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The annual series Global Conferences on Sustainable Manufacturing (GCSM) sponsored by the International Academy for Production Engineering (CIRP) is committed to excellence in the creation of sustainable products and processes that conserve energy and natural resources, have minimal negative impacts upon the natural environment and society, and

adhere to the core principle of sustainability by considering the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. To promote this noble goal, there is a great need for increased awareness in education and training, including the dissemination of new findings on principles and practices of sustainability applied to manufacturing. The series Global Conferences on Sustainable Manufacturing offers international colleagues the opportunity to network, expand their knowledge, and improve practice globally.



Value Creation by Sustainable Manufacturing


Chapter 1. Sustainable Manufacturing for Global Value Creation

Sustainability in the three dimensions of economic competitiveness in market environment, of ecological resource efficiency and effectiveness and of social development in education, health and wealth for humans in the global village has become a guideline for mankind`s future existence on earth. An architecture of sustainable manufacturing for global value creation is specified in challenges and approaches to cope with them. Activities at Technische Universität Berlin with respect to a major integrated interdisciplinary research project are presented.

G. Seliger

Chapter 2. Modelling and Tactics for Sustainable Manufacturing: An Improvement Methodology

Sustainable manufacturing practices demonstrated by companies are a key ingredient to increasing business performance and competitiveness. Whilst reported practices are good examples of what has been achieved, they are often company specific and difficult for others to reproduce since they provide few, if any, details on how improvements were achieved. Sustainable manufacturing strategies offer insight to the overall approach taken by companies but they can lack practical support for implementation. This paper examines the gap between strategic direction and practices to extract the mechanisms behind the practices and formulate sustainable manufacturing tactics (which provide information on how specific improvements can be implemented). The research is based on extensive collection and analysis of available case studies in published literature and interaction with industry. The combined use of resource flow (material, energy and waste) modelling and the tactics can support manufacturers in their journey towards sustainability by providing generic solutions on how to adapt their operations. An improvement methodology is developed by combining the manufacturing ecosystem model and tactics to guide manufacturers in a structured and systematic way to identify improvement opportunities. The paper explores the design challenge of developing such an improvement methodology to assist users in identifying which tactics might apply in their specific context.

M. Despeisse, P. D. Ball, S. Evans

Chapter 3. Lean Production Systems as a Framework for Sustainable Manufacturing

The constantly rising consumption of resources, global warming and a growing population force the society towards more sustainability regarding ecologic, economic and social aspects. Especially manufacturing industries are challenged to adapt their processes since they play a major role in resource consumption and green house gas emission. Besides more sustainable products, principles of shop floor management have to be redesigned towards more sustainable processes. State of the art manufacturing is usually designed according to enterprise-specific Lean Production Systems. These systems are considered to ensure a comprehensive and sustainable design of production. However, the general goals of an LPS focus on economic aspects. Ecological and social sustainability are rarely considered. Therefore, this paper analyzes Lean Production Systems concerning sustainable aspects. Furthermore, the given structure of these systems provides a framework, where goals and principles of ecological and social sustainability can be incorporated.

Uwe Dombrowski, Tim Mielke, Sven Schulze

Chapter 4. Cleaner Production as a Corporate Sustainable Tool: A Study of Companies from Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

This study aimed to assess the Cleaner Production—CP as a corporate sustainability tool, through the study of multiple case studies within companies from Rio Grande do Norte State. In order to achieve this goal our research methodology approach used the CP methodology from SEBRAE (2005) (based on CP programme of UNEP/UNIDO and applied it within the food industry (Company 1), the textile industry (Company 2) and in a car dealer (Company 3). The results highlighted (among other variables) the specific sustainability focus of any observed Cleaner Production activities. In the Company 1, raw material substitution and the optimization of water and energy usage were the main foci. In Company 2, the foci were the optimization of fabric usage and the technological modification (installation of washing equipment for the printing plates, before of this, there was not control of water usage in this process, resulting in increased water consumption and disposal of waste). Company 3 was focused on source segregation and external recycling. Thus, it was possible the implement within three companies a prevent control of significant environmental aspects, providing evidence to the incorporation of environmental issues in the corporate management process, as well as decreasing the operational risks among employees, community and environment. On the other hand, the continuity of the CP program depends on the total commitment from the top management. In addition to understanding the specific Cleaner Production foci chosen by each case company, the paper reflects on the reasons why the company may has chosen that focus, and implications for the adoption of Cleaner Production.

H. C. Dias Pimenta, R. P. Gouvinhas, S. Evans

Chapter 5. Sustainable Manufacturing: A Framework for Ontology Development

Ontologies provide an explicit and formal model of a given knowledge domain, allow knowledge sharing and reuse and are widely used in different applicative contexts. Knowledge can be reused and effectively exchanged at product, process, and system levels. Current sustainable manufacturing practices justify the interest in an in-depth study of this complex process of building ontologies. Few researches address the issue of structuring and integrating the existing corpus of knowledge concerning sustainability in the manufacturing context using ontologies. In this paper a conceptual framework is provided to support ontology development by structuring sustainability knowledge in the manufacturing domain.

M. Dassisti, M. Chimienti, M. Shuaib, F. Badurdeen, I. S. Jawahir

Chapter 6. Value Creation Model for Internationalization—Reducing Risks and Breaking Down Barriers

The participation in a promising international market provides a great opportunity for companies to increase their profit and growth, but also hides many risks. These risks can mean especially for small and medium enterprises (SME) the end of their existence, because of their limited experience and resources. Product, process and qualification are the main elements of the company’s value creation and competitive advantage. In this paper an internationalization model will be presented as a tool to support companies to use the opportunities of growing through internationalizing their value creation and at the same time to avoid most of the associated risks. An implementation of this model has been conducted at Siemens AG, medium voltage components business unit.

R. Moflih, S. Abd-Elall, G. Seliger

Chapter 7. Fuzzy Application in Sustainability Assessment: A Case Study of Automotive Headlamp

Aspects of environment, economic and social are the three principal elements of sustainability. Within these elements, there are many sub-sustainability parameters need to be considered when sustainability evaluation is carried out which include pollution, cost, energy, health, acidification and others. The inclusion of these parameters and the uncertainty data increases the complexity in decision making process with respect to sustainable development as it not only evaluates the current situation but also the prediction and strategic decision for the future. Consequently, a simplified methods and tools are required in guiding the designers and decision makers to develop sustainable product. Hence, this paper present a fuzzy approach in evaluation of product’s sustainability. The fuzzy logic approach is integrated into the evaluation process as it has a capability to handle severe uncertainty and ability to evaluate qualitative and quantitative data simultaneously. A case study of automotive headlamp is presented to demonstrate the capability of fuzzy technique in sustainability evaluation.

A. Hemdi, M. Z. Mat Saman, S. Sharif

Manufacturing Processes and Equipment


Chapter 8. Metrics-Based Sustainability Assessment of a Drilling Process

Results from a preliminary investigation of a drilling process using a metrics-based sustainability assessment method are presented in this paper. The proposed metrics aim at addressing the impacts of a manufacturing process, from the economical, environmental and societal points of view. This study includes a total-life-cycle approach for all identified inputs and outputs of the process, and is carried out according to the different sustainability elements such as cost, energy consumption, waste management, environmental impact, personnel health and operator safety. A crankshaft oil-hole drilling process is taken as the target, which was optimized using machining performance criteria. The process is evaluated based on the metrics proposed, comparing its sustainability behavior before and after the optimization. The impacts of the changes to the process are addressed with a more comprehensive scope of sustainable manufacturing.

T. Lu, G. Rotella, S. C. Feng, F. Badurdeen, O. W. Dillon, K. Rouch, I. S. Jawahir

Chapter 9. A Systematic Approach to Evaluate the Process Improvement in Lean Manufacturing Organizations

Numerous tools and techniques have been developed to eliminate or reduce waste and carry out Lean concepts in the manufacturing environment. However, in practice, manufacturers encounter difficulties to clearly identify the weaknesses of the existing processes in order to address them by implementing appropriate Lean tools. Moreover, selection and implementation of appropriate Lean strategies to address the problems identified is a challenging task. Therefore, the authors developed a methodology to quantitatively measure the performances of a manufacturing system in detecting the causes of inefficiencies and to select appropriate Lean strategies accordingly. Value Stream Mapping (VSM), manufacturing performance metrics and maturity stage of an organization are used to specify the manufacturing problems. Finally, a case example has been presented to demonstrate how the procedure developed works in practical situation.

M. A. Amin, M. A. Karim

Chapter 10. A Method for an Integrated Development of Product-Production System Combinations

Emerging countries are rapidly gaining on the industrialized nations. Enterprises can only succeed in this global competition arena if they differentiate them selves through the products and their production systems. A new approach to the development of products and corresponding production systems which allows a just coexistence in competition and collaboration between different levels of development is necessary to face the challenge of sustainable development. It must combine the strategic forecast of markets, technologies and the business environment with a cross domain specification of concepts of products and production systems. In a strategic planning phase, prospective framework conditions are derived from field investigations and transferred into product and production scenarios. From the scenarios a promising combination of product and production system is selected. In a conceptual design phase a comprehensive specification of the product-production system combination is worked out. This is done based on a new specification technique taking into account the interactions between product and production system.

J. Brökelmann, P. Gausemeier, J. Gausemeier, G. Seliger

Chapter 11. Impact Assessment of Machine Tool Auxiliary Drives Oversizing to Energy Efficiency Aspects

The paper focuses on the energy consumption of machine tool auxiliary drives. A detailed analysis of the electric power consumption of production lines in the automotive sector shows that machine tool auxiliary drives often have a low power factor. For uncontrolled induction machines this is an indicator for an operation in partial-load range and thus for an oversizing. The scope of this work is the evaluation of the energy efficiency of this auxiliary drives. Loss mechanisms of asynchronous machines are pointed out. The efficiency of asynchronous machines of different rated power will be assessed for a constant mechanical load. Beside the machine losses, ohmic losses of the lead wires are investigated to allow for a holistic assessment of the energy efficiency. The work shown in the paper was conducted within the project BEAT which is kindly financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany (BMBF).

B. Riemer, T. Herold, K. Hameyer

Chapter 12. Towards a Decision Support Framework for Sustainable Manufacturing

Every enterprise should track and asses its environmental impact for accountability reasons towards its consumers, employees, government, and society. The objective of this study is to design an eco-tracking framework and a decision support system architecture in order to provide energy visibility to enterprises by close monitoring the energy consumption of their manufacturing processes. The proposed architecture uses the energy consumption and production activity data as input. Energy consumption data is collected from meters and production activity data from manufacturing automation equipment (e.g. PLCs, CNCs, etc.). Collected energy data which is stored in a central data warehouse, is processed, contextualized with activity data and transformed to eco-KPIs in order to benchmark energy efficiency of the production processes and enable factory supervisors to make decisions towards better environmental footprint of the enterprise. The proposed decision support framework is founded on Software as a Service (SaaS) approach which can enable fast visibility of data throughout enterprise and provide easy scalability.

M. U. Uluer, G. Gök, H. Ö. Ünver, S. E. Kılıç

Chapter 13. The Effects of Depth of Cut and Dressing Conditions on the Surface Integrity in Creep Feed Grinding of Inconel 792-5A

Creep-Feed Grinding (CFG) is one of the none-traditional machining in which form grinding to full depth is performed in limited number of passes. During this study, samples were ground with variable depth of cut and dressing conditions while the other parameters were constant. Continuous Dressing (CD) and Non Continuous Dressing (NCD) with the different number of passes were applied. After machining, surface integrity was studied and in order to investigate the surface micro-cracks, Chemical Etch + FPI and Thermal shock + FPI were performed. For determining micro-structural changes in ground specimens as a criteria in measuring the level of residual stress, a set of recrystallization processes were carried out on them and average grain size were measured. The results show, however, changing in depth of cut hasn’t influenced on micro-cracks, quality of surface roughness has descended in terms of increasing the depth of cut.

R. Ashofteh, A. Rastkerdar, S. Kolahdouz, A. Daneshi

Chapter 14. Dry and Cryogenic Machining: Comparison from the Sustainability Perspective

Modern manufacturing processes continue to demand high quality products and processes at reduced costs and with greater environmental compliance. This has led to a critical consideration of the use of conventional cutting fluids used in most machining processes. Continued use of cutting fluids poses major problems as they are hazardous for the operating personnel on the shop floor. They are also carcinogenic, harmful to the environment and cause high costs. The major focus of the proposed paper is the analysis of experimental work on machining under dry and cryogenic conditions in turning of Al 7075–T651 alloy to achieve environmental and economic benefits and improved surface integrity and fatigue life of the machined product, thus aiming at a more sustainable product. In particular, a preliminary evaluation of the fatigue life of the component is presented based on a microstructure-based model, which varies with the used manufacturing process. The overall results show that cryogenic cooling has the potential to improve the product and process through its superior performance in terms of the machined surface and sub-surface characteristics and the related environmental and economic performance.

G. Rotella, T. Lu, L. Settineri, O. W. Dillon, I. S. Jawahir

Remanufacturing, Reuse and Recycling


Chapter 15. End-of-Life Treatment Strategies for Flat Screen Televisions: A Case Study

The European recycling directive increases the pressure to improve the recycling processes for the rapidly increasing number of End-of-Life (EoL) flat screen televisions. Based on a case study an estimation of the expected economic and environmental benefits of the availability of product information for different EoL treatment strategies is provided. This case study demonstrates that pre-processing operations, such as dismantling, product sorting and clustering, allow to increase the economic viability and sustainability of recycling flat screen televisions. One of the main challenges for implementing pre-processing operations in an industrial setting is that these operations require the ability of product identification and specific product information, such as product structure and material composition. To allow such an exchange of key information, a holistic life cycle approach is required, in which all different actors in the lifecycle are involved, as is achieved in the Flemish PRIME project.

J. R. Peeters, P. Vanegas, W. Dewulf, J. R. Duflou

Chapter 16. Assessment of Load-dependent and Condition-oriented Methods for the Lifetime Estimation of Ball Screws

Taking into consideration the complexity of today’s machines an economical production is only possible if high availability is ensured at the same time. In order to be able to guarantee high availability values the maintenance of machine tools plays a key role. Thus, an approach is developed which permits the configuration of both a diagnostic and a forecast system for ball screws. Therefore, a hybrid approach is established which combines load-dependent and condition-oriented methods. The objective is to be able to make a forecast as precisely as possible of the failure of a ball screw with a minimum of effort. In the process, basic assessment criteria are in each case effort and prediction accuracy. Therefore, the results of the preciseness of condition determination are presented by the features solid-borne and airborne sound in this paper. The results of the accuracy of load determination are presented by the motor current.

J. Fleischer, H. Hennrich

Chapter 17. Synthesis of Wollastonite on the Basis of the Technogenic Raw Materials

Studies of the synthesis of wollastonite on the basis of technogenic raw materials are executed (nephelinic slime, micro-silica). The results of raw material studies and their chemical composition and physico-mechanical properties are given. It is shown that synthesized material predominantly consists of wollastonite and they can be used as filler of silicate masses the preliminarily ground state.

S. Antipina

Chapter 18. Review of End-of-Life Management Issues in Sustainable Electronic Products

Concerns about climate change and other related environmental challenges have prompted increased interest in sustainable development. In industry, many manufacturers such as the electronics manufacturers have strived to improve their environmental footprints through sustainable manufacturing while also making sure that the bottom line is being met. Electronic products, while bringing technological progress to mankind, generate numerous environmental challenges, especially at their End-of-Life (EoL) stage. This paper review and discuss the current situation and issues in designing, manufacturing, collecting and marketing of electronic products with respect to the EoL stage. Certain decisions about electronic products made in the early production stages can have serious implications in the management of the products at EoL. For example, a product designed such that it is difficult to disassemble in order to remove hazardous substances can be very inefficient to manage at the EoL stage. Discussion of electronic products’ EoL management approaches is presented in this paper. Subsequently, suggestions for the stakeholders to address the complexities in making electronic products more sustainable are proposed.

H. M. Lee, E. Sundin, N. Nasr

Chapter 19. Remanufacturing and Reuse of Production Equipment at an Automotive OEM

Remanufacturing of production equipment represents an opportunity to increase use productivity of components and materials of products. Make-to-order production has to consider recovered components already in engineering and design. In comparison to mere substitution in material supply, recovered components increase the yield of once produced products providing the same functionality and ability of integration. For test equipment, this approach was implemented at an automotive OEM. Based on the promising results of an initial project, the concept of reverse logistics for recovery of components is presented. Required changes in forward and reverse logistics are identified and implemented in an adopted forward process, integrating all recovery operations into existing IT systems.

M. Schraven, S. Heyer, N. Rütthard

Chapter 20. Machine Tool Optimization Strategies: Evaluation of Actual Machine Tool Usage and Modes

The research activities of today not only strive to cope with the legislative pressure given by the Directive of the European Parliament on Energy Using Products but also aim for economic advantages for the machine tool user by investigating and applying suitable procedures and methods that help to model, forecast, and reduce the overall energy and resource consumption. The common goal is to reduce the amount of resources consumed and increase machine tool efficiency with the help of selective methods and a minimum investment. An approach to identify the above mentioned advantages is given on the presented research work and paper. This paper introduces a methodology for detecting and defining reasonable investments for retrofit solutions and optimization strategies depending on the actual circumstances, an approach for the effective acquisition of the required data, and the strategy used to detect optimization potentials based on these findings.

A. Gontarz, F. Hänni, L. Weiss, K. Wegener

Chapter 21. Condition Assessment Model for Maintenance of Vehicles Fleet Based on Knowledge Generation

Instead of fail to fix, the maintenance strategy has being developed more predictively and intelligently. So called Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) enables real-time condition monitoring, diagnosis and prognosis with the help of information and communication technology. But for a large number of old equipment without relevant sensors or cost inefficient to install them, e.g., garbage trucks, a suitable maintenance strategy is needed for further use of such equipment in remaining lifetime. This paper presents a model of knowledge supported maintenance for vehicles fleet which contains modules of knowledge generation and maintenance planning for above mentioned equipment. Conditions of equipment or components could be assessed to calculate remaining lifetime and plan future maintenance activities. A case study of maintenance system for fleet of garbage trucks is shown in the paper with a condition-oriented parameter model which used as indicator for preventive maintenance and a knowledge feedback model for continuous improvement of whole equipment lifecycle.

J. Hu, G. Bach, G. Seliger

Chapter 22. WebCAN for Remanufacturers: A New Automotive CAN-Bus Tool Analyzing and File Sharing Application

The present paper summarizes the developed methodologies, technologies and tools in the field of analyzing, extracting and file sharing of CAN-bus information used for communication between automotive mechatronic and electronic systems. The results have been developed within the European research project “CAN-REMAN”, conducted by Bayreuth University in cooperation with two other universities and eight industrial partners—mainly remanufacturing companies. Results of this project are developed analyzing, diagnosing and file sharing technologies and applications that enable small and medium sized enterprises (SME) to remanufacture automotive mechatronics and electronics.

S. Freiberger, A. Nagel, R. Steinhilper

Product Design for Resource Efficiency and Effectiveness


Chapter 23. Context-Aware Smart Sustainable Factories: Technological Framework

A growing number of research efforts have been undertaken in the area of flexible, ecological and energy efficient manufacturing systems as steps towards the low carbon economy. One of such directions is Sustainable manufacturing assuming resource-efficient, competitive, low-cost and renewable resource-oriented production. In this paper an approach to support of sustainable manufacturing based on the idea of smart factory is proposed. The approach incorporates such technologies as ontology and context management, competence profiling, and smart environment. The ontology and context management technologies enable for unification and formalization of the domain description. The competence profiling simplifies choosing the right person, machine, resource in a particular situation. The smart environment integrates devices (smart factory equipment, information systems, sensors, etc.) that can share information and services. Smart environments based on ubiquitous computing extend boundaries of automation in manufacturing environments due to flexible and seamless integration of different sensors, warehouse management systems, intelligent machine control systems, etc.

A. Smirnov, N. Shilov

Chapter 24. ICT Enabled Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing

Today, manufacturing is faced with a sustainability paradox in maintaining economic growth while consuming fewer resources. Information communication technology (ICT) has proven central to the performance driven development of modern manufacturing in supporting production systems on all levels. Given this pervasiveness ICT’s have an unparalleled opportunity to address this sustainability paradox by enabling energy efficient viable manufacturing. The paper introduces the newly developed REViSITE methodology and taxonomy used and posited as a common means of categorising, comparing and qualitatively assessing ICT impact on energy efficiency. The approach was utilised in identifying that which is homogenous, heterogeneous and synergetic in terms of ICTs and best practices across multiple sectors within the project. This paper outlines ICTs that can support energy efficiency throughout the main lifecycle phases of a production system, identifying current gaps and describing a vision as to where future research technology development (RTD) efforts should focus. Optimizing the energy usage of a production system often has implications that extend beyond its boundaries and as such this paper also highlights potential synergies with the energy grid sector, the built environment and support infrastructure like lighting. Finally, the paper reiterates some of the more important ICT elements to consider throughout the Manufacturing lifecycleand re-emphasises the opportunity ICTs have for integrating manufacturing into a wider sustainable eco-system.

D. Kuhn, K. Ellis, F. Fouchal

Chapter 25. Energy Consumption: One Criterion for the Sustainable Design of Process Chains

Rising energy costs lead to rising product costs and cause companies to search for methods to reduce energy consumption in production process chains. Therefore, sustainability becomes a matter of competitiveness. Energy consumption in production is determined by the design of parts and the manufacturing process chains. If companies manage to assess and optimize the energy consumption of manufacturing process chains during the design phase, they will be able to reduce energy consumption and to take important competitive advantages. For the decision–making process, it is crucial to know at what point in the planning phase a decision about alternatives in production process chains can be taken. This paper presents an approach to take into account the energy consumption in the early stage of process chain design.

D. Bähre, M. Swat, P. Steuer, K. Trapp

Chapter 26. A Method for Evaluating Lean Assembly Process at Design Stage

Lean product design has the potential to reduce the overall product development time and cost and can improve the quality of a product. However, it has been found that no or little work has been carried out to provide an integrated framework of ‘lean design’ and to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of lean practices/principles in product development process. This research proposed an integrated framework for lean design process and developed a dynamic decision making tool based on Methods Time Measurement (MTM) approach for assessing the impact of lean design on the assembly process. The proposed integrated lean framework demonstrates the lean processes to be followed in the product design and assembly process in order to achieve overall leanness. The decision tool consists of a central database, the lean design guidelines, and MTM analysis. Microsoft Access and C# are utilized to develop the user interface to use the MTM analysis as decision making tool. MTM based dynamic tool is capable of estimating the assembly time, costs of parts and labour of various alternatives of a design and hence is able to achieve optimum design. A case study is conducted to test and validate the functionality of the MTM Analysis as well as to verify the lean guidelines proposed for product development.

M. A Karim, M. Erns, M. A Amin

Chapter 27. Mini Factories for Cocoa Paste Production

This chapter introduces a concept for decentralized value creation instantiated in mini factories for cocoa paste production. Mini factories can be located at strategic places for local income generation and to support regional development. Potentials and challenges of cocoa processing will be discussed. The impact of mini factories in the value creation process of cocoa will be outlined. It will be introduced the first mini factory for cocoa paste production that has been build up by “BEAR Holding” and is operated by “Pt. JavaCocoa” in Bali.

A. B. Postawa, M. Siewert, G. Seliger

Chapter 28. Design of Energy Efficient Hydraulic Units for Machine Tools

Within the research project EWOTeK—Enhancing the efficiency of machine tools by optimising the technologies for operating components—that is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) amongst others energy efficient hydraulic ancillary units for machine tools are designed. Hydraulic is used in machine tools e. g. for the clamping of the tool in the spindle, for the change of tools, for the clamping of the workpiece, for the change of palettes that serve for the allocation of workpieces, for hydrostatic guidings or for the hydraulic weight compensation of vertical axes. This paper compares different hydraulic ancillary units of machine tools with regard to their energy consumption for an exemplary machining centre.

C. Brecher, S. Bäumler, J. Triebs

Chapter 29. Business Models for Product-Service Systems (PSS): An Exploratory Study in a Machine Tool Manufacturer

Product-Service System (PSS) is an innovative business strategy that shifts the traditional way of doing business based on designing and selling only physical products to a new approach focused on delivering a combination of products and services. To perform this shift, changes in the way of doing business and delivering value to the users are necessary, resulting in changes in the company’s business model. In this sense, this study aims to identify and classify the main PSS characteristics according to the elements of a business model. This is the basic information to carry out a case study to propose a business model based on the PSS strategy for a machine tool manufacturer. The main contribution of this work is to support companies on the first steps of defining a PSS strategy by demonstrating the design of a PSS business model.

A. P. B. Barquet, V. P. Cunha, M. G. Oliveira, H. Rozenfeld

Innovative Energy Conversion


Chapter 30. New Aspects of Energy Consumption Analysis in Assembly Processes and Equipment

Multi-material use and large scale functionality of products as well as cost targets in many cases lead to part design principles that use “assembled components”. Advanced lightweight design often requires the combination of different substructures and the synthesis of different manufacturing technologies, including a wide range of known, as well as new assembly approaches. As other manufacturing processes too, assembly operations normally include value creating, primary process sequences but in addition also secondary, just supporting and/or auxiliary operational steps—with the target to maximize value creation. Looking from the point of energy or resource efficiency related to those applied technological process chains, analysis and decision making recently is mostly still hindered by the lack of data or even a methodology of consolidated benchmarks. The paper deals with new approaches to analyse and to optimize energy consumption in processes that include assembly operations. As part of this, results of a case study defining preferential working spaces for assembly systems are presented.

R. Neugebauer, M. Putz, J. Böhme, M. Todtermuschke, M. Pfeifer

Chapter 31. Evaluation of the Energy Consumption of a Directed Lubricoolant Supply with Variable Pressures and Flow Rates in Cutting Processes

Despite of considerable improvements in the area of cutting materials and tool coatings, the use of cutting fluid is still essential for the machining of difficult to cut materials like high alloyed steels, titanium or nickel based alloys. However it has to be a major task to set up the application of lubricoolant as effectively as possible. In this context, the high-pressure lubricoolant supply is rendered as a modern technology with a great capability to increase the productivity and process stability in machining difficult to cut materials. In this paper supply pressures up to 300 bar are considered. In terms of sustainable manufacturing it is the aim to minimise the overall energy consumption per part by carefully adjusting and coordinating setting parameters like supply pressure, flow rate, cutting parameters and tool design. In this paper the energy consumption of a machine tool used with a conventional low-pressure flood cooling is compared to the external high-pressure lubricoolant supply. With reference to the applicable cutting parameters depending on the lubricoolant supply strategy and setting parameters, the power consumption, tool wear and chip forms are examined in order to identify the most economical process design. Furthermore the real energy consumption of the lubricoolant supply unit is compared with the theoretically required fluid hydraulic power and an efficiency value is generated. The paper shows that the use of an external high-pressure lubricoolant supply is capable to reduce the overall process energy consumption through a significant increase of the material removal rate while improving the process stability at the same time.

F. Klocke, R. Schlosser, H. Sangermann

Chapter 32. Energy-Aware Production Planning Based on EnergyBlocks in a Siemens AG Generator Plant

The constant cost saving pressure in industrial production is more and more complemented by environmental requirements. Thus, increasing energy efficiency and effectiveness in industrial production systems moves into the attention of factory and production planners. Evaluating and selecting alternative energy saving measures, like energy efficient electrical actuators or energy load management systems are gaining increasing importance in production. To enable this evaluation during the factory and production planning phase an accurate prediction of the expected energy consumption is necessary. The EnergyBlocks methodology introduced in this paper meets this purpose. To demonstrate the EnergyBlocks methodology, production processes of a generator plant of the Siemens AG have been acquired and analyzed in terms of their material flow data and corresponding electrical energy profiles, measured over a period of three months. The EnergyBlocks created are used to support the energy optimal production planning.

N. Weinert, D. Rohrmus, S. Dudeck

Chapter 33. Optimization of Energy Production Under the View of Technical, Economic and Environmental Conditions

The global growing of electricity production and consumption increase the pollution of the biosphere. In the conventional generation of electricity with coal, oil and gas the emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere increase. According to the actual technical state of the art in the production of nuclear electricity, the waste disposal of dangerous radioactive materials is not clear. The generation of electricity with nuclear power is a technology with incalculable economic and ecological risks to people and the environment. In the future globally considered the production of nuclear and conventional power is not economically and ecologically. For these reasons, the production of electricity from renewable energy sources has to be enlarged and realized consequently. In this paper, the concept of the described model can be used to represent the technological, economic and environmental conditions for regions or countries to optimize the energy production. From this model, then a global representation can be developed. The aim of the model is to minimize the energy production on the base of coal, oil, gas, to optimize the production of electricity by renewable energy sources and stop the generation of nuclear power under technical, economic and environmental point of views.

I. Eliseeva, O. Borozdina, H. Rittinghausen

Chapter 34. Microalgae as Source of Energy: Current Situation and Perspectives of Use

The report is devoted to alternative crude for bioenergy—microalgae as source of biofuels (methane, biohydrogen, biodiesel and liquid hydrocarbons). There were considered advantage of microalgae as biofuels-2 generation, its high productivity and energy content bring up these organisms to extensive research activities focus. As demonstrated here, oil productivity of many microalgae greatly exceeds the oil productivity of the best producing oil crops, so replacement of plants by microalgae will allow to reduce cropland aimed for energy plantations by a factor of 50–100, at that there will be possible to use land resources, unsuitable for plant cultivation. An important avenue of works is seen in conducting further studies and developments obtaining commercial strains of lipid producing microalgae, including those tolerant to low cultivation temperatures, as well as studies on using heterotrophic strains of microalgae taking into account the great experience that has been gained in the microbiological industry of Russia.

N. I. Chernova, T. P. Korobkova, S. V. Kiseleva, S. I. Zaytsev, N. V. Radomskii

Chapter 35. Development of the Geographic Information System “Renewable Energy Sources in Russia”

In this report the state of development of the GIS “Renewable Energy Sources of Russia” is being analyzed. The architecture and the structure of GIS were prepared. Information on the resources of biomass, solar and wind energy in Russia was gathered and submitted in the form of a database. The part of GIS resources, solar and wind energy was developed, based on two approaches: use of the open mapping service “Yandex.Maps” presented at the developed site

and the use of standard GIS packages. The initial version of the admin interface and user of GIS was created.

S. V. Kiseleva, L. V. Nefedova, S. E Frid, M. V. Gridasov, E. V. Sushnikova

Chapter 36. Resources, Energy Efficiency and Energy Development Ways of Karelia Region Energy

Republic of Karelia is a typical energy deficit region. The analysis of renewable energy sources of Karelia region is given. With help of software ENERGOM renewable energy sources estimation of have been received. As a result of studying of Karelian hydro resources the hydro-energetic cadastres for approximately 500 rivers were developed. Research of regional bioenergy resources has been executed. The rational variant for energy development Republic of Karelia is proposed.

G. Sidorenko, E. Uzhegova

Green Supply Chain and Transportation


Chapter 37. Supply Chain Constraints in Practising Material Efficiency Strategies: Evidence from UK Companies

Manufacturers could play a major role in influencing decisions upstream and downstream in their material supply chain, which includes influencing suppliers and customers to reduce materials and waste. Manufacturers could influence both suppliers’ and customers’ practices through their own eco-design and sustainable manufacturing strategies. This paper presents the supplier and supply chain constraints experienced by several manufacturers in the UK. This investigation uses semi-structured interviews in 9 manufacturers and 1 retailer, analysed using thematic analysis with the assistance of qualitative software, nVivo. It is found from this study that the supplier and supply chain practices are among the top constraints experienced by UK companies. This exploratory study provides insight into one of the main challenges in implementing Material Efficiency element of a sustainable manufacturing strategy.

S. H. Abdul Rashid, S. Evans

Chapter 38. Improving Forecasts for a Higher Sustainability in Spare Parts Logistics

Timely, reliable supply of customers with spare parts is becoming a key factor for business success in many branches. Therefore many manufacturing companies try to optimize their spare parts logistics to satisfy the customer demands. Due to the large differences between the logistics for serial production and spare parts logistics during planning and operating, unique processes are necessary. The unpredictable demand of spare parts requires often the transport by air freight or courier services, thus increasing negative environmental impact additionally. The paper describes the main characteristics of spare parts logistics and the resulting disadvantages in terms of environmental sustainability. Furthermore a control loop for the demand forecast is presented.

S. Schulze, S. Weckenborg

Chapter 39. Modeling of the Optimum Logistic Systems for Shipment by Land Types of Transport with Respect to Risk Drawings of Harm to Environment

This paper is result of research worries environmental pollution during transportation of cargoes by land types of transport. The basic idea of the project consists in calculating the damage put to ecology by the specified kind of transportation, and also try to diversify the risks connected with this process, optimizing a damage put to environment. For object in view achievement tools of the theory of games, namely criteria of definition of optimum strategy, both classical, and modified, the risk theory, construction of models of a diversification of risk and damage calculation, and also simulation modeling, construction of simulation model of transportation of cargoes, taking into account quantity of consumed fuel have been used. The imitating model of transportation of cargoes has been as a result constructed, the matrix of effectiveness which has been checked up by means of criteria of definition of optimum strategy is constructed, and after the specified procedures the damage from the given kind of transportations has been counted up.

S. Aybazova

Chapter 40. Eco-efficiency within Extended Supply Chain as Product Life Cycle Management

Designers make decisions that ultimately impact on both the economic and environmental performance of the products, and many of these costs and impacts occur across the supply chain. This paper proposes an eco-efficiency model for product life cycle management within the extended supply chain (ESC) for food industry. Eco-efficiency (EE) has the potential to incorporate both environmental and economic improvement by companies of ESC, and we explore the use of EE in the design process. It is noteworthy that it is an imperative in the current competitive market that companies must be able to manage their entire production chain taking into account environmental issues as an important factor in their decision-making processes. Therefore, it is believed that EE can integrate and strengthen a company’s functions and assist its decision-making processes as well as implement improvements within its ESC. In this context, it is expected that the proposed model will be able to deliver a validation process based on EE strategies as well as map environmental aspects and its impacts. In addition, the proposed model aims to consider economic aspects along the product ESC and to present elements which can help companies to promote improvements within its supply chain by considering a more environmentally friendly perspective.

H. C. Dias Pimenta, R. P. Gouvinhas, Stephen Evans

Chapter 41. Information Sharing and Utilization for Environmental Loads in Disassembly System Design with PLM

Nowadays products and their product lifecycle design are required for lower environmental loads throughout the whole of the closed-loop supply chains, and reuse and recycling are well known for reducing the environmental loads in view of resource circulation. For promoting the resource circulation for assembly products with the supply chains, disassembly systems for the reuse and recycling should be designed economically for not only recovering product values but also reducing operating costs. However, the recovered parts/materials by the disassembly also have the environmental loads, and this information can be shared with the product design phase as the bill of materials (BOM) by utilizing recent Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) tools such as a 3D-CAD. This study considers the environmental loads for the recovered parts/materials as well as the product recovery values and the system efficiency in the disassembly system design, and proposes the information sharing and utilization for lower environmental loads in the disassembly system design with PLM.

T. Yamada, K. Sunanaga

Chapter 42. Performance Indicators for Quantifying Sustainable Development: Focus in Reverse Logistics

Sustainable development is based on three basic components: environmental sustainability, economic sustainability and sociopolitical sustainability. Economic sustainability is in reality the incorporation of environmentally friendly measures in the regulated social and economic policies of each country, in an effort to integrate the principles of social equality, environmental preservation, controlled and sustainable economic growth, in which profit is not only calculated by financial terms, but also in terms of human development. Parallel to this, the concept of reverse logistics has gained increased attention in the corporate environment. The inclusion of practices in which the company is responsible for collecting and recycling its own used products is not only positive from an environmental perspective, but also an important means of generating employment and of social inclusion, which along with environmental preservation form the bases of sustainable development. In this context, this article aims to propose and present indicators, as well as their interrelations, which could help to measure the level of sustainable development in an initiative, program or process, from the perspective of reverse logistics. A study case in which these indicator were applied will also be present.

I. C. Zattar, B. Dreher, F. S. Pinto

Chapter 43. Reverse Supply Chain Framework Proposal for Malaysian Automotive Industry

Automotive product recovery is a process in which End of Life Vehicles (ELV) are recovered from the end user to allow reuse, remanufacture or recycling. The goal is to reduce dependency on virgin materials whilst reducing disposal of automotive waste. While being actively implemented in automotive manufacturing countries such as United States, Germany, Japan, Korea and China, Malaysia has yet to develop its recovery framework. This paper reviews the existing automotive industry framework and a reverse supply chain framework for use in Malaysia were then proposed to further facilitate automotive product recovery in Malaysia.

H. S. Hamzah, S. M. Yusof, K. R. Jamaludin, M. Z. Mat Saman

Adequate Environments for Entrepreneurial Initiative


Chapter 44. Statistical Aspects of the Estimation of the Steady Development of Small Entrepreneurship

The article is dedicated to the principle aspects of the problem of measuring the condition and results of the activity and steady development of small business in Russia. The principle scheme of the statistical derivation traditionally used for measuring small business is examined. The range and types of possible errors and shifts of estimates of parameters is indicated. The category of ‘turbulent totality’ is analyzed, the ‘error of vanishing totality’ is revealed. The ‘turbulence’ of the small business totality enterprises is demonstrated and the problem is discussed whether or not it is reasonable to arrange a continuous check up of the small business subjects. The approach is formulated for measuring parameters of turbulent totalities by constructing a scheme of historical, fundamental, and strategic indicators. The model of the fundamental quantity of enterprises of small business in Novosibirsk in 2007, 2010 is created. There are presented conclusions and recommendations.

V. Glinskiy, S. Zolotarenko, L. Serga

Chapter 45. Global and Local Regulating Approach for Sustainable Development

The post-modernist reasoning should overcome the narrowness of industrial expansion with rational linear logic in making-decision process and generate new system of economic regulation. The world financial crisis (2008–2010) or meltdown in Fukushima (Mar 2011) demonstrate the necessity to elaborate the formal rules and procedures system, able to assure the long-term and responsible management as a basis for sustainable development; this system must rest upon the cultural background with informal patterns and requirements. This paper presents the mechanisms and the elements of the model of global regulating architecture, including fruitful societal governance of economic activity.

Nadezhda N. Pokrovskaia

Chapter 46. Problems of Technology and Motivation in the Use of Renewable Energy

Some substantial challenges in the adoption of renewable energy technologies are present even in the most developed countries. First of all it is their market incompetitiveness (lack of market competitiveness?), which is reflected in vast stimulus programmes. For their adoption governments intentionally distort market conditions, which leads to extra burden on the taxpayer and rather questionable results in the development of those technologies. This divergence in growth rates of efficiency and demand for the use of renewables cannot be eliminated by companies themselves in course of the regular market process.

Konstantin Leshchenko

Chapter 47. Management of Services Quality as a Tool to Increase Water Supply Companies’ Efficiency

The proof of necessity to control and manage service quality as a main factor for water supply enterprise efficiency increase is given in the article. Drinking water quality is reasoned to be a utility resource together with and inseparably linked to the quality of water supply to citizens. Hierarchic model for water supply quality estimation and management is introduced.

Olga Krakashova, Anna Pelevina, Vladimir Yaroslavtsev

Chapter 48. Current State and Future Expectations of Sustainable Development and Sustainable Production in the Finnish Manufacturing Industry

Realization of sustainable development and sustainable production and meeting the related requirements cause massive challenges for the manufacturing industry. The motivation for this study was the assumption that better understanding of the different aspects of sustainable development helps the companies to adapt more sustainable practices. The paper presents a literature review on sustainable development and production with practices related to the respective topics and then summarizes a study conducted within Finnish manufacturing industry. The results in this study are presented in a framework consisting of six categories. For each category the challenges, means and motivation for realization and objectives are presented. The obtained results provide further and in depth information of sustainable development and sustainable production within the Finnish manufacturing industry for both the industry and academia.

M. Tapaninaho, M. Koho, S. Torvinen

Chapter 49. Sustainable Key-Figure Benchmarking for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

Sustainability as a concept of long-term economical, ecological and social orientation has an increasing impact on decision making processes within today’s industry. In order to catch up with this development, modern Benchmarking approaches need to cover more than economical aspects. Therefore, the Fraunhofer IPK has extended the scope of the BenchmarkIndex, which is the leading key-figure-based Benchmarking analysis for SMEs. The core element of this approach is the integration of an additional “sustainability perspective” to the underlying four perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC), so that Benchmarking results will not only enhance companies’ economical performances, but also take environmental requirements such as energy-efficiency and social responsibility into consideration. Due to the wide dissemination of the BenchmarkIndex, comprehensive sustainable indicators will be accessible to more than 100.000 SMEs worldwide, especially sensitising those that barely have paid attention to sustainability yet, in order to realise a targeted impact for the sustainable production worldwide.

K. Mertins, H. Kohl, O. Riebartsch

Chapter 50. Enterprise Innovativeness is a Necessary Condition for Sustainable Development

Innovativeness is the decisive factor in establishing economic self-sufficiency and competitive market position of the regions and enterprises. The study and measurement of innovativeness is a means to analyze company’s ability to innovative solutions. Information on the innovativeness condition and dynamics is needed to choose appropriate development strategies, it is also important for the bodies of regional governance to define innovation policy-making, implement measures to support innovation activity, to form the roster of innovative organizations. The paper deals with the factors characterizing innovation activity in the region; criteria, metrics and methodology to determine enterprise innovativeness.

E. Rovba, G. Khatskevich, A. Apiakun

Engineering Education for Sustainability


Chapter 51. Life Cycle Model of Professional Higher Education in Russia as a Management Tool of the Stable Development of the Sector

In the article the history and the actual state of the system of professional higher education (PHE) in Russia is examined. The analysis of recent tendencies of the sector is presented, and its life cycle is investigated. The necessity as well as the possibility of the approximation of key parameters of the higher education system are proved using the logistic function. A specific situation emerged in 1991–2009, characterized by a saturating avalanche-like process. It included mass demand of the Russian population for higher education, low cost of educational service, lowering of the market entrance barriers for new educational institutions. The education law of 1992 played the role of catalyst in these processes. The model of quantity of students is constructed; the conditions, which define the level and dynamics of the key indicators of PHE are examined. Authors formulated and substantiated their position in relation to the planned trends of PHE restructure.

V. Glinskiy, O. Donskikh, L. Serga, E. Makaridina

Chapter 52. Internationalizing the Engineering Qualifications

Internationalization is a main strategy for companies to increase their profit and growth, to achieve this strategy a highly qualified work force is required to live and work in an international community. Engineers should not be shaped to have hard and soft qualifications only, but also having the capacity, knowledge, and skill that make them eligible for working International. Preparations of engineer who has the ability to work and participate in multicultural communities, provides a great opportunity for companies to achieve their targets. To produce a well-prepared engineering workforce in the future, the EU has been precipitated by the Bologna Declaration, while the USA has been encouraged by the transition to the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology EC2000 accreditation criteria. To help in the on-going process, in this article, a new approach for internationalizing the engineering qualifications will be presented. This approach will model the international qualifications based on the major elements of the target country, which are environment, government, people, and market. End up with case study based on the authors’ background in Saudi Arabia for the qualifications related to each element.

S. Abd-Elall, R. Moflih, G. Seliger

Chapter 53. Knowledge Sharing as the Key Driver for Sustainable Innovation of Large Organisations

Knowledge management is considered to be the most critical step for developing innovation processes and reaching sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace. However, the systematic handling of knowledge in many organisations is far from being complete. In particular, for large organisations the competitive capability becomes more dependent on the efficient intra-organisational sharing of resources—especially knowledge. The aim of the article is to study knowledge sharing in large organisations as linked with the transaction cost theory. Therefore, we start with defining the term “knowledge” and classifying the process of “knowledge sharing”. Having transferred the transaction cost theory into intra-organisational knowledge sharing, we will build up a comprehensive theoretical construct of knowledge sharing in large organisations from the transaction cost theory perspective.

M. Block

Chapter 54. Training on the Job in Remanufacturing Supported by Information Technology Systems

The economical and ecological potentials of remanufacturing are inadequately exploited. Due to unforeseen products types, conditions and quantities remanufacturing processes are often manually or mechanically supported. Performed by highly qualified workers they are strongly based on implicit knowledge. Because of the growing remanufacturing market it is important to enable efficient processes andadapt training courses on remanufacturing processes for humans with different qualification levels. Manufacturing- and information technology based components for both process execution and qualification have been integrated. The resultinginformation technology system can support the worker with a work description and lists of means of production necessary for a work order. With access to approved work descriptions the worker will be able to analyse his working process and to access his own qualification. Improved descriptions can be used for process engineering also.

A. B. Postawa, C. Reise, G. Seliger

Chapter 55. Human Dimension of Agency and Sustainable Corporative Growth

The economic theoretical knowledge ranks the agent’s activity with opportunist individualistic behaviour, reflecting the behavioural pattern opposite to the sustainable developement’s logic. This paper intends to set forth arguments substantiating the deep embeddedness of successful agency in social, cultural, legal and managerial custom. The entrepreneurial initiative is restricted by the law, while the agency is confined within the entrepreneurial usage, the consumer traditions, the limits imposed by the contractual requirements of the principal (organisation or institution), and the social and economic environment. Long-term concerns, human dimension and vital simpathy in future generations are necessary to build the individual agent’s business.

D. V. Golohvastov

Chapter 56. Pioneering Life Cycle Assessment in Russia: Application of the EcoScarcity Method for Russia

Russian industry grows rapidly every year, but the environmental assessment of the products and processes are not yet developed enough. It is obvious that the growth of manufacturing causes the growth of environmental loads as well. Today it is important to use appropriate methods for evaluating the environmental impacts of the production. The application of Ecological Scarcity method is proposed as a first step towards sustainable production in Russia. This method is transparent and easy for use. It also takes into account legislation and political environmental targets. The method was developed according international standards ISO 14044. The application of the method will advance Russian manufacturing’s products to international market. EcoScarcity can support product development, comparisons, optimization and overall life cycle assessment.

M. Grinberg, M. Finkbeiner

Chapter 57. Enhancing Traditional Integrated Product Development Processes with PSS Practices for Sustainability

Product service systems can be presented as a viable alternative for the development of products and services by creating value added solutions to the consumer and providing lowest environmental impact for manufacturers. Despite the existence of PSS practices related to product servitization, the addition of services within product development doesn’t necessarily lead to the mitigation of environmental impacts. Therefore, there isn’t evidence of works regarding the systematization and integration of these practices into the product development process. The present paper presents a proposal for the integration of PSS practices into an existing New Product Development (NPD) reference model aiming at better environmental performance.

V. C. Ribeiro, M. Borsato

Economics for Sustainable Development


Chapter 58. Evaluation of the Institutional Environment’s Influence on Innovative Output of Enterprises in the National Economy

The aim of this article is to study how institutional environment encourages or impedes innovative activity of enterprises and other subjects of the National Innovation System (NSI). NSI is defined as a system of interconnected elements such as state policy, knowledge infrastructure and institutional environment. Institutional environment is divided into eight domains (institutions managing markets and competition, legal institutions, institutions of higher education and research system, etc); expert evaluations of the institutions’ quality for 37 OECD member countries and candidates (including Russia) are correlated with the innovation output of these countries; with the help of factor analysis the weight of every institutional domain is defined. Strengths and weaknesses of institutional environment of Russia’s NSI are discussed; recommendations aimed at the improvement of its quality and therefore increasing the innovation output of enterprises are developed for every domain of institutions.

T. Khvatova

Chapter 59. National Innovation System in the Economic Cycle: Principles and Perspectives

The economic cycle considerably changes the strategy of innovative development companies. From the statistics we have considered the conclusion about significant reduction in innovative activity of enterprises in a recession and the uneven growth in terms of the rise: growth only occurs in industries that are in the process of technological expansion. To solve this problem the impact on businesses within the national innovation system is necessary. We have formulated the principles of the functioning of the NIS in the economic cycle and priorities of the innovation at various levels of the national economy, grounded innovativeness of education as a factor in ensuring the competitiveness of the Russian Federation. In goal setting it is necessary to appreciate trends in world technological development. We have made a forecast of the duration of long-term cycles, which shows that it is expected to increase the duration of these cycles and the transition from empirical to fundamental technologies in the future. On this basis we propose a system of NIS’s priorities.

A. R. Kankovskaya

Chapter 60. Mathematical Modeling, Estimation and Choice of Investment Projects in the Conditions of Risk

One of the main problems of the modern theory and investment practice is the problem of acceptance of effective decisions in the conditions of equivocation. The problem of a choice of investment projects in the conditions of risk is actual in the conditions of development of investment economy. The estimation of the investment project is resolve into construction and research of economic-mathematical model of process of realization of the project. In the course of formalization of an estimation of efficiency of the investment project are introduce concept of an investment corridor and an expected trajectory of realization of the project . In the project problems of a choice of investment projects in the conditions of equivocation of statistically distributed results was mathematically concretized at aspiration of the person making the decision to the maximum residual cost or the provided income taking into account dynamics of capitalization. And also defined mechanisms of a choice of projects on the basis of preferences of the investor, namely mechanisms of creation bidimensional functions of utility and methods of an estimation of investment projects. Has been developed the method of an estimation of dynamics of capitalization. Offered is the method of the decision with application of simulation modeling.

A. Borlakova

Chapter 61. Sustainable Development of the Economy of a Region

Science developments of the recent years let researchers to tackle problems that has remained unsolvable till the present day.

One of such problems is the substantiation of sustainable development of a civilization and of economy as one of its components. In its turn, substantiation of sustainable development of economy is subject to financial policies on global, regional, national levels and also within individual businesses and households.

The problem of sustainable development counts for all aspects of industrial and information-type societies, and it can not be solved outside of the general trend of our civilization. This trend does not depend upon a society’s political and religious values, structures and mentalities. All developing countries including young economies have to go through the same chain of development stages because the civilization is an integral global super-system. Its progress can described by the general principles of the Self-Organization Theory or Synergetics.

Recent scientific achievements were the basis upon which the paper’s author has developed and substantiated a model of sustainable development of a regional economy.

L. Nikolova

Chapter 62. A Case Study: Feasibility and Economic Analysis for Advanced Automation in Spoke Rim Assembly for Motorcycle Towards Sustainability

A full automated system for assembly of spoke rim for motorcycle is difficult to realize, rather more manual and hybrid system until now, because of tight joining tolerance, increased complexities during assembly operation and wide diversity of variants. Due to recent increasing trends in labour cost and sustainability aspect advanced automation become more and more necessary. An industrial case study which deals with different improvement concepts for an economical feasible and technical realizable advanced automation of a motorcycle spoke rim assembly line is conducted. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the current implementation, a systematic approach to design the advanced automation concepts and a sustainable evaluation method in selecting the most feasible and realizable concept that ensures profitability and continuity.

C. Wang, A. A. A. Rahman, G. Seliger

Chapter 63. Energy and Cost Efficiency in CNC Machining from a Process Planning Perspective

The role of process planning as an enabler for cost efficient and environmentally benign CNC machining is investigated in the paper. Specific energy is used as the principal indicator of energy efficient machining and different methods to calculate and estimate the specific energy is exemplified and discussed. The interrelation between process planning decisions and production outcome is sketched and how process capability can be considered as one factor of green machining is assessed. A correlation between total machining cost and total energy use is presented for an experimental machining case. A general conclusion is that in order to be able to draw general conclusions, the importance of having reliable data during process planning to make effective decisions is essential.

S Anderberg, T Beno, L Pejryd

Chapter 64. The Pricing in Mobile Phone Networks and its Implementation in Russian Practice

It’s obvious, that conscious implementation of a pricing systems can lead to the prosperity of a company. The aim of this work is to show that the pricing can be considered as a good thing for the society as well. The tariff policy of one of the key Russian mobile providers was analyzed. The paper contains the contemplation of eight current tariffs of the provider Beeline which operate on the territory of St. Petersburg and Leningrad region. Considering such needs as: frequent long conversations for students or inexpensive sms-communication for people with limited hearing abilities Beeline offers attractive and reasonable tariffs. Establishing various prices for one minute or message, not only does Beeline try to maximize the profit but it also identifies its customers. That is why prices absolutely do not need to be the same for all consumers, because equality is not always the advantage.

A. Semenova
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