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2022 | Buch

Sustainable Approaches in Textiles and Fashion

Fibres, Raw Materials and Product Development

herausgegeben von: Dr. Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

Buchreihe: Sustainable Textiles: Production, Processing, Manufacturing & Chemistry


Über dieses Buch

This third volume in the set of books is dedicated to various sustainable approaches in textiles and fashion sector with a focus on fibres and raw materials employed. Sustainability is one of the important aspects in today’s industrial context, which is followed by every industrial sector with no exception to textiles and fashion. Sustainability and strict adherence to the principles of sustainability has become as one of the essential needs again for any industrial sector including textiles and fashion. There are countless measures in terms of various approaches to make the textiles and fashion sector sustainable. These measures, but not limited to, ranging from innovating and implementing new fibres and raw materials, introducing innovative manufacturing methods, chemicals, processes to focus on all the possible stages of a textile product’s life cycle from cradle to grave. These approaches include making the textiles and fashion sector circular and also development of new products from sustainable raw materials/processes or combination of both.


Importance of Asclepias Syriaca (Milkweed) Fibers in Sustainable Fashion and Textile Industry and Its Potential End-Uses
As a result of the increasing world population, rapidly changing consumption habits and fashion trends, the textile and fashion industry has become one of the industries with the highest annual global environmental burden. It is of great significance to overcome the possible negative effects of textile production on the environment and to contribute to the sustainable fashion and textile industry by ensuring the responsible production of textile products. For this reason, the selection and use of sustainable, renewable, and biodegradable textile materials for each product produced in the textile industry can be seen as the first step toward sustainable production. Milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) fibers constitute an important raw material potential in every field of textile as daily textile products, composite textiles, and technical and functional textiles in terms of the properties they exhibit at this point. In this chapter, it was aimed to examine in detail the topics such as the place, importance, and application areas of milkweed fibers in sustainable fashion and textile production.
Ece Kalayci, Ozan Avinc, Kemal B. Turkoglu
Extracellular Polymeric Substances in Textile Industry
Different microorganisms secrete extracellular polymeric substances that are also known as exopolymeric substances, exopolymers, extracellular polysaccharides, and exopolysaccharides. Extracellular polymeric substances that protect the microorganisms from the environmental stresses are mainly composed of lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids. They have unique characteristics with functional properties such as addhesion, binding activity, water retention, sorption and so on. The extracellular polymeric substances are valuable products because of their various applications in different industries about textile, pharmaceutical, food, agriculture, cosmetic, and environment. The extracellular polymeric substances are valuable for textile industry as being sustainable resource as well as environmental friendly properties. In this chapter, we have evaluated extracellular polymeric substances followed by the main functions and applications of the extracellular polymeric substances. Moreover, we have emphasized the applications for various extracellular polymeric substances in textile.
Murat Topal, E. Işıl Arslan Topal
Sustainable Agrotextile: Jute Needle-Punched Nonwoven Preparation, Properties and Use in Indian Perspective
Jute is one of the important cash crops in India and Bangladesh. Previously, jute conventional products like hessian, sacking and carpet backing were secured by mandatory packaging act of Government of India, and 40 lakhs families were earning their bread and butter directly or indirectly by jute sector. With the slow abolishment of mandatory packaging and capture of jute Indian as well as export market by synthetic one, jute cultivation and use are in threat. India is an agriculture-based country and produces different crops like grains, vegetables, fruits, flowers, medicinal crops, etc., in different agro-climatic zones basically in an unorganized way. It was felt that if jute can be introduced as geotextiles for eco- or green cultivation, a major share of jute will be utilized in this area saving the life of lakhs of families in future. Needle-punched nonwoven is a potential alternative system, very much suited to the industry because of its low wage proportion and high productivity resulting in low cost of production. The needled fabric has high bulk and possesses good hydraulic, thermal insulation and impact resistance property with sufficient strength. With the above-mentioned aim, some trials have been made to use the jute needle-punched nonwoven in the area of mulching in the rain-fed humid zone and semi-arid zone. The trial has also been made on horticultural pot, grass mat, artificial seed germination medium at dry, hard and stone ground. It was found that there is a great potential of jute needle-punched nonwoven in agrotextile with enhanced performance. This chapter deals with the production and properties of jute needle-punched nonwoven and some case studies for using such fabric in agrotextiles. Scope, limitations and economy are also discussed. In the end, suggestions and further researchable points have been mentioned. It will help both industry and academia, especially teachers, students and technologists. It will also help the textile as well as agricultural practitioners.
Surajit Sengupta, Sanjoy Debnath, Manik Bhowmick
Popularization of Agrowaste Fibres—Banana and Areca Nut Fibre—A Sustainable Approach
The most widely used plant fibres in the textile industry are cotton and linen and certainly they are the major fibres. There are a few minor fibres such as hemp, jute, bamboo, and ramie that have gained much commercial value because of their eco-friendly nature and excellent serviceability. Still there remain several more promising lignocellulosic fibres that can be exploited for textile benefits. Advances in research and technology have stated that annual crops or agricultural wastes can be used as favourable alternative sources as the raw material for the natural fibre. Biomass is generally used inefficiently, with very few higher value-added product markets. Banana plant provides one such biomass which can be utilized effectively. The fibres obtained from the variety nendran are filament fibres of adequate strength after degumming, which can be joined together end to end and used as a weft yarn with cotton or silk. The soft fibres found inside the hull of areca nut also have a wide scope in textile fibre industry. A waste bioresource with soft handle can be spun to give a yarn of adequate strength. Hence, bio-based renewable resources can provide raw materials for many new and growing industries besides stimulating rural development and job creation. A greater reliance on bio-based resources and biological processes is an inevitable part of an overall sustainability transition.
Thomas Ruby Mariamma, Honey S. Nair
Development of Union Fabrics from Lotus Petiole Waste
Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn.) is a potential aquatic cash crop grown and consumed across the globe. The flower has a huge economic importance across the India and used as offerings for god and goddess. Researcher started the study right from the base that is finding out the wetlands near and around Vadodara region of Gujarat, contacting the people associated with the marketing and cultivation of Lotus. It was observed that lotus cultivators generally cut the flowers with little length of the stem (petiole) leaving the rest entire as a “waste” and abandoned for a natural decay. In the present study, the effective utilization of this aquatic biomass was studied and explored in the field of textiles. 300 g of fibers were extracted manually to prepare yarns using the traditional spinning system. Union fabrics were prepared on handloom using cotton and silk as a warp and lotus as a weft. The properties of these fabrics were compared with 100% cotton and silk fabrics. Thickness, GSM, Tensile Strength, Fabric Count, Crease Recovery, Bending length, and Shrinkage test was done as per ASTM and ISO test standards. Results revealed lotus fiber has a great potential to be used in developing soft and light weight woven fabrics. Product like stole was prepared using lotus yarn by extra-weft weaving technique.
Madhu Sharan, Sumi Haldar
Evaluating the Potential of Pineapple Leaf Fibre Fabrics and Its Blends for Sustainable Home Textile Applications
This chapter excogitates the potential of pineapple leaf fibres (PALF) for usage in home textile applications. PALF is extracted from the leaves of a pineapple plant and is biodegradable in nature. It is environment-friendly and has better strength thereby leading to development of textile products. In this work, the pineapple leaf fibre is blended with cotton fibres for making fabrics. Home furnishing products are made using these fabrics. Table mats and curtains are made and are looked as a potential environment-friendly alternative in the current scenario. The PALF and cotton fibres were spun using rotor spinning in three blend proportions. The yarn properties were tested and it is found that the 50/50 pineapple/cotton fibre had better elongation of 7.81% and had less U% and hairiness compared to the other two blends of 70/30 pineapple cotton and 60/40 pineapple cotton yarn. The strength of 50/50 pineapple cotton yarn was found to be 21.22 g/tex. Hence, the blend proportion of 50% pineapple fibre and 50% cotton fibre was selected for making woven fabrics. The woven fabric was tested for its thickness, areal density, tensile strength, tearing strength, abrasion resistance, pilling, dimensional stability and flammability. The results were compared with commercially available fabrics used for table mat and curtain. It was found that the developed fabric had better properties than the commercially available fabrics as it had a tensile strength of 22.95 kgf, tearing strength of 61.72 lbs and flammability of 23 s. The table mats and blinds were produced using the developed fabric. From the results, it is found that the developed fabric has a good potential for usage in home furnishings and hence this work has provided a viable alternative for synthetic products and an effective use for PALF which is otherwise thrown as waste.
R. Surjit, P. Kandhavadivu, S. Ashwin
Production of Sustainable Banana Fibers from Agricultural Wastes and Their Properties
Agricultural waste of banana plant cultivated for only fruit production generally increases in each year due to the increment of banana cultivation to fulfill the need of increased world population. Evaluation of agricultural waste of banana plant as fiber increases the area of use of banana fiber. Because of its easy accessibility, renewability, biodegradability, and sustainability, the areas of use of banana fibers, which are especially preferred in composite materials, are increasing day by day. Banana fiber, ligno-cellulosic fiber, which has superior physical and mechanical properties, are now regarded as an important textile material. Banana fibers play a role in several different applications in many different fields such as textile, composite, paper, construction, thermal insulation, automotive and transportation, etc. Moreover, banana fibers can also be used in the production of clothing such as t-shirts, shirts, kaftans, kimonos, etc., and carpets, bags, handbags, wallets, purses, belts, shoes, ornaments, souvenirs, handicraft products, sanitary pads, etc. Banana fiber, whose popularity has increased recently, also appears in different textile products such as dresses, sarees, and trousers in textile fashion. In this chapter, the cultivation of the banana plant and the extraction methods of the banana fibers, the physical–chemical structure and characteristics of the banana fibers, and their usage areas were examined in detail.
Feristah Unal, Ozan Avinc, Arzu Yavas
Development of Sustainable Sound and Thermal Insulation Products from Unconventional Natural Fibres for Automobile Applications
An attempt has been made in this present work to develop sound and thermal insulation products from unconventional natural fibres that could be effectively used in the automotive interiors. The fibres intended for the work include century plant, common milkweed, and Indian Bowstring Hemp. The physical properties of the fibres were tested using standard methods and the morphological structure of the fibres was analysed using scanning electron microscopes (SEM), the crystallinity index nature of these fibres was evaluated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) method. These fibres were blended with different proportion to produce the needle punched non-woven structure. The non-woven fabrics were evaluated for their sound and thermal insulation properties along with the other basic properties. The results showed that the blended non-woven structures have better sound and thermal insulation properties.
P. Ganesan, T. Karthik
Design and Development of Under Arm Sweat Pad
Sweat is a natural body mechanism where the body cools itself by releasing clear and salty sweat that is produced by the glands in the skin. A normal person is born with about 2–4 million sweat glands. There are two scenarios that stimulate our sweat glands causing sweat: physical heat and emotional stress. Emotional sweating typically occurs in the palms of our hands, the soles of our feet, our armpits, and sometimes our foreheads. This sweat consists of bacteria which breaks the sweat into acids causing a bad odour in the due course of time. Sweat in the underarm causes discomfort as the primary clothing we wear gets wet. The wet level due to sweat causes the primary clothing to get soggy in the underarm area. Wetness in the underarm for a longer duration causes itchiness and also bad odour. Sweat is mostly water with trace amounts of minerals like sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, lactic acid, and urea. Exposure to sweat for a longer period of time can cause the fabric to become discolored and eventually weaken the fibre in the clothing. We have various options available in the market to prevent clothing from sweat and odour. Antiperspirants such as deodrants are common solution used by the people. But deodrants are temporary solutions where they give fragrance for a limited period of time. Most antiperspirants contain aluminum salts, a product that is designed to block sweat glands from producing sweat. The aluminum salts combine with the minerals in sweat which eventually causes de-coloration and weaken the fibres in the fabric. Other remedy we have is sweat-pads. These sweat-pads prevent the primary clothing from wetness. But the con is people use these only on occasions due to high cost. Disposable sweat-pads are not sustainable solution. Reusable underarm sweat pads can be the sustainable solution. Reusable sweat-pads can be skin friendly and pocket friendly. We can enhance the sweat dissipation and the value of the existing product by reducing the thickness of the sweat pad and also by constructing three fabric layers having desired property. The issue of bad odour can be overcome by finishing the sweat pad with lemongrass and lavender oil which will give a fragrance finish and antimicrobial property.
M. R. Srikrishnan
Product Development Using Cornhusk Fibres—A Sustainable Initiative
Textile industry is striving hard to adopt sustainable practices for various aspects of production like consumption of water and electricity, new sustainable raw materials, new technologies, use of natural or non- hazardous chemical agents for wet processing and better working conditions for labour. Development of new fibres from alternative sources is gaining momentum and various agro-wastes have been explored for use in textiles. Cornhusk fibre is an addition to the same. Fibres were extracted from the husk of corn by applying chemical and enzyme treatment. The cornhusk fibres were comparable to fibres from other bast or leaf fibres. A range of products comprising of yarn, fabric, rope, hand-made mats and hygiene products were developed. Cornhusk fibres were blended with coir fibres to compensate for their lower strength. Since both the fibres had similar texture, blending could be carried out easily. The cornhusk/coir (50/50) blended yarns had similar appearance as 100% coir yarn but lower strength and elongation at break. Hence it was used for making products like mats where strength is not the primary requirement. The rope made using cornhusk blended yarn could also be used for some low end applications. The different types of mats like hand woven, sinnet and corridor mats prepared using cornhusk blended yarn were softer in feel and similar in appearance to the mats made by using 100% coir fibres. Utilization of a waste like cornhusk to manufacture home furnishings would mean conservation of resources like land and water as cornhusk is a by-product of a food crop, maize.
Archana Jain, Deepali Rastogi, Bhawana Chanana
Organic Cotton: Fibre to Fashion
Cotton cultivated without using genetically modified (GMO) seeds, harmful pesticides, synthetic fertilisers, and chemicals is termed as “organic cotton.” Organic cotton farming maintains healthy working environment for farmers, clean freshwater sources near farms and reduces soil erosion and other negative impacts on the ecosystem. Organic cotton is gaining wide acceptance in manufacturing of premium fabrics, due to its zero toxicity and being completely natural origin. During the chemical wet processing, various hazardous chemicals are used. So, during processing of organic cotton, manufacturers must ensure avoiding toxic substances such as petroleum scours, formaldehyde, chlorine bleaches, heavy metal-containing chemicals, etc. The use of natural alternatives and enzymatic treatments as partial substitutes to chemical wet processing is the need of the hour. These eco-friendly options are used to minimise and remove the hazardous effects occurring in conventional cotton fabric processing. The garment industry plays a vital role in the production of fashion products from organic cotton. Currently, the contribution of organic cotton to overall cotton production is less than 1%. Fashion consumers can help change that. If the consumers call for more organic fashion apparel, it will compel the apparel manufacturers to use more organic cotton. Many National and International brands are opting for production of fashion products from organic cotton. This chapter covers various sustainable approaches and ideas for the cultivation, processing and garment manufacturing of organic cotton.
V. K. Dhange, S. M. Landage, G. M. Moog
Sustainable Approaches in Textiles and Fashion
herausgegeben von
Dr. Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu
Springer Nature Singapore
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