about 50 % when 80R:20A mix stabilized with 40 % fly ash against conventional virgin aggregates.
Sireesh Saride, Anu M. George, Deepti Avirneni, B. Munwar Basha

Chapter 7. Sustainability of Railway Tracks

The infrastructural growth of the railways has brought the railway track sustainability into a fresh perspective. Safe, stable, durable, and sustainable tracks are of paramount importance for the efficient function of the railways. In this paper, the development of the railway track from its inception to the present-day scenario has been presented. Numerous studies, conducted by researchers all over the world, that are aimed at studying the track response and improving its performance have been discussed. The analytical and numerical models developed to study the stresses and deformations in the track structure have been examined. It has been established that reinforcement of the track structure with geosynthetics reduces its settlement, increases the bearing capacity, and improves the drainage performance.
Sarvesh Chandra, Devanshee Shukla

Chapter 8. Using System Dynamics to Identify, Evaluate, and Implement Sustainable Policies and Practices in the Road Construction Industry

Sustainable road construction is a topic that is currently in vogue among decision makers in the public and private sectors. On the one hand, the need for new roads and a well-maintained transportation infrastructure is necessary to sustain an ever-growing population and to both foster and accommodate economic development. On the other hand, road construction causes more fossil fuel to be burned, more greenhouse gases to be released, and more agricultural and forest land to be destroyed – effects that, in the extreme, go directly against the tenets of sustainable development. How then do we identify, evaluate, and adopt sustainable road construction and maintenance policies? This question is not simple, has no obvious answer, and has no analytical solution because road construction and maintenance is a multidisciplinary, complex, nonlinear feedback process. Solving problems of this type requires the use of simulation modeling. Simulation can be used to understand the problem and develop policies and practices that lead to improved system performance. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how system dynamics computer simulation modeling can be used to better understand the challenges associated with sustainable road construction and maintenance and to develop policies that enable these vital activities to be undertaken sustainably.
Rajib B. Mallick, Michael J. Radzicki

Sustainable Geosystems


Chapter 9. Resilient and Sustainable Geotechnical Solution: Lessons Learned from the 2011 Great East Japan Disaster

This paper first describes the field tests conducted on a tire retaining wall that miraculously survived in the 2011 Great East Japan disaster. The paper then proposes a new concept of using waste tires behind the seawall in order to protect such coastal structures from the damage due to impact force of tsunami. A physical model for tsunami impact force simulation was developed and described to evaluate the reduction effect of tsunami impact force by the tire structures. Finally, from aesthetic point of view, cultivation of suitable plants inside the tires was proposed. Field tests on planting trees that can grow in saline soil conditions were performed to see whether tire structures can preserve the greenery of the area. The results of this research, thus, can go a long way toward providing a sustainable solution for infrastructure development in the future.
Hemanta Hazarika, Tadashi Hara, Yasuhide Fukumoto

Chapter 10. Reinforced Piled Embankments for Sustainable Infrastructure Development

The Geosynthetic Reinforced Piled Embankment Systems provide cost economic solutions for the construction of high embankments even on very soft clay soils. They are fast to construct and enable the usage of marginal locally available soils to help in sustainable growth of infrastructure. These systems consist of cement concrete columns acting as pile columns and basal reinforcement at the ground level below the embankment. The design of these systems relies on empirical methods leading to uneconomical solutions. Especially, the design of such embankments resting on floating piles in thick soft clay soils is extremely conservative. No detailed guidelines are available for such cases. Through numerical simulation studies, this paper brings out the performance of these embankments under progressive consolidation of the foundation soil. More accurate arching coefficients are proposed for the design of these systems.
K. Rajagopal, Anjana Bhasi

Chapter 11. Experimental Modeling of Unsaturated Intermediate Geomaterials for Sustainable Design of Geotechnical Infrastructure

Over the last few decades, intensive and sustained experimental efforts have been undertaken worldwide that have defined the threshold of our understanding of unsaturated soil behavior. The adoption of matric suction and the excess of total stress over air pressure, that is, net normal stress, as the relevant stress state variables, have facilitated the investigation of key features of unsaturated soil behavior via either axis-translation or vapor transfer technique. The present paper documents some of the most recent advances in experimental modeling of intermediate geomaterials over a whole range of suction-controlled paths and modes of deformation. Its main sections describe the test protocols and corresponding results from suction-controlled resonant column, biaxial, triaxial, and ring shear testing programs recently accomplished at the Advanced Geomechanics Laboratory (AGL) of the University of Texas at Arlington, via either axis-translation or vapor transfer technique.
Laureano R. Hoyos, Anand J. Puppala

Chapter 12. Underground Space for Sustainable Urban Development: Experiences from Urban Underground Metro Constructions in India

For thousands of years, underground has provided humans refuge, useful resources, physical support for surface structures, and a place for spiritual or artistic expression. More recently, many urban services have been placed underground. Over this time, humans have rarely considered how underground space can contribute to or be engineered to maximize its contribution to the sustainability of society. Tunneling works and other forms of underground construction have been taken up recently in India as part of urban mass transit operations. The experiences from the various underground metro constructions in India are consolidated along with the technologies used for the tunneling procedure. For this, case studies of the four underground metro constructions in India are presented. The different methods of tunneling and its procedure with their suitability in different situations are also looked into. From the stability point of view, tunneling can be a significant cause of settlement resulting in huge damages to surface structures in densely populated cities. This paper also focuses on the development of computational procedures including DEM and FEM to model the soil stresses and deformations that develop as a consequence of underground construction and underground space creation. Methods are being developed to access the risk of settlement-induced damage of these openings.
T. G. Sitharam, S. D. Anitha Kumari

Chapter 13. Sand–Tire Chip Mixtures for Sustainable Geoengineering Applications

The applications of scrap tire-derived recycled materials in civil engineering applications have been increasing largely because of their potential economic and environmental benefits. This paper first evaluates sand–tire chip (STC) mixture properties and then discusses about the application of STC mixtures in geoengineering applications through laboratory model studies. Locally available sand and tire chips of 20 mm long with 10 mm square cross section are adopted for preparing the STC mixtures. Tire chips are mixed with sand in various percentages, ranging from 10 to 70 % with an increment of 10 %. Index and mechanical properties of sand–tire chip mixtures are determined for different proportions. Based on large direct shear tests, it was found that internal friction angle values are increased with TC contents up to 30 %. The study indicates that the optimum percentage of tire chips of the selected size is in the range of 30–40 % by weight, which is the equivalent of 50–60 % by volume. Model tests on retaining wall models by using various STC mixtures ranging from 10 to 50 % were discussed. The paper concluded that the STC mixture at the optimum ratio results in lightweight material with 20 % less unit weight with better strength parameters and compressibility behavior, which can effectively be used for geoengineering applications.
S. Bali Reddy, A. Murali Krishna

Chapter 14. Evaluation of Bioreactor Landfill as Sustainable Land Disposal Method

Sustainable municipal solid waste management has become a challenge to the engineers in the present world. Good pretreatment methods coupled with landfilling are looked as sustainable means of disposal of municipal solid waste. Bioreactor landfill is one such sustainable option. In the present study two landfill simulators (dry and leachate recirculation) were used to investigate the effect of leachate recirculation on the stabilisation process of mechanically biologically treated (MBT) municipal solid waste (MSW). The simulator with a leachate recirculation had a higher degree of waste stabilisation towards the end of the experiment due to higher moisture content and micro-organisms. The results observed at the end of 380 days prevail that the process combination of above operational parameters adopted in bioreactor was a more efficient approach for stabilisation of MSW. After 1 year of operation, the residues of the simulators were analysed, and it was found that the settlement and gas production were greater in leachate recirculation simulator than the dry simulator. The carbon content reduced in the bioreactor simulator by more than 60 % compared to the dry simulator. It was also observed that the biodegradation time for MBT-MSW was reduced in bioreactor simulator compared to maximum values presented in the literature.
P. Lakshmikanthan, L. G. Santhosh, G. L. Sivakumar Babu

Sustainable Environmental and Water Resources


Chapter 15. Assessment of Landfill Sustainability

Assessing landfills in terms of sustainability is a difficult task and needs to be addressed comprehensively. In this paper, we present an initial operationalisation of this approach for a pragmatic legal landfill assessment and its application to assess two prototypic Swiss landfills as part of a pilot study. Thereby, the six generic criteria of SPA are specified using 18 functional key variables (FKVs), such as ‘control of pollutant release’ or ‘resilience to intended human impacts’. The first results from the pilot study indicate that SPA and its generic criteria provide a purposeful guiding framework for achieving a systemic and comprehensive SD assessment that seems (i) to be feasible for practical application, (ii) sensitive for relevant SD issues and (iii) transparent for the addressees of the assessment results. The results show that thermal treatment of the unrecyclable part of the waste stream is the preferred option for waste management when compared to modern landfilling. Furthermore, Eco-indicator 99 method is used to investigate the human health, ecosystem quality and resource use impact categories.
G. L. Sivakumar Babu, P. Lakshmikanthan, L. G. Santhosh

Chapter 16. Approaches to Selecting Sustainable Technologies for Remediation of Contaminated Sites: Case Studies

Conventional remediation technologies are designed and implemented with the aim of achieving reduction of contaminant concentrations to meet the remedial goals in a cost-effective and timely manner. On the contrary, green and sustainable remediation (GSR) is a holistic approach to remediation which helps reduce the overall environmental impact by weighing out different technically feasible remedial options and selecting the one with minimal impact. This paper provides in-depth information pertaining to the application of GSR at three different contaminated sites in Illinois, USA. All the three sites had varied contaminant characteristics and site-specific conditions for which different remedial options were evaluated. Environmental site assessment reports were reviewed, and the final recommendations for remedial action (RA) were made based on conducting a qualitative as well as quantitative comparison between technically feasible remedial options using available tools to quantify the sustainability metrics, such as Green Remediation Evaluation Matrix (GREM), Illinois Greener Cleanups Matrix, Sustainable Remediation Technology (SRTTM), and SiteWiseTM. Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) were developed by incorporating best management practices (BMPs), and the use of coupled-treatment techniques (remedial train) was proposed and designed for site-specific conditions along with detailed cost estimates and expected time frame to achieve the remedial goals. Long-term monitoring and maintenance plans were also included in the proposed RAPs.
Bala Yamini Sadasivam, Krishna R. Reddy

Chapter 17. Disinfection of Water Using Pulsed Power Technique: Effect of System Parameters and Kinetic Study

The present study investigated the use of pulsed power technique for disinfection of water under different operating and environmental conditions. Final concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) like hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, ozone and superoxide radicals generated in the system were found to be 56 mg/L, 17 mg/L, 1 mg/L and 18 mg/L, respectively, for an applied voltage of 23 kV, frequency of 25 Hz and a streamer discharge time of 12 min. It was observed that disinfection efficiency was high with sequential stress compared to continuous stress. The disinfection efficiency increased with increasing applied voltage and frequency. Disinfection efficiency was high when pH was less than 7. The presence of alkalinity, natural organic matter and turbidity reduced the disinfection efficiency significantly. For 7 log reduction of E. coli, the treatment time was increased from 6 min to 10 min, when pH was increased from 4 to 9. Complete disinfection of E. coli was achieved in a short treatment time of 4 min to 10 min, with an energy consumption of 0.0056 kWh to 0.014 kWh for 50 mL of contaminated water. An empirical model for optimum disinfection efficiency was developed using Box-Behnken design (BBD). As per the model, applied voltage, time of treatment and alkalinity were found to be the most significant factors affecting the disinfection efficiency. The model predicted values were in good agreement with the experimental values. Rate constant for disinfection and ROS formation was also evaluated. Rate of disinfection was between 0.59 and 1.68 log(cfu/mL)/min.
Raj Kamal Singh, Vigneshwar Babu, Ligy Philip, Sarathi Ramanujam

Sustainable Structural Systems


Chapter 18. Pre-engineered Bamboo Structures: A Step Towards Sustainable Construction

This paper presents the new developments undertaken by the bamboo research group (BRG) at IIT Delhi in the area of sustainable construction. Bamboo is a natural grass, which grows fully in much less time and with much less resources as compared to timber, which is fast depleting across the world. A scientific design approach has been formulated recently by BRG along with detailed material characterization (which includes both strength and elastic characterization) of the common Indian species Dendrocalamus strictus. This is followed by the development of modular structural components, which, when connected, can pave way for pre-engineered construction. In order to achieve easy connectability, special steel shoes have been developed which easily fix at the ends of the bamboo culms, hold up there through friction and impart weldability as well as bolting. The paper also briefly describes the development of high-capacity flexural/compression members, which can pave way for the construction of full portal frame of multistory buildings.
Suresh Bhalla, Roger P. West, Diwaker Bhagat, Mukul Gupta, Aaarti Nagpal

Chapter 19. Sustainability: Way Forward in Architectural Engineering

“What’s the more sustainable alternative?” “How does these substitutes work?” “Where has that been done earlier?” “Who can source it?” Some of the major sustainable development challenges that threaten the construction industry include issues that have global as well as local importance, such as resource exhaustion, protecting biodiversity, and climate change. This paper gives practical information about the components that have key role in meeting the challenges of sustainable construction and development. It is based on the simple concept of ensuring a better quality life for everyone, now and for generations to come.
S. P. Anchuri, N. V. Ramana Rao

Chapter 20. Harnessing Sustainable Solutions Through Challenges: A Case Study of World Record Long-Distance Pumping of Concrete

This paper depicts some of the experiences gained while solving challenges of pumping concrete through a world record distance of 2432 m in a sustainable manner. The choice of method and materials made the overall scheme have a better sustainable footprint. Pumping of concrete is more of an art requiring synergistic association of assured quality materials, equipments, plant and machinery, weather, and most importantly manpower. Holistic planning, minute detailing of methodology, and above all disciplined execution made such an effort successful. Full-scale field trials, safety planning, monitoring of weather, and maintaining adequate control points play an integral role.
Chetan Hazaree, Viswanath Mahadevan, Sunil Bauchkar, Shankar Kottur
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