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What’s in a name? What, in particular, is metals management’ all about? I suspect that my ‘ colleagues assumed that I would have a good answer, given that the endowed Sandoz Chair I occupied from 1992 until my retirement in 2000 was entitled “Environment and Management”, and at INSEAD I created a Center for Management of Environmental Resources (CMER). Metals are a subset of resources, et voila! However, in all honesty, management, as such, was never my core competence (to use another phrase popularized by business schools). Here comes the shocking secret. We used the word management in those titles because INSEAD is a business school where everything has to have an application to business. For my colleagues at INSEAD management is what we supposedly teach. Good management, they (we) think, distinguishes successful enterprises from unsuccessful ones. For some of our graduates, management is what they give professional advice to corporate clients about. For the rest of our graduates it is the umbrella word that describes their choice of career. The implication conveyed by our choice of words is that metals can be regarded as one category of environmental resources, and that resources – including environmental resources – can be managed, in somewhat the same way that a corporation can be managed. It is not even too far-fetched to suggest that long run sustainability might be a management problem.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Sustainability and Metals

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Outlines of a Sustainable Metals Industry

Without Abstract
Arnim von Gleich

Chapter 2. Metallic Raw Materials — Constituents of Our Economy

From the Early Beginnings to the Concept of Sustainable Development
Without Abstract
Friedrich-Wilhelm Wellmer, Markus Wagner

Economy, Thermodynamics, and Sustainability

Frontmatter

Chapter 3. Aluminium

Supply and international trade
Without Abstract
W. Kuckshinrichs, W. R. Poganietz

Chapter 4. Prospects for a Sustainable Aluminum Industry

Without Abstract
P. N. Martens, M. Mistry, M. Ruhrberg

Chapter 5. Towards a Sustainable Copper Industry?

Trends in resource use, environmental impacts and substitution in the global copper industry
Without Abstract
Frank Messner

Chapter 6. An Application of Exergy Accounting to Five Basic Metal Industries

Without Abstract
Robert U. Ayres, Leslie W. Ayres, Andrea Masini

Chapter 7. Entropy as a Measure for Resource Consumption — Application to Primary and Secondary Copper Production

Without Abstract
Stefan Gößling-Reisemann

Chapter 8. Dematerialization of the Metals Turnover

Some Reasons and Prospects
Conclusions
Relying on the characteristics of metals in society and nature, we have in this discussion on metals and dematerialization indicated that:
  • A dematerialization of the societal metals turnover will mainly lessen the upstream problems connected to production of primary metals: the large rucksacks and the large indirect flows such as energy associated with mining and primary production of metals.
  • A dematerialization will not be effective in mitigating many of the problematic downstream emissions originating in connection with specific application of the metals in various consumer goods. Here transmaterialization or substitution is a more viable strategy.
  • The scarcity and by-flow characteristics of many metals may pose severe restrictions on the possible large-scale global application of many emerging and in other aspects environmentally benign technologies, especially in the energy sector.
  • A dematerialization leading to an increased reliance on secondary instead of primary metals will require an increased focus on metals flow quality management to avoid down-cycling in the metals turnover.
Sten Karlsson

Chapter 9. Sustainability Strategies in Field Trial

Results of the project’ sustainable Metal Industry in Hamburg’
Without Abstract
A. von Gleich, M. Gottschick, D. Jepsen, K. Sanders

Metals Materials Flows

Frontmatter

Chapter 10. Limits of Metal Recycling

6. Summary
This work points out different limits for the metal recycling of aluminium, copper and zinc. Being the most important parameter of the recycling activities of every metal, the scrap availability is focused on by the discussion. Knowing the availability of secondary raw materials in an existing system, the respective recycled metal content of production can be determined. However, this varies regionally, temporally and product and metal-specificity. On the other hand, the recycling quota is a predominantly technique-specific measure for the success of recycling activities, which also has to consider the collection of secondary raw materials. The recycling technique itself can be described by metal yield and energy consumption. For both the recycled metal content and the recycling quota, the quality of the raw material, i.e., the conditions at production and use, the alloying elements and the metal content have to be considered. Finally, the treatment costs of secondary raw materials limit the recycling, which are again influenced by metal price, metal contents and quality.
Georg Rombach

Chapter 11. Secondary Materials in Steel Production and Recycling

Without Abstract
D. Janke, L. Savov, M. E. Vogel

Chapter 12. Optimisation Possibilities of Copper Smelting and -Processing

Without Abstract
Joachim Krüger

Chapter 13. The Hamburger Aluminium-Werk GMBH’s Contribution to a Sustainable Closed Loop Aluminium System

Without Abstract
Hans-Christof Wrigge, Hans Albers

Chapter 14. Sustainable Use of Copper

Impediments and goal conflicts of consistency, sufficiency and efficiency strategies
Without Abstract
Michael Scharp, Lorenz Erdmann

Ecological, Social, Toxicological, and Cultural Effects

Frontmatter

Chapter 15. Heavy Metals in the Netherlands

Problems, causes and possible solutions
Without Abstract
Ester van der Voet, Jeroen B. Guinée, Helias A. Udo de Haes

Chapter 16. Toxic Effects of Metals and Metal Compounds

Without Abstract
Peter Wardenbach

Chapter 17. Metallurgical Plants and Chemicals Industry as Challenges to Environmental Protection in the 19th Century

Without Abstract
Arne Andersen

Chapter 18. Copper Mining and Metallurgy in Prehistoric and the More Recent Past

Without Abstract
Joachim Krüger

Chapter 19. Social and Ecological Consequences of the Bauxite-Energy-Aluminium Product Line

Steps Towards Sustainable Metal Management
Without Abstract
Clarita Müller-Plantenberg

Chapter 20. The Ok Tedi Pages

Ecological and Social Impact of Large Mining Projects on a Developing Country
Without Abstract
Klaus Baumgardt

Product Design and Use

Frontmatter

Chapter 21. Metals and Plastics - Competition or Synergy?

Without Abstract
Martin Baitz, Marc-Andree Wolf

Chapter 22. Sustainability-Optimised Material Selection and Product Design at Audi

Without Abstract
Siegfried Schäper

Chapter 23. Recycling of Electronic Waste Material

Without Abstract
Matthias Teller

Chapter 24. Sustainable Development of Microelectronics Industry

The Role of Metals in Future Interconnection Technologies
4. Summary
Electronic products contain numerous noxious substances, among them many metals, in components and boards. In general, the amount in a single electronic device is comparatively low in absolute numbers and even decreasing due to miniaturization.
However, the enormous growth of production numbers and the short innovation cycles compensate this positive tendency and lead to rising burdens for the environment by discarded products. Additionally, there is the significant impact of the complex production processes, such as raw material extraction or microchip production and others.
Therefore, there are efforts in many countries to evaluate and control the environmental impact of microelectronics. By careful optimization of microelectronic products and processes, as described in the two examples in this paper, the harmful impact on the environment can be minimized during the ongoing rapid development of production numbers and new technologies in microelectronics.
Facing the product numbers and growth rates forecasted for the developing countries by the ICT-Industry, all materials, especially toxic metals in electronic components, need to be closely examined. However, this examination should not primarily aim at legal regulations and the ban of materials, but on product responsibility and the environmental awareness of the producers.
Hansjoerg Griese, Jutta Müller, Herbert Reichl, Karl Heinz Zuber

Chapter 25. The Role of Metals for Designing Products and Solutions in the Context of a Sustainable Society

Without Abstract
Walter R. Stahel
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