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This book presents the latest technologies and operational methods available to support sustainable freight transport practices. It highlights market requirements, cutting edge applications, and case studies from innovators in the logistics services industry. The goal is to help bridge the gap between advanced computational techniques and complex applied problems such as those in sustainable transport and logistics operations. Freight transport has traditionally focused on costs and service levels. However, it is no longer possible or socially responsible to neglect the environmental, social, climate, and energy implications of the freight moving globally. This book places sustainability at the forefront of the freight transport agenda.

Sustainable Freight Transport: Theory, Models and Case Studies is divided into three sections. Section I focuses on green freight transport policies for air and marine ports. Section II is devoted to using modelling techniques and optimization for achieving sustainable freight transport, while Section III examines policies to support sustainable freight transport practices in urban areas. The contributions come from authors from different areas, backgrounds, and countries to cover a global perspective.




Despite the slow-moving recovery in world merchandise trade since the big recession of 2008, trade flows continue to expand with projected growth set to accelerate in the coming years (UNCTAD 2015). In tandem, trade-related international freight is expected to grow by a factor of 4.3 by 2050 compared to 2010 volumes, with patterns also shifting – one third of trade in 2050 will occur among developing economies (OECD 2015).
Vasileios Zeimpekis, Emel Aktas, Michael Bourlakis, Ioannis Minis

Logistics and Freight Transport as the Kernel of Resilient Airport-Driven Development; A Survey on Basic Interactivities and Causalities

Air transportation has experienced an almost steady growth in recent decades, in response to the global economic growth and to the trade interaction demand. With the largest part of the world’s population living in emerging economies and the continuous growth of urbanization, the future growth of air transport can be guaranteed. Other modes of transport cannot compete with its key competitive advantage– travel time for long distances. Therefore, most airports have been subject to expansion and development as well as efficiency enhancement strategies to keep themselves alive and profitable in the air transport market, to serve their catchment area more efficiently, and to support the economy of connected regions. They are not small take-off and landing ports anymore; a revolutionary transformation has been changing their functionality, while businesses gravitate toward them causing economic, social, and environmental changes in their surrounding regions. A mutual relationship between the airport and its surrounding is formed to gain more economic benefits, which can lead to more aeronautical and non- aeronautical revenues for the airport. The existence of significant links between the airport operation and economic development has been proven in several studies; it has also been reviewed in this chapter. To make airports and their surroundings more fetching environments for business activities, decision makers have been planning to add diversified -especially non-aeronautical- services, and are planning to strengthen the economic ties between airport services and business activities. Most of the business activities are concentrated in cities, accompanied by the movement of goods and productions. The availability of the airport and the reliability of its services heighten the efficiency of freight transport chains and logistics networks and reinforce the competitive advantage of its region. Different concepts have been developed to conceptualize the relation of airports with their surroundings, acknowledging the strong ties between airport development, freight transport, and logistics. However, different interactions between airport and logistics/freight-transport within the catchment area arises the necessity of applying system approach to conduct more comprehensive analysis and to move toward implementing integrated approaches in planning. This necessity is crucial because other systems such as regional and urban economy, urban transport, land-use, environment, etc. also must be involved in integrated planning for the purpose of addressing sustainability and resiliency. In this study, which is a part of author’s PhD research, a detail review on Airport-Delated Development concept(s) and the centrality of freight transport and logistics is provided. The complexity of planning is mainly addressed as an initial step for further research and system modeling.
Rouzbeh Boloukian

Sustainability Management in Smaller UK Ports to Promote More Sustainable Freight Transport

This chapter aims to promote more sustainable freight transport by discussing processes to assist smaller UK ports as vital but neglected freight interchanges, to embrace and embed sustainability management. Discussion spans aspects of freight performance, examples of port planning and reporting, and some available sustainability management systems. In time, more systematic sustainability management methodologies will probably permeate port management, but the processes and mechanisms for change remain uncertain. Increasing adoption is likely as managerial awareness increases, driven by internal corporate strategic initiatives. External drivers will involve abduction from disciplines in which sustainability management is more mature. Diffusion of values and operating practices from adjacent supply chains, or pragmatism arising from requirements to safeguard critical revenue streams is likely. Support from research and professional bodies is essential to design strategies to guide the implementation of sustainability management in smaller UK ports to ensure more sustainable freight transport.
John Dinwoodie

A Bi-objective Problem of Scheduling Fuel Supply Vessels

Fleets of fuel supply vessels are used to provide ships anchored in ports with different oil products. Demand is satisfied based on a pull system, where oil shipments are triggered by orders placed by customers and delivered on a specific agreed time window. The aim of this paper is to suggest proper scheduling policies for a fleet of fuel supply vessels, under the vessels’ availability/capacity and the customers’ demand constraints, so as to obtain the Pareto optimal solutions that minimize the cost and the total environmental burden expressed in CO2 emissions. The methodology employed for solving the problem is the ∈-constraint approach combined with a heuristic algorithm. The model is tested and evaluated for a small Hellenic oil company’s data. The model can be easily instantiated according to the input data and adjusted to the fleet scheduler’s needs, thus making the decision process faster and leading to lower costs and higher environmental savings.
N. P. Rachaniotis, N. S. Koutsoukis, J. C. Mourmouris, G. T. Tsoulfas

Value Creation Through Green Vehicle Routing

Logistics companies need to create and deliver value in an efficient way so that they generate profit in a highly competitive and demanding market. Green thinking can help companies to take required actions to minimize negative externalities of their transportation activities and enhance their brand value. Green vehicle routing, for example, is one of the opportunities where negative externalities are explicitly considered so that these externalities are reduced or eliminated through improved planning. This chapter provides an overview of some of the current developments in road transportation, including the description of negative externalities and some of their applications in vehicle routing and scheduling.
Emrah Demir

Environmental Benefits of Collaboration and Allocation of Emissions in Road Freight Transportation

Despite the growing interest in green logistics over the last years, the cost savings perspective in collaborative transportation prevails. As environmental concerns increase, it is worthwhile to address collaboration from a green perspective. This chapter highlights the effectiveness of collaborative transportation to achieve environmental goals in road freight transportation. First, it overviews several cases that quantify the environmental benefits of collaborative transportation. The benefits range from 11% to 54% reduction of CO2 emissions, and also include potential improvements in biomass logistics for increasing the use of bioenergy. Second, it studies the problem of how to allocate emissions to different objects involved in joint transport activities. These objects can be, for example, companies in a coalition or customers on a route. By a numerical example on a vehicle routing problem and an overview of other applications, it is illustrated how methods used to allocate cost can also be used to allocate emissions. The chapter also includes a brief overview of the methods to calculate emissions and the optimization criteria used in the literature on collaborative transportation and emission allocation. Overall, this chapter contributes with a first compilation of the emergent stream of literature that incorporates environmental concerns in collaborative road freight transportation.
Mario Guajardo

Short Supply Chains as a Viable Alternative for the Distribution of Food in Urban Areas? Investigation of the Performance of Several Distribution Schemes

In recent years, alternative forms of consumption in conventional food systems have emerged across the world. Specifically, the concept of short food supply chains advocates consumption of local products and distribution with maximum one (or ideally none) intermediary between the producer and the consumer. The objective of these consumption patterns is to reduce the externalities caused by conventional consumption modes, bring closer consumers and producers, and allow small-scale farmers to diversify their production, capturing greater value added, and ensuring more stable incomes. A large variety of typology of short supply chains can be distinguished, ranging from direct sales and distribution by producers to Internet sales through e-commerce operators.
However, consumption of local products does not automatically reduce the negative externalities. Indeed, the short food supply chain still faces many logistics, regulatory, and commercial challenges to constitute a real alternative to the globalized food model. Logistics is currently one of the main bottlenecks for thedevelopment of this sector. It has become even more complex in urban areas where the transportation of goods is subject to many constraints, such as the time spent on the road due to traffic, the difficulty in finding the right delivery point, and the lack of unloading areas or access restrictions.
A. Nsamzinshuti, M. Janjevic, N. Rigo, A. B. Ndiaye

Sustainable Solutions for Urban Freight Transport and Logistics: An Analysis of Urban Consolidation Centers

Despite its key role for the economic vitality of a city, urban freight transport is responsible for negative externalities that affect our lives. In fact, it is a major contributor to climate change and global warming. Also, it causes increasing gas emissions, congestion, noise and traffic safety issues.
Drawing on the successful experience of the Bristol-Bath Freight Consolidation Center, which has been serving the city center of Bristol since 2002 and started covering Bath in 2012, this study analyses benefits provided by an Urban Consolidation Center (UCC). Based on a case study analysis, it aims to identify the key successes of a UCC scheme by focusing on the stakeholders’ perspective. An analysis of the benefits coming from the sustainability scheme, such as polluting emissions reduction rates, is also provided.
Daniela Paddeu

Urban Vehicle Access Regulations

Urban Vehicle Access Restrictions (UVARs) contribute to addressing several challenges that markets alone are not able to address. They are based on access time, allow certain types of vehicles or regulate access on emission levels of the vehicle, the loading factor, road use (size), parking capacity or loading and unloading operations. The chapter makes an in-depth analysis of the conditions and key success factors for several selected UVAR schemes and solutions. To this end, existing literature (scientific, sector-related and policy documents), best practices and interviews with relevant stakeholders are analyzed and useful conclusions are revealed.
Osvaldo Navarro Lopez

The Importance of Supplier Development for Sustainability

Combining social responsibility, environmental consciousness, and economic performance in supply chain operations has led to sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) programs. In recent years, the growth and importance of sustainability in supply chains has increased due to an insurgence of interest in climate change, environmental pollution, energy price fluctuations, and basic consumer behavior. This trend is especially prevalent in supply chain management. Due to the highly competitive business environment, it is not only the performance of the firm that is critical, but also the performance of the suppliers of a firm. The sustainability of an organization depends on the relationship fostered with suppliers. Supplier development, defined as the activities organized by buyers to increase the performance of their suppliers, has originated from this concept. Thus, supplier development projects can play an important role in sustainability for the firm and for the supply chain. This chapter, using extant literature, gives a general framework for supplier development and the effects on sustainability.
Yavuz Ağan, Mehmet Fatih Acar, Brian Neureuther
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