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2023 | Buch

Sustainable Advanced Technologies for Industrial Pollution Control

Proceedings of ATIPC 2022


Über dieses Buch

This proceedings volume constitutes peer-reviewed full-length papers contributed by the Authors and tailored on various thematic areas of the 3rd International Conference on “Advanced Technologies for Industrial Pollution Control” (ATIPC – 2022). The areas of research covered by these papers include but are not limited to:

•Water quality monitoring and treatment in industrial area

•Industrial effluent treatment, reuse and conservation

•Monitoring of industrial emission and control

•Industrial solid waste management

•Handling and disposal of hazardous waste

•Case Studies on industrial pollution control

•Innovative technologies in industrial waste management



Water Quality Monitoring and Treatment in Industrial Area

Water Decontamination Through Thiamethoxam Removal Using DL-Menthol/Octanoic Acid Deep Eutectic Solvent: Molecular Dynamics Insights
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have demonstrated the potential as an effective extractive medium in removing micropollutants from wastewater. Pesticide (thiamethoxam) extraction performance was investigated from aqueous feed using DL-menthol/octanoic acid (1:1) DES via molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Structural properties such as radial distribution function (RDF) and spatial distribution function (SDF), interaction energy, and hydrogen bond analysis confirmed the relatively comparable interactions of thiamethoxam with DL-menthol, octanoic acid, and water. By measuring the mean square displacement (MSD), the dynamics of the pesticide and DES components in both phases (DES and aqueous) were studied. HOMO-LUMO analysis confirmed the stable hydrophobic DES formation. A closer three-dimensional density distribution of water around thiamethoxam was witnessed by the structural property analysis such as SDF. Extraction efficiency (45%), selectivity of the DES (60.25), and distribution ratio (0.81) related to thiamethoxam extraction were obtained by the MD simulation of the DES-water-thiamethoxam ternary system, and the results were in coherence with the experimental findings, and thus the viability of MD simulation in pharmaceutical extraction can be substantiated.
Nabendu Paul, Tamal Banerjee
Methyl Red Dye Abatement from Aqueous Solution Using Calcium Ferrite and Manganese Ferrite Magnetic Nanocomposite: Kinetics and Isotherm Study
This study investigated the adsorptive efficacy of novel calcium ferrite (CaFe2O4) and manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) magnetic nanocomposite (CF-MF-MNC) for the abatement of toxic methyl red (MR) dye from aqua medium. CF-MF-MNC was prepared by utilizing co-precipitation process, and the fabricated nanocomposite was characterized using various methods including XRD, SEM, VSM, FTIR, and BET analysis. The effects of different parameters like solution pH (2.0–10), nanocomposite dose (0.25–1.5 g/L), adsorption time (2–60 min), and initial concentration of pollutant (20–140 mg/L) were examined thoroughly. CF-MF-MNC exhibited 93.02% dye abatement from aqueous medium at solution pH 4.0, with 100 mg/L of initial MR concentration and 1.0 g/L of sorbent dose. The kinetics and isotherm study demonstrated that the MR dye sorption onto the surface of CF-MF-MNC obeys pseudo-second-order (PSO) kinetics and Langmuir isotherm, correspondingly. The adsorption-desorption experiment reveals that the synthesized CF-MF-MNC can be used successfully for the abatement of MR dye up to five regeneration cycles.
Subhajit Das, Sajal Rudra Paul, Animesh Debnath
Adsorption of Fluoride onto PANI-Cl Jute Fibre: Designing a Higher-Flow-Rate and Higher-Initial-Concentration Column Reactor from a Batch Reactor
In this study, polymer adsorbent polyaniline was doped with chloride on the jute fibre (PANI-Cl jute) and was used for defluoridation. FTIR, XRD, SEM and EDX study was conducted to confirm the mechanism of F removal by the adsorbent in the continuous column mode studies. The main emphasis was given to the design of a continuous column reactor for defluoridation from a batch experiment process through the application of the theoretical breakthrough curve method. Further, applying the bed depth service time (BDST) model, the column data were treated and designed for the higher concentration of F from 5 mg/L to 10 mg/L and flow rate from 1.2 mL/min to 1.5 mL/min. This finding confirms that up to 30% of breakthroughs can use BDST effectively. Desorption was studied using NaOH, and the PANI-Cl jute fibre could be employed for another six cycles of adsorption; thus, the uptake capacity of the adsorbent was also able to increase.
Sarungbam Pipileima, Potsangbam Albino Kumar, Anuj Kumar Purwar
Biosynthesis of Nano Zero Valent Iron (nZVI) Using Shorea robusta Leaf Extract and Its Application in UV-Assisted Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange
Synthetic dyes are highly toxic and recalcitrant in nature. Dyes can form secondary pollutants in water bodies which are also harmful. Conventional treatments have various shortcomings in their removal. This study investigated the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye using nanozerovalent iron particles (nZVI) assisted by UV light. nZVI was biosynthesized using FeSO4.7H2O and leaf extract of Shorea robusta (Sal) as a reducing agent. Characterization of nZVI was done using SEM, FTIR, DLS and ZP, AFM, XRD, and TEM. Degradation of methyl orange was performed by nZVI particles under UV illumination. Degradation was optimized by varying the concentration of dyes, dose of nZVI, pH of dyes, and time and studied using a UV spectrophotometer (peak at 465 nm). Characterization of nZVI indicated its successful synthesis. The optimum degradation efficiency was 78% for MO. Germination test and FTIR of dyes before and after degradation also showed degradation of MO.
Aditya Kumar Jha, Sukalyan Chakraborty
Method Development for the Detection of 2-Methylpyridine by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
A method for detection and quantification of 2-methylpyridine (2Mp) from aqueous solution was developed in this study by utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analysis was performed using a reversed-phase C18 column. The effects of chromatographic factors such as initial 2Mp concentration, C0 (mg/L), acetonitrile (ACN) percent in water as carrier and flow rate, Q (mL/min), on peak asymmetry were determined by means of mathematical modelling using three-factor Doehlert design of experiments. A polynomial model equation containing constant, linear, squared and two-factor interaction terms was developed for predicting peak asymmetry. The optimum values for the factors were found to be 2Mp concentration of 12.28 mg/L, ACN percent of 59% and flow rate of 0.74 mL/min. At these factor values, the model projected an optimum peak asymmetry of 1.048, which was verified through experimentation. The results of the study were further represented by means of response surface method (RSM). The most important factor affecting peak asymmetry was ACN percent. A good correlation between the experimental data and model-predicted data was obtained with a correlation coefficient (R2) value of 0.982. Also, the model was designed with a low prediction error of 2.2%. Additionally, the method developed in this study was reliable and reproducible. It was successfully applied in the detection of 2Mp in textile industry effluent.
Rajat Chatterjee, Chanchal Majumder

Industrial Effluent Treatment, Reuse and Conservation

Importance of Cost Functions for Biological Treatment of Wastewater
The availability of many technological alternatives for the biological treatment of wastewater, ranging from conventional treatment options to advanced technologies, introduces the requirement for scrutiny to select the most appropriate technology for the treatment of wastewater for any specific project. Use of cost function may be an approach to compare the costs of alternatives for the biological treatment of wastewater. It enables better engineering decisions and suitable selection of the appropriate treatment scheme based on parametric criteria, requirement of space, construction cost and annual cost of operation as well as maintenance. The literatures available in the context of selection of appropriate technology for biological treatment of wastewater on the basis of engineering economics and other issues are limited, and in most of the studies, the cost functions for wastewater treatment plants have been derived from region-specific historic cost data collected. The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance of initiatives to develop the cost functions and present a methodology for its development by the application of modelled algorithms for process design as well as cost estimation and the use of different statistical regression techniques. This research initiative is believed to be useful in the planning of new facilities by the stakeholders of assets.
Bhaskar Sengupta, Somnath Mukherjee
Removal of Heavy Metals by Laterite Soil
The current research investigates the utilization of laterite soil to adsorb the combined metals of Zn and Cu in batch mode. Laboratory experiments were conducted to analyze the adsorption isotherms at a fixed pH of 8, with an initial concentration of 10 mg/L, different adsorption doses ranging from 1 to 30 g/L, and an equilibrium contact time of 120 min. The isotherms were plotted, and the findings indicate that the Freundlich isotherm model is the most suitable fit. For Zn@20 g/L soil dose, the R2 value is 0.9906, and the RMSE is 0.054. Similarly, for Cu@20 g/L soil dose, the R2 value is 0.9912, and the RMSE is 0.053.The soil’s ability to adsorb Cu and Zn is demonstrated by its high adsorption capacity values (qZn = 1845 mg/kg, qCu = 1796.8 mg/Kg), indicating that it has excellent attenuative potential. To prove the heavy metal adsorption onto the soil sample and ascertain its mechanism, the natural soil sample and its heavy metal-loaded forms were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).
Saikat Shome, Bijoli Mondal, Souvik Das
Removal of Methylene Blue from Wastewater by Red Sandy Soil-Based Alkali-Activated Binder
Methylthioninium chloride, commonly called methylene blue, is a cationic dye. Methylene blue (MB) is a heterocyclic aromatic compound that is used as a synthetic dye for textile industries. In the present study, adsorption of methylene blue (MB) was studied using red sandy soil-based alkali-activated binder as an adsorbent. The batch experiments were carried out with various parameters like effect of initial concentration, particle size, contact time, adsorbent doses, temperature, and agitation speed. The results revealed that the significant removal efficiency was achieved around 80% when initial concentration of MB and dose of adsorbent were 50 mg/L and 3 g/L, respectively, at pH 9. In the study, thermodynamics parameters were calculated. The experimental results were analyzed using various reaction kinetic models, including first-order, second-order, pseudo-first-order, and pseudo-second-order models. To identify the optimum adsorption capacity, an adsorption isotherm investigation was done, and different isotherm models were explored. The findings of the study suggest that alkali-activated binder made from red sandy soil could potentially serve as an effective and affordable adsorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution.
Souvik Das, Bijoli Mondal, Sahil Pritam Swain, Dibyendu Adak, Saikat Shome
Assessment and Treatment of Iron from Industrial Wastewater Using Parkia Speciosa Pod as Activated Carbon
In this study, surface water contaminated with Fe(II) in the periphery of industries in Imphal, Manipur, is identified, and activated carbon synthesized from Parkia speciosa (ACPP) pod was used as an adsorbent for its removal. The adsorbent characterization was done with a scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. The presence of Fe(II) peak in the EDAX spectrum after the adsorption confirms its adsorption. A maximum adsorption was obtained at pH 5.5–6 and precipitated thereafter. Batch mode adsorption studies were conducted, and adsorption kinetics was studied with Lagergren’s pseudo-first-order and Lagergren’s second-order, Elovich, and diffusion models. A varied adsorbent dose test was analyzed for isotherms using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms on the adsorbent ACPP. The kinetics and isotherm studies showed that the Fe(II) adsorption was better described by Lagergren’s second-order and Langmuir isotherm, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm is 157.23 mg/g. The thermodynamic study showed that the Fe(II) adsorption is exothermic and spontaneous with increased randomness.
Reenarani Wairokpam, Potsangbam Albino Kumar
Activated Carbon Developed from Phumdi Biomass and Deccan Hemp for the Adsorption of Methylene Blue
This study focuses on the assessment of toxic methylene blue dye from the small-scale textile industries in Imphal, Manipur, which is directly drained to the sewers, and methylene blue is removed by the adsorption process. The adsorbents employed are activated carbon derived firstly from phumdi, which is a solid waste of biomass, in Loktak Lake, Manipur, and secondly from Deccan hemp. Parameters for the study include pH and adsorption time, and morphological studies of the adsorbent were analyzed using SEM images and EDX. The optimum pH for both adsorbents is observed in the range of pH 6–8. Adsorbent doses of 2–2.5 g/L for activated carbon from phumdi and 2–3 g/L for Deccan hemp were able to remove methylene blue completely from all different effluents whose concentration ranges from 5.3 to 7.8 mg/L. The adsorption kinetics is well described by the pseudo-second-order model, while the Langmuir model complies with the adsorption isotherm at equilibrium. The maximum adsorption capacity for methylene blue uptake is observed as 126 and 85 mg/g for ACP and ACDH, respectively.
Lairenlakpam Helena, Potsangbam Albino Kumar
An Experimental Study of Metanil Yellow Dye Remediation Using Fe-Mn Bimetal Oxide Composites
Herein, magnetic mesoporous iron-manganese bimetal oxide (IMBO) composite adsorbent was synthesized for effective sorption of metanil yellow (MY) dye from dye-laden wastewater. The as-synthesized IMBO is characterized using various characterization techniques like XRD, BET, FESEM, VSM, and FTIR spectroscopy. The BET analysis shows that the pore volume and surface area of IMBO is 0.484 cm3/g and 178.27 m2/g, respectively. Also, the FTIR analysis confirmed the diversity of functional groups over the IMBO composite. These physical and chemical properties of IMBO make it a good adsorbent for MY sorption from contaminated water. The MY dye removal efficacy of 99.57% was obtained at an operational condition of solution pH of 3.0, for 50 mg/L of initial dye concentration at 1.0 g/L of IMBO dose, for an equilibrium time of ~100 min. The adsorption reaction follows pseudo-second-order (PSO) kinetics, and a maximum dye uptake capacity of 114.94 mg/g is obtained from the Langmuir isotherm model.
Arunita Pal, Sajal Rudra Paul, Animesh Debnath
Optimization of Electrocoagulation Process Parameters Using Magnesium Electrodes for Treating Pharmaceutical Wastewater Containing Salicylic Acid
The adaptation of unscientific waste management and improper discharge of effluent from pharmaceutical industry has led to the frequent occurrence of emerging contaminants in the environment. One such contaminant is salicylic acid, which is an anti-inflammatory drug and is highly toxic towards the aquatic environment. In order to treat salicylic acid wastewater, batch-scale electrocoagulation (EC) process was performed using magnesium electrodes, and about 87.8 ± 3.4% removal of salicylic acid (50 mg/L) was achieved employing optimum current density (CD) of 4.8 mA/cm2, 1.5 g/L NaCl, initial pH of 7.0, and electrolysis time of 120 min. About 5.7% more removal of salicylic acid was obtained at an alkaline pH of 9.0 compared to neutral pH. Moreover, an energy consumption of 1.86 kWh/m3 was also observed during the wastewater treatment. The reduction in salicylic acid concentration followed the first-order kinetics having a rate constant of 0.008 (min−1) and R2 = 0.977. Additionally, magnesium hydroxide flocs were formed during the EC treatment of salicylic acid with magnesium electrodes.
Azhan Ahmad, Monali Priyadarshini, Makarand M. Ghangrekar
Optimization of Process Parameters for Biodegradation of Cresol by Mixed Bacterial Culture Using Response Surface Methodology
Bioremediation is important in reducing the load of toxic by-products in industrial effluents which has dramatically got increased due to industrialization and urbanization. In this study, we have used mixed bacterial culture (MBC) to convert the model pollutant cresol into a less toxic form. A kinetic study for bacterial growth and substrate removal showed that maximum MBC growth rate and cresol degradation rate took place in 800 ppm of initial cresol concentration at pH 7 and in an aerated condition. The maximum specific growth rate (μmax) and maximum specific degradation rate (qmax) in the above condition were found as 0.119 h−1 and 0.011 h−1, respectively. The optimized condition of process parameters for maximum percentage removal efficiency (%RE) of 83% in 24 h as obtained by response surface methodology was under 1095 mg/L of initial cresol concentration at pH 7 and in the presence of both shaking and aeration. The quadratic model was found to be the best-fit model. The R2 value of 0.9272 showed that the model is well fit. The C.V.% of 14.78 showed the precision of the data. The model is significant with a p-value of less than 0.0001 and an F value of 41.41. Two bacterial strains showing maximum cresol degradation have been identified as Stenotrophomonas sp. (Gram-negative) and Bacillus cereus (Gram-positive). Both of them showed positive responses in catalase, citrate, and triple sugar iron test.
Sonali Hazra Das, Srabanti Basu, Bhaswati Chakraborty, Sudipta Dey Bandyopadhyay, Aritra Paul, Ananya Bhattacharjee, Srijit Seth, Subhranil Hazra, Promit Banerjee, Megha Pal
Biological Degradation of Cresol Containing Waste Water Using Mixed Microbial Culture in Presence of Heavy Metals
A major percent of hazardous waste sites in India are co-contaminated with organic and metal pollutants. Data from both aerobic and anaerobic systems demonstrate that biodegradation of the organic component can be reduced by metal toxicity. In this chapter, a mixed microbial consortium was isolated from soil collected from East Calcutta Wetlands, Kolkata. The culture was acclimatized to cresol, a member of phenol family, and the mixed consortium was capable to degrade up to 750 mg/L of cresol in only 26 h under aerobic condition. The consortium is very unique as it contains bacteria which are tolerant to different heavy metals like Cr(VI), Pb(II), and Cd(II) to a very high concentration level irrespective of cresol concentration, studied here. It is observed that the culture is tolerant to 60 mg/L of Cr(VI), 320 mg/L of Pb(II), and 80 mg/L of Cd(II). Half minimal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for the tested metals have inhibitory effect on cresol biodegradation ability of the culture as per the following series Pb(II) < Cd(II) < Cr(VI).
Sudipta Dey Bandyopadhyay, Sonali Hazra Das, Anuvab Dey, Ahiri Mukherjee, Anwesha Roy, Debasmita Sarma Chaudhuri, Madhurima Koley, Souhardya Bandyopadhyay

Monitoring of Industrial Emission and Control

Development of a Simplistic Model for the Prediction of Reactive Air Pollutants in the Atmosphere
Air quality assessment using a mathematical model is essential for planning of pollution abatement. Application of the Gaussian plume model is widely used for prediction of inert pollutants; however, it is hardly applied for reactive pollutants such as NOX and SO2. In this paper, the Gaussian plume dispersion model is applied to solve the dispersion equation by FDM (finite difference method) using MATLAB simulation software. The rate coefficient as well as the order of reaction is also considered reasonably. Three case studies concerning two reactive primary pollutants NOX and SO2 are chosen for validation of the proposed solution method. Thus, the model is run for SO2 and NOX with their variable mass emission rates along with other relevant meteorological data. The mass emission rate for SO2 was 1.0 g/s, whereas NOX was emitted with a rate of 1.37 and 147.55 g/s for two different cases. The graphical representation demonstrates the variation between the predicted and reference concentration with very little difference establishing the applicability of the solution procedure.
Tanmoy Bir, Saptarshi Kundu, Debabrata Mazumder
Controlling Air and Metal Pollution in Industrial Area Singrauli, India: Role of Plants
Plants play a pivotal role in purifying the atmosphere by absorbing particulate matter, heavy metals, and toxic substances and have been observed as a natural technique for mitigating air pollution. This study was conducted in the industrial area of Singrauli, Madhya Pradesh. This study aims to assess the air pollution tolerance index (APTI), dust-capturing capacity (DCC), and heavy metals concentration in plant species and the soil of the industrial area. Results showed that tree species such as Azadirachta indica, Mangifera indica, and Ailanthus excelsa had the highest APTI score and were considered the most tolerant species toward air pollution. Species such as Calotropis gigantea, Anogeissus latifolia, and Tectona grandis have low APTI values and are considered bioindicator species of air pollution. The investigation results suggested that tree species Ficus bengalensis, Butea monosperma, Alstonia scholaris, and Anogeissus latifolia show higher values in dust-capturing capacity. The study area is also contaminated with heavy metals such as Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. Species such as Ailanthus excelsa, Anogeissus latifolia, and Alstonia scholaris are suitable metal accumulator plant species and accumulate metals such as Mn, Al, Zn, Cr, Fe, Mg, Ni, and Cu. Suitable species can be suggested for green belt development in the industrial area.
Mala Kumari, Tanushree Bhattacharya

Industrial Solid Waste Management

Enhancing the Dewatering Ability of Sludge by Locally Available Biomass
In this study, the effect of modified coconut shell biochar is analyzed for its efficacy achievable in sludge dewatering properties. Initially the coconut shell biochar is modified at different molar concentrations of FeCl3, i.e., 1, 2, and up to 5 mol/L, and it is analyzed with different dosages at 0.1, 0.2, and up to 0.4 (g/g of dry solids (DS)) for the improvement in capillary suction time (CST) (s), moisture content reduction (%), filterability (min), and settleability (SV30%) of the sludge. It is found that there is significant decrease in each of these parameters. The optimization study is carried out to optimize the process of sludge conditioning, considering independent regression parameters as dosage (g/g of DS), molarity (M), mixing time (min), and response taken as moisture content (%), the optimum values for the dosage, molarity, mixing time is found to be 0.4 (g/g of DS), 2.5 M and 24.72 min, respectively, with optimized moisture content value of 78% was achieved. Hence, the modified coconut shell biochar can be used as a potential candidate to increase the dewatering ability of the sludge.
Gaurao Chopade, C. P. Devatha
Production of Xylose from Water Hyacinth Biomass (WHB) (Lignocellulosic Waste) for Xylitol Production: Waste to Wealth
Water hyacinth is an invasive aquatic weed that is believed to be damaging to both humans and the environment. However, its lignocellulosic biomass, or WHB, can be used as a source for the fermentation of xylitol, resulting in the creation of a value-added product from waste. At the industrial level, it is produced commercially by chemically hydrogenating the five-carbon sugar D-xylose in the presence of a catalyst at high temperature and pressure, and the process is arduous, costly, and energy intensive. Chemical-based pre-treatment of water hyacinth biomass (WHB) is an important step in which lignocellulosic biomass is hydrolyzed with different chemicals to release fermentable sugars. In this study, various methods have been applied to obtain xylose from WHB. The WHB was prepared and treated with three alkalis, three acids, an oxidative agent, and, among them, an alkaline-based pre-treatment method (KOH) was found to be optimum, and concentration was found to be 8.0597 mg/ml. The treated samples were filtered using cheese/muslin cloth, and pH was neutralized and analyzed using a spectrophotometer. A steam explosion at 121 °C, 15 psi, for 15–20 min was found to be favorable for the conversion of WHB to xylose which can subsequently be converted to xylitol.
Rohan Jadhav, Apurba Dey
A Simplistic Mathematical Model for Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion of Plastic Wastes
The environmental impact of plastic pollution has been alarmingly envisaged in recent years throughout the globe. Enzymatic hydrolysis of plastic waste is a feasible solution that facilitates biodegradation process. The mathematical modelling of the biodegradation of plastics is a critical task, which has not been addressed so far in a rational way. Application of biodegradation kinetics is difficult due to several important variables in the process. Moreover, as the polymer materials (solid substrates) are highly hydrophobic, mass transfer limits the rate of degradation. This chapter presents a mathematical model using Haldane’s kinetics for the biodegradation of plastic wastes, which are mainly polymer materials. The model has been developed consecutively for a two-stage anaerobic stabilization, i.e., hydrolysis stage followed by acidogenesis-cum-methanogenesis. Total organic carbon (TOC) has been used as a substrate parameter. The purpose of this model is to predict the performance of the biodegradation process in respect of time. The proposed model has been validated with the experimental data derived from two-stage anaerobic digestion of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) under mesophilic environment.
Penaganti Praveen, Debabrata Mazumder

Handling and Disposal of Hazardous Waste

Modeling of Migration of Cr (VI) Contaminant Through Clay Liner Using HYDRUS-3D
The migration of heavy metals and other contaminants through soil strata can lead to variable geo-environmental questions resulting in soil and groundwater contamination, which may affect the nearby land and water ecosystem. Comparative batch adsorption tests were conducted for both raw and amended clay soil. With AI, it was found that the latter shows an effective removal, i.e., above 90%. The physical and numerical modeling studies on solute transport were conducted to assess the hexavalent chromium attenuation potency of the locally obtainable amended clay soil mixed with neem (Azadiracta indica (AI)), which is used as primary liner for waste containment structures. The physical modeling performed in the laboratory in the horizontal migration tank study tends to show a similar approach with a graph plotted with the HYDRUS-3D data. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms based on the batch experiments were plotted, with the Langmuir model fitting the best (RMSE = 1.38, R2 = 0.99). Breakthrough curves predicted by the HYDRUS-3D numerical model exhibited that the liner is getting saturated after approximately 38 years.
Chandrima Bhadra, Avishek Adhikary, Supriya Pal, Kalyan Adhikari
Electrokinetic Remediation of Total Chromium from Contaminated Soil
Exploitation of nature by various human-made activities to serve humanity has led to environmental pollution. Soil decontamination is an important aspect of environmental remediation. Electrokinetic (EK) remediation is an efficient, economical, and less time-consuming process for soil decontamination. It is a non-invasive method, meaning that it does not require excavation or excavation-related disturbance of the contaminated soil. This can reduce the risk of further contaminants spreading and minimize potential environmental harm. This electrokinetic study results indicate that the removal efficiencies of total chromium (Cr) from the soil are considerably influenced by the type of purging solutions as anolyte and catholyte, applied voltage and current, and pH of the soil. Lab-scale electrokinetic experiment was conducted on the Cr-contaminated soil. 0.1 M Citric acid solution was used as anolyte and catholyte. There was a fixed voltage gradient of 1 V/cm applied through graphite rods as anode and cathode. The experiment was run for 200 h. The total chromium (Cr) removal efficiency from soil was 76%. However, electrode configurations and electrolyte conditioning significantly achieve higher heavy metals removal efficiency from contaminated land.
Pravin Lal, Supriya Pal
Low-Cost Recovery of Cadmium from Wastewater by Soil Bacteria
Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal with significant health and environmental concerns. It accumulates in soil and water, contaminates the food chain, and causes severe health problems, including kidney damage, anemia, and cancer. Industries involving the production of pigments, batteries, and alloys discharge wastewater containing high levels of cadmium. Hence, wastewater can serve as a valuable and viable source of cadmium, reducing the need for costly and environmentally damaging mining and refining activities. This study aims to recover cadmium from wastewater using bioprecipitation. Ureolytic bacteria from rhizospheric soil were used to separate cadmium from synthetic wastewater of different strengths. The recovery efficiency of the bioprecipitation method was more than 95%, according to the atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) studies were conducted to identify the residue. In conclusion, bioprecipitation method has been found to be an effective and sustainable approach to recover cadmium from wastewater, making it a promising solution to economic and environmental challenges. This method is efficient, cost-effective, and easy to operate, making it suitable for in-field applications.
Mahindra Kothuri, C. P. Devatha

Case Studies on Industrial Pollution Control

Tannery Waste Management in India: A Case Study
Tannery or leather industries are one of the oldest industrial sectors in India as well as in the world where rawhide is processed to chrome- or veg-tanned wet-blue/white or finished leather for manufacturing different leather products. These industries create considerable numbers of employment opportunities for downtrodden people in India and other developing countries. However, huge quantity of wastewater (28–40 kl/ton of skin) and different categories of solid wastes (300–600 kg/ton of hide) are generated during the processing of leather. Waste management practices in leather industries vary based on the manufacturing processes (such as complete or partial processing of hide or skin and vegetable or chrome tanning) which generate diverse effluent characteristics, including 2–3 kl/ton of chrome-bearing effluent for chrome tanning. About 400 tanneries and 21 centralized effluent treatment plants for tannery clusters are visited by us in the last few years out of about 1600 tanneries in India, and water and solid waste management practices adopted by those tanneries are accessed in a detailed manner. Here in this case study, our objective is to highlight the tannery waste management practices that are adopted in the different locations in India based on our visit and assessment.
Indrasis Das, S. V. Srinivasan, Abhinandan Kumar, A. K. Vidyarthi, Raj Kishore Singh
Removal of Natural Organics and Selected Antibiotics Using PAC and Al Electrodes: A Study of the Jumar River
Modern age has witnessed excessive use of pharmaceuticals at its peak. The presence of such contaminants poses a significant role in human health. This study focuses on removing acetaminophen, tetracycline, natural organic matter (NOM), and turbidity by coagulation and electrocoagulation (multiple electrodes). For this study, oly-aluminum chloride (PAC) as a coagulating agent and cationic polymer as a flocculant were selected. With coagulation, optimum dose for PAC turns out to be .06 ml, and flocculant (Cationic polymer) dose is 1.5 ml for 1 L. For electrocoagulation, the aluminum electrode has shown excellent performance for NOM and antibiotic removal with 1 cm inter-electrode distance, 12 V current, and 25 minutes reaction time. The highest reduction of acetaminophen can be seen at 2 mg/L with 95% removal efficiency and 80% tetracycline removal efficiency at 10 mg/L dosage (highest) by electrocoagulation process. In the case of coagulation, the removal of acetaminophen, NOM, and turbidity seems highest at 2 mg/L, which is 52%, 78.5%, and 88%, respectively. For tetracycline, 84% drug removal was achieved at 4 mg/L, turbidity 56% at 2 mg/L, and NOM 42% at 4 mg/L.
Garima Chaturvedi, R. Naresh Kumar, Kirti Avishek
Quantification of Floating Plastics Using UAV Images and Identification of Microplastics in Ukkadam Tank, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
Plastics are becoming a serious threat to environment and it is a global concern now. Economic development and urbanization are the two factors that lead to water pollution. Wetlands and lakes, particularly those located near urban centers, are subjected to severe threat due to the plastic wastes. Ukkadam Lake is one of the major lakes in Coimbatore, also known as Periyakulam, is facing this issue due to the inflow of domestic sewage. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the quantity of floating plastics and microplastics that enters the Ukkadam Lake using remote sensing techniques and microscopic studies. The assessment is carried out for the year 2021 using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images and water sampling in the lake. The extent of floating macroplastics has been carried out using spectral signatures and classification techniques. The identification of microplastics was carried out by an experimental method by way of collecting water samples in the lake. The extent of availability of macroplastics and identification of microplastics were produced as results in this research.
Karunya Baburaj, J. Brema, Jims John Wesley
Study of Wastewater Treatment in Hindustan Coca-Cola Plant at Khurda
We investigate the performance evaluation of wastewater effluent of beverage plant of Hindustan Coca-Cola Pvt. Ltd., which is situated in Khurda Industrial Estate, Khurda, Odisha, during the operational period of the plant in September 2012. The effluent samples were collected before and after the treatment for each treatment unit of the plant. Different environmental parameters were analyzed including pH, turbidity, chlorinity, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), phenolphthalein alkalinity, total alkalinity, calcium hardness, total hardness, sulphate, chloride content, and soluble and heavy metal ions for input purification unit. Among the analyzed parameters, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were also included to check the performance of the unit operations. Most of our findings were within the permissible limits as suggested by central pollution control board (CPCB) 2019. In particular, the pH in the outlet of wastewater is found to be 7.37, D.O. to be 7.8 mg/l, total suspended solids to be 130 mg/l, COD to be 27.27 mg/l, and BOD to be 22 mg/l, respectively. However, the plant follows the concept of reuse and recycle technology as it utilizes the wastewater for further treatment.
Sushree Sasmita, Bharath Kumar Dudam

Innovative Technologies in Industrial Waste Management

In Vitro Performance Analysis of Ti- and Zn-Doped Hydroxyapatite Made from Waste Eggshells
Million tons of eggshell waste are generated every day anywhere starting from a household kitchen to different food-processing industries. This waste is a big source of calcium (Ca). In this study, zinc- (3%) and titanium (3%)-doped hydroxyapatite (HAP) has been synthesized from two different sources; one is from eggshell waste, and another is from laboratory reagents. All developed HAP powders were compacted in a cylindrical mold (dia. 12 mm) at high pressure by a hydraulic machine. Physical properties such as density, porosity, and hardness were evaluated. Crystal phase analysis and the presence of functional groups were determined through XRD and FTIR. SEM images of apatite layer formation in simulated body fluid of different quantity on top of the pellets were observed. All the materials were hemocompatible and nontoxic, confirmed through hemolysis study and MTT assay. The comparative analysis showed that eggshell-derived HAP and its doped materials produced more apatite than laboratory-grade calcium hydroxide material.
Dalia Acharjee, Sujan Krishna Samanta, Piyali Basak, Sukumar Roy, Samit Kumar Nandi
Production of Non-toxic, Non-polluting Herbal Soaps Using Plant Extracts Having Antimicrobial Activity
The rising concerns of consumers toward the health issue caused by using chemically composed skincare products are driving the consumers to use herbal soaps. For millennia, people have used soap. Therefore, our aim is to produce herbal soap using plant extracts having antimicrobial properties thus reducing the toxic load on the environment. Moreover, the soap is crafted with herbal extracts thus making the soap skin-friendly and suitable for all age groups. The optimization of the composition of soap is done by observing the pH of herbal soap for a few months at the end of which the pH starts decreasing and attains a pH of 7. This study focuses on a new herbal soap composition that incorporates neem leaf and turmeric extract. By doing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing, lowest optimal concentration of extract was determined from the zone of inhibition. Based on efficacy, pH, consistency, and effects on skin results, the benchmark was set as 3.2 grams of herbal extract in 32 grams of soap bar. Neem showed best antimicrobial properties followed by turmeric. From the results obtained, the antibacterial activity of herbal leaf extract on gram-positive Lactobacillus sp. was found to be more effective as compared to gram-negative Escherichia coli.
Bhaswati Chakraborty, Aishi Bera, Debasmita Banerjee, Subhrojyoti Ghosh, Ratul Dutta
Decolorization of Textile Dye RR 141 Using Electrochemical Process
The treatment of industrial effluent is currently one of the top most priorities to the research community. One of the main constituents of textile industrial effluent is Reactive Red 141 (RR 141), and it is a major contributor of color to wastewater streams. RR141 is a diazo reactive dye with a vivid red color, a massive molecular structure (C52H26Cl2N14Na8O26S8), and reactive group such as sulfonic (-SO3Na). Due to carcinogenic effect and bioaccumulation property, the higher trophic level animals especially human beings are at a stake. Hence, in this study electrochemical process (EP) with two separate chambers (i.e., anodic and cathodic cells) separated by an earthen pot was used to remove RR 141 dye from synthetic dye solution. The effect of pH and time was studied and reported. Our study revealed that at low pH, the color removal is higher, and it was seen that 98.3% of RR 141 color removal can be achieved at a pH and current of 2.16 and 0.5A, respectively, over 60 min of EP operation. Hence, decolorization of RR 141 can be done effectively using two compartment electrochemical cells.
Budhodeb Biswas, Chanchal Majumder
Sustainable Advanced Technologies for Industrial Pollution Control
herausgegeben von
Debabrata Mazumder
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