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Über dieses Buch

This volume collects the research papers presented at the 6th International Conference on Sustainable Automotive Technologies (ICSAT), Gothenburg, 2014. The topical focus lies on latest advances in vehicle technology related to sustainable mobility. ICSAT is the core and state-of-the-art conference in the field of new technologies for transportation. Research contributions from the US, Australia, Europe and Asia illustrate the pivotal role of the conference. The book provides an excellent overview of R&D activities at OEMs as well as in leading universities and laboratories.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Electromobility

Frontmatter

Range Extender Engines for Vehicles with Electrical Propulsion

Abstract
In recent years, electrified vehicles have gained renewed interest. However, one of the large hurdles for vehicles with electrical propulsion is the battery capacity and thus the limited driving range. Thus, some kind of range extender has been proposed, i.e. a unit transforming liquid fuel into electricity and/or mechanical energy for extended driving range. Here we present an approach to determine the size and power of a range extender, as well as the methodology of multidisciplinary optimization to optimize the vehicle system attributes, leading to three different hybrid range extender vehicles, which have been built and tested. We conclude that the most beneficial system from a cost/performance point of view as well as the lowest fuel consumption can be found using a mechanical link between the internal combustion engine and the traction wheels.
F. Ekström, J. Engman

Costs and Willingness-to-Pay for Electric Vehicles

Abstract
Electric vehicles are hardly competitive against conventional vehicles with combustion engine today. A reason is the high cost which do not seem to match the value consumers attribute to using electric vehicles over conventional ones. In order to target the differences that exist between the costs of the electric cars and the users’ willingness-to-pay (WTP), a parameter-based model has been set up. Using data from Singapore, we calculate the costs of a mid-range electric car and the users’ WTP for it and confirm the assumption that the WTP is significantly lower than the costs. This difference is influenced by various technical, economic and regulatory parameters which can potentially be targeted to raise the WTP and reduce the costs. For the case of Singapore, modifying regulatory parameters like tax reductions for electric vehicles seem most suitable at today’s vehicle costs, as vehicle taxes make up a large percentage of the purchase price. Modifying technical vehicle specifications like the battery capacity or the costs for them within a reasonable range does not yet equalise the costs and WTP.
R. Kochhan, M. Hörner

Vehicle Dynamics

Frontmatter

Better Road Design Using Clothoids

Abstract
According to the mobile robot researchers and experts the best and smoothest transition curve to be used as a section of the path is the Eulers Spiral also known as Clothoid. During 19th century Arthur Talbot derived the equation of Clothoids to use as an easement curve for the purpose of avoiding the shock and disagreeable lurch of trains, due to instant change of direction. The Euler Spiral is a curve whose degree-of-curve increases directly with the distance along the curve from the start point of the spiral. This will provide a linear change in the steering angle required by the driver to go through the turn. In other word for a car which is travelling on a Clothoid transition curve of the road there will be no need for sudden changes in the steering angle of the wheels. The angle required starts from zero and increases to a maximum value and back to zero linearly. This provides a very comfortable ride for the passengers of the vehicle. The use of these curves for road design have been studied here, and a design chart have been proposed to be used for finding the best suitable transition curve for different applications.
Hormoz Marzbani, Reza N. Jazar, M. Fard

Sustainable Flat Ride Suspension Design

Abstract
Maurice Olley suggested that having natural frequency of the front approximately 80 % of that of the rear suspension in a vehicle will result in a flat ride for the passengers. Flat Ride in this case means that the pitch motion of the vehicle, generated by riding over a bump for instance will fade into the bounce motion of the vehicle much faster. Bounce motion of the vehicle in mush easier to tolerate and feels more comfortable for the passengers. In a previous study which is shortly mentioned in this paper the authors, analytically proved that this situation is not practical. In other words, for any vehicle there will only be one certain velocity, depending on the geometry and suspension system specifications which the flat ride will happen at. The search continued to find a practical method for enjoying the flat ride in vehicles. Solving the equation of motion of the vehicle for different spring rates and situation the authors came up with design chart for smart suspension systems. Using the advantages of the analytical approach to the flat ride problem, the chart was established to be used for vehicles with smart active suspension systems. In this paper the mathematical methods used and the resulted criteria for designing a flat ride suspension system which will perform in different speeds is presented.
Hormoz Marzbani, Reza N. Jazar, M. Fard

Engine Technologies

Frontmatter

Gasoline Combustion System Development for Volvo Cars All-New Engine Family

Abstract
Volvo Car Corporation has recently launched the first three members of a completely new engine family called Drive-E. It consists of four gasoline and four diesel engines that are characterized by high specific performance, low friction and low fuel consumption. The number of cylinders is limited to four, which implies that these down-sized, boosted engines will replace present five and six cylinder engines. This paper focuses on the development of the Drive-E gasoline combustion system, characterized by a centrally-mounted direct-injection fuel injector in combination with high-tumbling intake ports. The break-down of the large-scale tumble motion into a high level of turbulence leads to fast and stable combustion as well as excellent air/fuel mixing and limited wall wetting. The four gasoline engines span a wide range of power levels. This means that the engine at the entry power level needs to breathe less air than the 2.0 L engine at the highest power level (225 kW, 306 HP). Consequently, intake port design was an important part of the combustion system development. Different intake port geometries are applied at the different power levels, and this paper describes the trade-off between a design that sets up a strong tumble motion (leading to fast combustion and thus reduced fuel consumption), and a design that optimizes engine breathing (enabling class-leading specific power, while keeping fuel-efficiency at a good level).
Roy Ogink

Use of Late IVC and EGR to Enhance Diesel Engine Optimization

Abstract
The increasing demand for improved efficiency of diesel engines requires more advanced combustion solutions. In addition to traditional methods such as EGR, turbocharging and advanced injection systems, variable valve timing is now available at a reasonable production cost. The use of variable inlet valve timing provides an efficient way for Low-Temperature Combustion (LTC) which provides high thermal efficiency in combination of low emission levels. Furthermore, by modifying the characteristics of the charge air (i.e. by means of EGR, boost pressure and late inlet valve closing, LIVC), further hardware optimization becomes possible, e.g. by increasing compression ratio without reaching critical peak pressures. In the present study, the effect of LIVC was investigated together with the effect of EGR in a single cylinder heavy duty diesel engine. The engine was equipped with pneumatically controlled inlet valves and a high pressure common rail injector. Different injection timings and injection pressures were investigated at two different load points. The mass flow of oxygen was kept constant in order to show how the physical properties (density and temperature) affect the combustion and emission characteristics. The combustion results showed that if the oxygen mass flow is kept constant, EGR is a more efficient way (compared to LIVC) to lower the fuel consumption since it is accompanied with the largest gas flow and thus increased fuel conversion efficiency. The LIVC decreased the fuel consumption at low loads and reduced the emissions at both loads. Transportation of people and goods tend to increase and since internal combustion engines will remain a major power supply for many years to come, reduced fuel consumption is an utmost important way to decrease the CO2 emissions and to move towards a sustainable society. The results in this study show that variable inlet valve timing can be used as one important complementary tool to obtain better combustion characteristics and thus enabling more efficient powertrains.
Jonas Sjöblom

Numerical and Experimental Study of Stratified Turbulent Combustion in a Spray-Guided Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

Abstract
Direct Injection (DI) of gasoline into cylinder of a Spark Ignition (SI) engine is widely recognized to be a promising technology capable for significantly reducing fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions as compared to a port-fuel injection SI engine. In particular, spray-guided (SG) GDI combustion systems allow for further improvement in fuel efficiency. Moreover, efficient CFD tools for numerical simulations of spray and combustion processes have been becoming increasingly important in engine development. In previous papers, a so-called Flame Speed Closure (FSC) model was implemented into an open source code OpenFOAM® with the capability of addressing important phenomena in SG GDI engines, e.g. fluctuations in mixture composition and the proper evaluation of combustion temperature for the products. In this paper, the aforementioned FSC model is applied to investigate the stratified turbulent combustion in a SG GDI engine in the frame work of unsteady 3D Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulations. The computed results are compared with the measured pressure traces obtained in the same research group for both low and medium load conditions. Further on, the calculated Reynolds-averaged progress variable is compared to the experimentally observed images.
Chen Huang, Andrei Lipatnikov, Lars Christian Riis Johansen, Stina Hemdal

Ignition Delay, Lift-off and Soot Luminescence in Diesel-Ethanol Spray Combustion

Abstract
To investigate the influence of ethanol blending in Diesel fuel on the spray combustion characteristics, experiments were carried out in an optically accessed high-pressure/high-temperature spray chamber. Three different fuels were investigated: (1) Diesel, based on the European EN590 standard; (2) E10 with 10 % ethanol and (3) E20 with 20 % ethanol. Gas conditions were kept at a constant gas density of 24.3 kg/m3 at a lower combusting temperature (550 °C, 57.3 bar) and a higher combusting temperature (600 °C, 60 bar). The experimental results showed that ignition delay and delay time of soot formation were increased as ethanol was blended in Diesel fuel. Less soot luminescence was observed and longer lift-off length was measured in Diesel-ethanol blends compared to pure Diesel.
Chengjun Du, Mats Andersson, Sven Andersson

Lean Upgrade of Aftertreatment Systems to Euro6b Compliance

Abstract
Meeting new emission standards can be a challenging task, where many optimization parameters often lead to a variety of hardware designs and engine control strategies. Moreover, the life cycle of an exhaust gas aftertreatment system (EATS) is much shorter compared to the engine. Resource demanding and costly engineering programs are therefore common. The aftertreatment upgrade to Euro6b compliance for the 2.4 l five-cylinder Volvo Environmental Diesel engine (VED5) represents an exception. Based on two fundamentally different metalwork designs for front wheel- and all-wheel drive (FWD and AWD respectively) vehicles and carefully adapted control strategies, the Euro5 base design was transferred with minimal hardware changes.
P. Nilsson, C. Wang-Hansen, M. Lundgren, M. Hicks

Delivery Evaluation of High Pressure Natural Gas Fuel Injection

Abstract
Schlieren high speed videography was employed to ascertain the geometric properties, compressible flow behaviour and the flow field of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) jets. Axial and radial penetration, velocity, and dispersion have been studied comparatively. Schlieren high speed imaging reveals the dynamic flow behaviour of the delivery event, namely barrel Mach disc formation and mixing at the shear layer alongside other geometrical features; spreading rate, self-similarity, velocity and penetration. New findings of high-pressure gaseous fuel delivery are presented based on observations in a constant-volume chamber that replicates engine conditions. A novel analysis method for characterising structural dynamic properties of the gas jet are also presented alongside a new delivery method.
Thomas Rogers, Phred Petersen, Prashanth Karra, Petros Lappas

Development of a Methodology to Evaluate the Energy Efficiency of Heavy Equipment

Abstract
It was investigated how the energy efficiency of heavy equipment can be evaluated. The wide range of applicability of heavy equipment, as well as the existence of one or more power take-offs requires a special approach for evaluating the energy efficiency of these machines. Therefore, different types of heavy equipment vehicles were equipped with sensors and measurement instrumentation throughout the whole powertrain. With these vehicles, field tests were realized in order to receive perception about the application area and movement- and load spectra of these vehicles during the process of duty cycle operations. Parameters were varied in order to receive information about the impact of environmental effects on the movement- and load spectra. For the analysis of these measurements a software package was developed, which supports the analysis process of measurement data. As a result of the analysis, different standardized field test cycles were designed exemplarily. The driven test cycles were finally object to the evaluation of the energy efficiency. Based on this strategy, a methodology was developed, which provides a uniform way to evaluate the energy efficiency of the analyzed vehicles. The concept is valid for all types of heavy equipment. It is foreseeable that a realization of this methodology with additional vehicles will likewise deliver an energy efficiency evaluation which corresponds to the predicted application area.
P. Scherer, M. Geimer

Sustainability

Frontmatter

Full Cost Accounting in the Automotive Industry: A Systematic Review and Methodology Proposal

Abstract
To date, it is not known how Full Cost Accounting (FCA) can be applied in the automotive context. Therefore the objective of this paper is to review existing methodological approaches in FCA studies and identify the most appropriate for the automotive sector. This systematic literature review of FCA studies extracted ten different methodological approaches in this field. The Sustainability Assessment Model (SAM) is the most developed FCA methodology applicable to automotive organisations. Its strengths are the ability to provide both physical and monetary metrics for sustainability assessment, its flexibility and the ability to combine multiple sustainability dimensions. The SAM takes the full life cycle approach for the sustainability assessment which allows managers to make the best possible choices at the design stage with knowledge about all possible economic, social and environmental costs of the vehicle throughout its lifetime.
D. Jasinski, J. Meredith, K. Kirwan

Drivers of Sustainability in the Automotive Industry

Abstract
In many cases, the increasing need to consider sustainability and environmental responsibility in the corporate strategy of automotive companies is not the original equipment manufacturers’ (OEM) idea. Moreover internal and external changes force car manufacturers to strive for progress in sustainable technologies. This research provides an overview of potential drivers of sustainability in the automotive industry focusing on the OEM’s view. After a short introduction, the presented conference contribution delivers an overview of aspects that lead the OEMs to concentrate on sustainability. Based on Porter’s Five Forces, the authors explain actual developments which can be considered as the origins of the latest and future progress in technology. At first, the article will explain customer expatiations and needs. Afterwards, it will take a close look at potential future and current competition in order to clarify the OEMs’ situation. In addition, suppliers’ impact and threads from substitute products have an effect on the manufacturers’ increased focus on sustainability.
Wilfried M. Bunzel, Thomas Ruhnau

Material-Light Weight Design

Frontmatter

Aspects of Damage Tolerance and Fatigue of CFRP Structural Components

Abstract
Lightweight structures are one key issue for all future mobility concepts. Carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) play an important role in these disciplines due to their outstanding mechanical performance regarding to their weight. Therefore, CRFP structures have been widely used since decades in aerospace industry resulting in improvements in payload, fuel consumption and range. The Airbus A350, Boeing B787 in civil airplane industry as well as military products like the NH90 transport helicopter are examples of this development towards “all composite”-aircrafts with nearly all structural parts made out of composite materials. The increasing importance of electro mobility in the automotive sector leads to the necessity of new structural design approaches apart from commonly used metallic designs. The objectives are to reach adequate ranges by compensating for the additional weight due to electric components of hybrid or purely electric driven vehicles by improved lightweight structural design. The technological peak of this development are the i-models of BMW using CFRP for body-in-white-structure for the first time in commercial automobiles. A main difference of CFRP-structures towards metallic ones is the behavior regarding damage tolerance and fatigue. For helicopter composite structures this issue is newly defined in §573 of the relevant certification specifications (CS for EU, FAR for US) valid since December 2012. This paper for the first time summarizes the necessary efforts and possible methods to show compliance for this specific topic in the aerospace industry. As there is no similar specification or rule available now, this may serve as an example in other fields like the automotive industry. This paper discusses approaches used in aerospace industry to design robust and lightweight CFRP structural components, which can also be transferred to automobile structures. This includes definitions and standard practices defining the damage, generation of design allowables and necessary testing effort.
U. Burger, L. Rochat

Corrosion Propagation Under Paint Films on Galvanized Steel: A Comparison of Phosphating and Thin Film Corrosion Pretreatment Technologies

Abstract
The pretreatment of car bodies prior to applying the paint is crucial to promote paint adhesion and corrosion inhibition. The current phosphating pretreatments’ inability to pretreat magnesium and a body with aluminum content of over 30%, as well as future environmental legislation, will force a change in the pretreatment technology. The sustainable alternative pretreatment systems do not contain heavy metals, reducing the need for post-treatment of the waste-water and sludge from the process. The change will enable more lightweight materials in car bodies resulting in CO emissions. The process baths for the environmentally friendly pretreatments do not require much energy input as they can run at ambient temperature compared to phosphating baths that are heated to 60° C. The understanding of corrosion and the role of new pretreatments increase the confidence to build safe and reliable automobiles. The environmentally friendly pretreatments in this study are commercially available zirconium oxide-based pretreatments with silane or ceramic additives. The corrosion mechanisms were studied on hot dipped galvanized steel and painted. The study was performed by exposing the samples in a cyclic corrosion test for 3 and 13 weeks. The corrosion products were analyzed using XRD, SEM/EDS, and FT-IR techniques. The corrosion products found on the samples for all pretreatments are (Zn Cl (OH) •H O) and (Zn (CO ) (OH) ), as well as zinc chlorides and Zn(OH) . The corrosion front of the samples pretreated with the zirconium-based pretreatment exhibited corrosion propagation in the zinc grain boundaries. The grain boundary corrosion, as opposed to the diffuse corrosion front previously reported in the literature, is believed to stem from a decoupling of the cathodic site situated in the scribe when the corrosion blister is drying up. A more local anode/cathode pair is believed to form near the corrosion front giving rise to this behavior.
Konrad Tarka, Annabelle Jaako, Dan Persson, Håkan Mattsson, Lars-Gunnar Johansson

Lightweight Design of Composite Sandwich Structures

Abstract
Since a long time lightweight sandwich structures were used in the design of aircraft components. But the more recent use of composites allows even lighter components with outstanding special features. Beginning in the early 60 s sandwich rotor blades (e.g. for the helicopter BO 105) were designed with composite face skins and mainly foam for the support of the skins in order to prevent the skins from local buckling failure. The design of the BO 105 cross section, the blade cross section of the EMMEN wind tunnel, the DNW wind tunnel blade are shown in the presentation of this paper. The foam support allows an improved local stability of the skins. The stability strength is dependent on the longitudinal stiffness of the face skins and the transverse and shear stiffness of the supporting foam. Carbon- or Glass-fibers are used for the blade skins. Extreme light and stiff sandwich carbon composite designs are used since the early 70 s for space satellite solar arrays. The design consists of carbon face skins which are filament winded open nets. The solar cells are isolated to the carbon filaments by thin Capton foils. For the needed high bending stiffness, extremely high modulus carbon fibers are used. Again wrinkling strength is the critical failure mode, due to high dynamic acoustic noise produced by the space-craft booster. The noise level and thus the load can be reduced with the help of “Helmholtz-Resonators” integrated in the multifunctional design. This kind of sandwich design can also be used for light weight fuselage structures. Multifunctional features, such as damping elements can be included in the design.
H. Bansemir

Alternative and Renewable Fuels

Frontmatter

Effects of Natural Gas Percentage on Performance and Emissions of a Natural Gas/Diesel Dual-Fuel Engine

Abstract
Due to rising costs of conventional fossil fuels, and increasingly stringent limits on emissions (especially “greenhouse gases”), use of cleaner, cheaper gaseous fuels in internal combustion engines is expected to increase in the future. A popular application is the operation of heavy-duty diesel engines using combinations of compressed natural gas (CNG), supplied with the intake air and diesel injected to initiate combustion. Extensive efforts have already been made in both industry and academia to minimize pollutant emissions and maintain diesel-equivalent performance in this dual-fuel mode, but further knowledge of effects of fundamental parameters is required to optimize the combustion. Thus, this paper presents an experimental investigation of the influence of the CNG to diesel fuel ratio on the performance (effective expansion ratio, pressure and heat release rates) and emissions (HC, CO, NOx and CO2) from a CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine operating under varying load conditions but constant engine speed.
Zhiqin Jia, Ingemar Denbratt

Investigation of Cold Start Operability, Long Term Impact, Emissions and Fuel Consumption of HVO Fuel in Volvo Car Engines and Vehicles

Abstract
This study includes both engine and vehicle tests where HVO (hydrogenated vegetable oil) fuel was compared with diesel fuels. Cold start operability, long term impact on materials, emissions and fuel consumption were investigated. For the cold start tests the vehicle was cooled down for 10 h to selected temperatures and the time to start the engine was measured down to −27 °C. The tests showed that starting time was below 2 s down to −20 °C and there was no difference between the fuels. One car was operating 100,000 km on HVO fuel and the long term exposure showed neither negative impact on the materials nor high fuel dilution in the engine oil. Emission measurements were conducted in both test bed engine and vehicle. The test bed measurement showed that engine-out PM reduction is ~60 %, the NOx emissions are similar and the specific fuel consumption is 4 % lower for the HVO fuel in comparison with European diesel fuel. The tailpipe CO2, CO and HC emissions were reduced in the vehicle test by 6, 80 and 65 % respectively for the HVO fuel as a consequence of the higher hydrogen to carbon ratio.
M. Johansson, L. Jacobsson, H. Simonsen

Assessment of the Viability of Vegetable Oil Fuels: Species, Land, Social, Environmental, Population and Safety Considerations

Abstract
This work follows the literature review and on-road trial findings presented at ICSAT 2013 (Thomas et al. Assessment of the viability of vegetable oil based fuels. In: Lecture notes in mobility—sustainable automotive technologies 2013, 2013). In addition, it addresses the availability of non-food oil-producing species and land, the sociological and environmental aspects associated with growing biofuels and the potential increased safety of using vegetable oil fuels and blends. The author claims that it is essentially impossible to provide the world’s current energy needs without fossil fuels unless humanity is prepared to control its population to a sustainable level. Production methods and costings are not addressed as intended and will be the subject of further study. Costs of growing, extracting, purifying and transporting vegetable oil fuel are lower than any alternatives given the simplicity of processes involved, the fact that almost anyone can perform them and the fact that the fuel can be grown and processed close to point of use by small, non-monopolistic enterprises. Readers wishing to consider costings are referred to reports by the EC Joint Research Commission and the International Energy Agency (IEA) (Production costs of alternative transportation fuels—influence of crude oil price and technology maturity; International Energy Agency; Jensen, Unmodified vegetable oil as an automotive fuel; the institute for prospective technological studies of the European commission directorate general joint research centre).
I. F. Thomas, N. A. Porter, P. Lappas

Design of a New Innovative High Pressure Hydrogen System Depending on Multi-layer Section

Abstract
Based on the rising environmental pollution and finite fossil fuel new storage system must develop to dissipate the primary energy source of renewable energy to the second energy source, like hydrogen. A view into the field of pressure tank technology shows that usually today it is common practice to design a huge cylinder tank. On market, the state of the art high pressure storage systems, type III or type IV, are classified in the Regulation (EC) No 79/2009 [1]. The idea of the new design is to store as much as possible mass of hydrogen in a smaller volume without losing a lot of constructed space. The first idea is to reduce the inner diameter and create new design based on bending pipes. The smaller cross-sectional area of the pipe caused lower tangential and axial stresses with the result of reducing the wall thickness and resulting weight. This modification has a negative influence of the whole structure, because with decreasing diameter the relation between these significant masses also gets worse, as the inside volume of the pipes gets lower. The challenge of drafting a new high pressure storage system is to find a compromise between the optimum diameter for a good amount of inside volume and comparably low mass of the hydrogen storage structure. The comfort for the user, volume and mass of hydrogen for the car depends on the design.
D. Duschek, J. Wellnitz

Safety

Frontmatter

Emergency Management Support by Spatial Reasoning

Abstract
Emergency management benefits from techniques such as the eCall that allow an automatic transmission of vehicle data and location to initiate response operations in case of an accident. Such operations may comprise the deployment of ambulances and recovery vehicles. Based on available data one can decide on the type of ambulances, police and other recovery vehicles needed, on prioritization in case of multiple events and on strategies for an efficient management of available resources. Automatically handling these constraints which can go beyond traditional database operations and deriving decisions is a challenging problem. In this paper, we describe how our existing spatio-temporal description and reasoning framework based on formal methods can be used to facilitate decisions in emergency recovery situations in combination with indexing of available information.
Jan Olaf Blech, Heinz Schmidt, Timos Sellis

Analytical and Numerical Approach of Dynamic Behaviour of Flexible Metal Mesh Structures

Abstract
The application of Flexible Metal Mesh Structures (FMMS) has the potential to improve human and vehicle safety. Previous experiments confirmed the effectiveness of these structures. Experimental tests are time and cost consuming. Thus the aim of this study is to develop an appropriate simulation model, due to economical and timed aspects. Therefore, within this study an analytical and numerical model at macro-level will be established simulating the dynamic behaviour of the base chainmesh through defined parameters and boundary conditions. The main focus of the present paper is to understand the kinematic behaviour of chainmesh under large-scale impact in the out of plane direction of the material. The field of future applications (human and vehicle safety) defines the governing parameters of the model. Accordingly, high loads and slow impact velocities are simulated, while small distortion and large deformations within the material are tolerated. Furthermore, to ensure reusability of the metal mesh, plastic deformation should not occur, thus have not to be captured within the model. In view of its future applications, the following key topics will be investigated:
  • DOFs and kinematics of the single (torus) element,
  • motion of the overall system,
  • energy absorption of the chainmesh and
  • estimation of risk of injury in case of human body impact.
Thus, the main aim will be the applicability of the model with its practical relevance lying in the potential to improve Flexible Metal Mesh Structure applications in the field of human and vehicle safety.
E. Wilhelm, J. Wellnitz
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