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Über dieses Buch

Unarguably, preserving the ecosystem, securing sustainability and understanding the dynamics of agro-food chains have all become vital policy objectives with several interlinked dimensions. The main objectives of this book are to draw the attention of researchers, policymakers and businesspeople to the relation between agro-food chains and the ecosystem, and to demonstrate the importance of building resilient agro-food chains that take into account climate change and environmental challenges. Agro-food chains as they function today can serve as powerful tools for promoting sustainable forms of agriculture, consumption and production that are embedded in a viable ecosystem. The book addresses a range of environmental, methodological and societal issues from a transaction perspective, while also providing extensive background information on the topic, and outlining future applications and research directions.



Chapter 1. The Economics of Climate Change in Agriculture: A Review on Kazakhstan and Turkey

At the end of the twentieth—beginning of the twenty-first century, there are global processes of climate change under the influence of anthropogenic factors. The preservation of these trends entails extreme and almost irreversible consequences. It is obvious that climate change affects agricultural production and its productivity throughout the world. The climate change economy is an innovative direction that emerged at the junction of ecology and economy, where global environmental requirements are conditioned. Agriculture, which is one of the major sources of greenhouse gas emissions, can play an important role in mitigating the effects of climate change. The principles of the economy of climate change are aimed at solving two key issues: achieving “improved growth” and achieving an “improved climate”. The objectives of the review are to analyze the global processes of climate change; to study the economic impacts of climate change on agriculture in Kazakhstan and Turkey; and to consider a system of measures to prevent global climate change in the context of the climate change economy. For reviewing, different literature has been used, such as: IPCC, WMO, WTO, FAO, UNEP, UNFCCC, UNDP, IMF, WB, OECD, KAZHYDROMET, TURKSTAT, IRRI, Committee of the Statistics of the Kazakhstan, and the Turkish State Meteorologic Service reports.
Zhansaya Bolatova, Sait Engindeniz

Chapter 2. Food Chains and Ecosystem Services Through a Resilience Lens

Agro-food chains are a coupled social-ecological system (SES). The actors involved in the agro-food chain (farmers, processing, distribution and retail industries, consumers) take decisions that feed back into the different components of the food chain as well as into the agroecosystem within which they are embedded. In the light of global warming and limited natural resources, it is imperative to build resilient agro-food chains that ensure food security and the integrity of the ecosystems. Resilience is the ability of a system to maintain its structure and functions and to reorganize itself in the face of the disturbance. Using a resilience thinking approach, this chapter proposes a framework to analyse the links between the mechanisms put in place within an agro-food chain to foster resilience and their impacts in terms of ecosystem services and the wider socio-economic effects on the socio-ecological system as a whole. The framework has been tested in a typical Mediterranean context, analysing an olive oil chain over the last 60 years.
Rosanna Salvia, Giovanni Quaranta

Chapter 3. Analysis of the Development Potential of the Food Industry in the EU28

Building on the idea that the available balance of economic enterprises allows financing of investments as a source of innovation and development, the paper provides the main results of investigation upon the development potential of the food industry in the EU28 countries, in terms of the dynamics and structural comparisons, aiming to highlight the changes in performance and the gaps that determine the hierarchy of countries, in view of increasing their economic convergence as a basic factor for a sustainable Single Market. The research used the comparison of the selected relevant economic and financial indicators for the activity of enterprises in the agri-food manufacturing industry of the countries and groups of states by their current membership to the Eurozone, against the EU28 average, using the most recent available statistical material provided by Eurostat for the last decade.
Mirela-Adriana Rusali

Chapter 4. An Overlook of the Economic Benefits of Value-Based Food Chains to Maintain Farms Operating in Less Favoured Areas

A Review Paper
The aims of this paper go towards collecting and demonstrating the positive economic influences/effects of value-based food chains (known as food chains with added values) on the social and economic situation of farms. Especially this type of food chain can be recognized as very important for preserving the sustainable development of small farms located on hilly and mountain regions as well as on other less favoured areas. The results are based on the analysis of value-based food chains from Slovenian mountain regions. Added values are manifested through several economic parameters while the most important is the highest purchase prices of agricultural raw material. From the case study, the elasticity values were calculated for purchase prices of raw milk as the indicator to recognize the potential economic benefits. The authors have chosen two different methodological approaches for this study. Both of them are based on the empirical mathematical approach (econometric analysis).
Jernej Prišenk, Aleksander Itskovich, Jernej Turk

Chapter 5. Statistical Analysis on the Impact of Online Travel Agents’ (OTAs) Commission Structure on Hotels’ Revenue Management

One of the most critical challenges facing the hotel sector has been the dominant position achieved by the Online Travel Agency (OTA) leading to a radical change in the electronic distribution chain. The application of the merchant model has the hoteliers paying a high commission margin and losing control over their inventory and final sales prices, as they watch how many of their customers are induced to buy through online intermediaries. This paper analyzes the impact of OTAs’ commission structure on hotels’ revenue management. A study is also carried out on the level of use of OTAs by hotels and the fairness of the commission rates, the bargaining power with the OTAs, the efficiency of the OTAs’ marketing strategy and the effectiveness of commission rates on pricing policy.
Vangelis Manousakis, Andreas Mattas

Chapter 6. A Retrospective View of the EU Policy Reforms in the Olive Oil Sector and Future Perspectives

The expansion of the European Union (EU) to include Greece and Spain in 1981 and 1986, respectively, converted the EU from a net importer to a pure olive oil exporter. In the subsequent decades, the EU’s olive oil policy was oriented to reinforce the sector’s competitiveness by encouraging the production of a high-quality product for the benefit of growers, processors, traders and consumers. Nevertheless, the main objectives of the EU olive oil policy differentiated over the years, since the EU decided to promote and adopt more sustainable agricultural practices for the benefit of both the environment and the public health of European citizens. This paper offers a retrospective view of the EU’s olive oil policy and then discusses the likely consequences stemming from the last reform (2014) for the olive sector, since olive cultivation is considered important for the rural economy in many regions of Southern Europe.
Charoula Chousou, Efthimia Tsakiridou, Konstantinos Mattas

Chapter 7. CAP’s Impacts on the Selling Points of Agricultural Supplies and Local Economy

In this work, the impacts of the CAP reform on the selling points of agricultural supplies and local economy were investigated. Factor analysis and the Structural Equation Modeling technique were performed to identify the CAP’s effects on the selling points, the local economy and their interlinkages. Data was gathered using face-to-face interviews with agronomists working on the local agricultural input sector. The survey was conducted in the Region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace (Greece), where agriculture is considered the main economic activity affecting the development of related economic sectors. Results confirm the existence of a clear effect of the CAP’s reform on the selling points of agricultural supplies and local economy, validating the high level of interconnection of these two main factors which follow a strong parallel route.
Theodoros Markopoulos, Sotirios Papadopoulos, Charoula Chousou, Konstantinos Mattas

Chapter 8. Making ‘Soft’ Economics a ‘Hard Science’: Planning Governance for Sustainable Development Through a Sustainability Compass

Earlier research presented the need for a critical re-evaluation of economics in reference to its original definition of οἰκονομία (oikonomia) or ‘household management’, referring to the effective management and allocation of resources for meeting human needs. This is an attempt to reframe the concept of ‘hard economics’, into one which is holonic and rejects closed, oversimplified and anthropocentric valuation of goods and services according to individual utility and preference. Economics cannot be isolated from other natural systems but must incorporate hard evidence about them, integrating human and natural systems into a unique understanding. The approach aims at addressing the on-going conflict between human development and sustainability, and strives to develop social learning processes about systems’ sustainability and to generate criteria to support evidence-based decision-making. The emergence of empirical evidence is facilitated by multi-disciplinary social learning that integrates qualitative and quantitative information and knowledge from different fields of science.
This paper explores how this argument has been used to support the development of the Governance Assessment Matrix Exercise (GAME) matrix and tool-kit, from social learning about qualitative criteria of sustainability (based on the Five Capitals Model of Sustainability), to a Sustainability Compass that defines quantitative metrics for monitoring advancements towards the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The paper describes the background conceptual framework, as a harder vision of economics: this holonic vision of household management pursues an efficient and effective allocation of resources for addressing human needs, which is supported by cross-disciplinary knowledge integration and social learning rather than non-supported and non-informed expression of preference. The paper concludes by summarising this process and exploring how it might be developed further through the prototype Sustainability Compass and associated metrics that might be employed in the social learning that underpins policy-relevant and evidence-based decisions directed at the realisation of the SDGs. Possible further developments are being planned for complementing the Sustainability Compass with a meta-evaluation framework that assesses the qualitative level of the metrics for this purpose.
Maurizio Sajeva, Mark Lemon, Andrew Mitchell

Chapter 9. Impact of Arabic Spring on the Competitiveness of Arab States’ Agricultural Exports to EU Markets

The trade between the Arab States (21 countries) and the EU countries represents the largest proportion of their total trade with the whole world. It amounted to more than 60% in 2011. Therefore, the EU markets remain the first priority in achieving competitiveness for the agricultural sector exports of the Arab countries. The study targeted a comprehensive evaluation of competitive agricultural exports through a multi-staged model. The first included design and implementation of an index for agricultural development as a geometric means of four sub-indices: Agricultural Resources Index, Agricultural Productivity Index, Labor Employment Index in Agriculture, and Agricultural Foreign Trade Index. The identified four Arab countries with the highest agricultural development index score were Tunisia, Morocco, Egypt and Sudan.
The exported food commodity groups, from the identified Arab States to EU Markets, that recognized values of the RCA index above one along the years 2015 and 2016 were selected. These were fruit and vegetable exports of Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco, fish exports of Morocco and Tunisia, and sugar and honey product exports from Egypt and Sudan.
Fruit and vegetable exports of Egypt and to the EU achieved a more stable comparative advantage than Tunisia and Morocco. However, Tunisia achieved a more stable comparative advantage than Morocco. The stability of the RCA index of fish exports to the EU market was higher for Tunisia than Morocco. Although Sudan showed high comparative advantage in exporting sugar products to the European market, it performed a high degree of instability compared to its rival Egypt. The study underlined the importance of coordination and integration of the export policies among the four identified Arab countries to raise their competitiveness in the European markets. As the four countries enjoy diversification in climate, water, soil resources and location advantages, they can establish joint venture projects for grading, packing processing, storage and transportation networks.
Ibrahim Soliman, Hala Bassiony
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