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Über dieses Buch

This book presents emerging economical and environmentally friendly polymer composites that are free of the side effects observed in traditional composites. It focuses on eco-friendly composite materials using granulated cork, a by-product of the cork industry; cellulose pulp from the recycling of paper residues; hemp fibers; and a range of other environmentally friendly materials procured from various sources.

The book presents the manufacturing methods, properties and characterization techniques of these eco-friendly composites. The respective chapters address classical and recent aspects of eco-friendly polymer composites and their chemistry, along with practical applications in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, automotive and other sectors. Topics addressed include the fundamentals, processing, properties, practicality, drawbacks and advantages of eco-friendly polymer composites.

Featuring contributions by experts in the field with a variety of backgrounds and specialties, the book will appeal to researchers and students in the fields of materials science and environmental science. Moreover, it fills the gap between research work in the laboratory and practical applications in related industries.



Processing, Characterization and Application of Micro and Nanocellulose Based Environmentally Friendly Polymer Composites

Biodegradable polymers with micro and nano-cellulose present attractive properties and the highly reactive surface of cellulose resulting from the high density of hydroxyl groups are great at this scale. Therefore, this chapter has the objective to discuss cellulosic nanostructured films, types of processing involving the production of bionanocomposites and other important applications of them in non-biocomposite areas. A brief description of the definition, terminology, and methods of obtaining cellulose nanostructures as procedures used in the functionalization of the cellulose surface to improve the hydrophilic character and the compatibility with polymer matrices will be presented.

Adriana de Campos, Ana Carolina Corrêa, Pedro Ivo Cunha Claro, Eliangela de Morais Teixeira, José Manoel Marconcini

Extraction of Cellulose Nanofibers and Their Eco/Friendly Polymer Composites

Cellulose nanosize particles extracted from cellulose fibers are now very important materials for almost all aspect of human endeavours. From medicals to the drug, from industrial applications to domestic uses, they have become part of our daily lives. This is because CNP has been found to possess the properties required to replace many of the traditionally known materials such as glass, metals, concrete, synthetic plastics and fibers. The major advantages of CNPs are that they are from natural sources that are renewable; they are environmentally-friendly; they are cost-effective and biodegradable. No doubt, cellulose nanomaterials have come to stay. However, their performance or extent of application is predicated on the source of the cellulose fibers and the process of their extraction and isolation. Since the molecular units of the cellulose fibers are the same, then their extraction processes must be tailored to suit the planned application. To this end, understanding the steps, processes and available methods for the extraction and isolation of CNPs will lead to wider imaginations of possible applications. As of today, the application of these CNPs is at all-time high.

Stephen C. Agwuncha, Chioma G. Anusionwu, Shesan J. Owonubi, E. Rotimi Sadiku, Usman A. Busuguma, I. David Ibrahim

Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Polyolefin Based Eco-Friendly Polymer Composites

Polymers are the widely used commodities in various sectors of manufacturing, including glass, metal, wood, paper, etc. Non-biodegradable polymers are needed to be phased out from commercial activities due to their adverse effects on ecology and environment. Polyolefins offer the possibility of developing more environmentally sustainable polymer products as they can be synthesized or blended with natural resins. Currently, polyolefin dominates the polymer to an extent of more than half of the total products synthesized globally. Their cost effectiveness, recyclability, chemical resistance to solvents, electrical properties, and durability and resistance to environmental stress make them materials of choice for a variety of large-scale industrial and household applications. The synthesis method and subsequent functionalization of polyolefin can influence their physical properties and define applicability for different applications. This chapter summarizes important information on the synthesis, functionalization, characterization, and applications of polyolefins.

Akash Deep, Deepanshu Bhatt, Vishal Shrivastav, Sanjeev K. Bhardwaj, Poonma Malik

Spectroscopy and Microscopy of Eco-friendly Polymer Composites

Eco-friendly polymer nanocomposites (NCs) are constantly gaining attention for sustainable development considering the growing awareness of environment and eco-friendly waste management issues. Particles at nano-scale, such as nanospheres and nanorods, which are dispersed in a host polymeric medium, have generated intense research interest in the development of polymer NCs because these have shown to significantly enhance the mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of the polymers. Due to these growing interests in NCs, proper molecular characterization of these materials is absolutely essential for better understanding of their properties and also for the development of new materials. This chapter is projected to demonstrate different techniques of isolation and characterization to find out the chemical and topographical information of eco-friendly polymers and their nanocomposites.

Ashish K. Shukla, Chandni Sharma, Syed M. S. Abidi, Amitabha Acharya

Biocompatible and Biodegradable Chitosan Composites in Wound Healing Application: In Situ Novel Photo-Induced Skin Regeneration Approach

Biocompatible and biodegradable polymers have a significant impact in a wide range of biomedical applications such as wound healing. For this purpose, demanded materials must have, a specific physical, chemical, biological, biomechanical properties and able to be broken down and removed after they have served their function to provide effective therapy. In the recent progress of biomedical treatment of wounds, there is a continuous need to improve both the appearance and functionality of the regenerated healed tissue. Modern clinical findings in that approach make use of the versatility, efficacy and functionality of chitosan composites. This chapter presents an overview of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers focusing on chitosan-based composites, underlying concepts of their properties and the ways to tailor their potential in biomedical engineering/management of wound healing. However, providing novel strategies that achieve a low cost and shorter wound closure is an ongoing challenge to be addressed. Finally, new insights concluded from our recent study cases reports for novel chitosan grafted poly (N-methyl aniline) nanoparticles that show an advanced therapeutic dressing via interesting photo-therapy results within a promising photo-driven skin regeneration under visible-light irradiation. The photoactive surface of grafted chitosan could produce reactive oxidizing species by which infectious microorganisms could be killed. Therefore, the wounded tissues are repaired and regenerated.

Amr A. Essawy, Hassan Hefni, A. M. El-Nggar

Mechanical, Thermal and Viscoelastic Properties of Polymer Composites Reinforced with Various Nanomaterials

In recent years, nanomaterials played a key role in developing novel polymer nanocomposites with multifunctional properties. Nanomaterials that will be reviewed in this study are nanoclays, carbonaceous (carbon nanotubes and graphene) and nanocellulose. This chapter reviews the effects of nanomaterials and nanomaterials hybrid on mechanical, thermal, rheological and dynamic mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites. In the last decades, biobased and biodegradable polymers (biopolymers) reinforced with nanomaterials have been a research hotspot. However, this chapter also reviews the recent developments of polymer nanocomposites from biopolymers and nanomaterials.

T. H. Mokhothu, A. Mtibe, T. C. Mokhena, M. J. Mochane, O. Ofosu, S. Muniyasamy, C. A. Tshifularo, T. S. Motsoeneng

Preparation and Characterization of Antibacterial Sustainable Nanocomposites

Nanoparticles show high toxicity towards various pathogenic microbes, however, the control over their release and/or release rate has been the major subject in research. Over the past decade’s research has escalated on the use of the polymeric material as the host to hold the nanoparticles in order to control their release rate. Biopolymers, owing to their unique properties such as biodegradability, renewability, and recyclability have been used as host matrices for various nanoparticles. Different processing techniques such as melt compounding and solution casting were employed to fabricate polymer nanocomposites. In this chapter, we reviewed the preparation and characterization of sustainable antimicrobial nanocomposites, the strategies to enhance their antibacterial activity as well as future prospects of these interesting materials. We also highlight the preparation of different antibacterial nanoparticles and recent developments.

T. C. Mokhena, M. J. Mochane, T. H. Mokhothu, A. Mtibe, C. A. Tshifularo, T. S. Motsoeneng

Extraction of Nano Cellulose Fibres and Their Eco-friendly Polymer Composite

This book chapter provides an overview of recent progress made in the area of nano-fibrillated cellulose (NFC) based nanocomposites as new bio-based products. Unlike Petroleum based and synthetic polymer nanocomposite, NFC polymer nanocomposite has many advantages due to low weight, reduced tool wearing, recyclable and biodegradable properties. The types of cellulose nanofibrils covered are those mechanical refined extracted and acid-hydrolysed plants biomass. The applications and new advances covered in this book chapter are the use of cellulose nanofibrils to reinforce polymer. The study shows that bio-composite from nanofibrillated cellulose is a good replacement in the field of medicine, automobile and construction due to their size and the ability to undergo surface chemical modification.

Bashiru Kayode Sodipo, Folahan Abdul Wahab Taiwo Owolabi

Static and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Eco-friendly Polymer Composites

Recently, eco-friendly polymer composites (biocomposites) have been increasingly applied in various fields of industrial production, e.g., automotive, civil constructions, nautical etc. Consequently, many research articles have been published in various high quality technical and scientific journals to contribute to the development of new materials characterized by low environmental impact along with low-cost, low-weight, and sufficient mechanical properties. Regarding the performance of the polymer composites that are reinforced by synthetic fibres, such composites have various limitations, primarily owing to the relatively low stiffness and strength of the natural fibres along with the limited fibre-matrix adhesion. Considering these limitations, several studies have been conducted to improve the mechanical properties of the natural fibres and of the fibre-matrix adhesion, as well as for the development of new manufacturing techniques that allow for the production of composites laminates with a higher mechanical performance than that of the typical short fibre biocomposites that are already used for non-structural applications, especially in the automotive field. These recent studies focus on the accurate analysis of the static and dynamic mechanical properties of such innovative materials, as well as the implementation of reliable theoretical models that can be applied in the design stage to predict their performance, by varying primary characteristic parameters such as fibre volume fraction, manufacturing technique, fibre orientation, and lamina lay-up. In this chapter, the mechanical properties, fibre-matrix adhesion, as well the more accurate micromechanical models proposed in literature, are reviewed and critically discussed to provide the reader with sufficient knowledge on the static and dynamic mechanical properties of biocomposites, and consequently, on their potential capacity to replace traditional materials such as metal and fiberglass.

Bernardo Zuccarello

Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications of Hemicellulose Based Eco-friendly Polymer Composites

Cellulosic materials are getting more and more attention in science and technology due to their biodegradability, renewability, high strength and stiffness, low cost and ecologically friendly formation. Biodegradable green composites from natural components provide a potential and commercial alternative to petroleum-based composite materials without compromising strength, stiffness and abrasion resistance properties to a variety of industrial and other applications. Of natural polymers, lignocellulosic materials are likely to be very important materials as they can be converted into biofuels and bioproducts. Mainly found in lignocellulose, hemicelluloses are the second most abundant renewable material in nature, easy to use, has film-forming features, good biocompatibility, and biodegradability. In this chapter, the production and characterization of environmentally friendly nanocomposites containing hemicelluloses and their use in applications such as food packaging, medical applications, gas barriers have been examined.

Busra Balli, Mehmet Harbi Calimli, Esra Kuyuldar, Fatih Sen

Impact of Nanoparticle Shape, Size, and Properties of the Sustainable Nanocomposites

An impact of nanoparticles physicochemical properties in various applications involves a good understanding between the nanoparticles and a systems physicochemical interactions of specific applications, especially in environmental and biological systems. This chapter is aimed to correlate the properties of nanomaterials such as size, shape, surface morphology and toxicity with its various applications using basic studies to offer a platform for engineering the next generation materials. Also, this chapter will provide the foundation for the study of nanocomposites, its current progress and a perspective on the findings.

Thandapani Gomathi, K. Rajeshwari, V. Kanchana, P. N. Sudha, K. Parthasarathy

Polymeric Composites as Catalysts for Fine Chemistry

Current society has a growing demand for eco-friendly catalytic processes. Because catalytic processes are vital to various chemical industry, energy-related applications and environmental remediation. Exploration of effective heterogeneous catalyst for various application have been a popular research focus. Among them, composite catalyst has drawn considerable attention in the recent decades. In most of the chemical industry, composite catalysts are largely used to meet the requirements of catalytic performance such as high activity, high selectivity and improved stability during operation. Recently, polymer composite has received great interest for practical application because these materials offers easy recycling and recovery of catalyst, preventing loss of catalyst and easy separation of end-product. Hence, this chapter reviews the recent work on development of polymer-based composite catalyst. Significant performance and application of polymers composite catalyst employed in various fields are discussed. The chapter also reveals the pros and cons associated with the polymer composite in catalytic applications.

P. SundarRajan, K. GracePavithra, D. Balaji, K. P. Gopinath

Fabrication Methods of Sustainable Hydrogels

The interest received on hydrogels probably reflects one of the greatest challenges for the two last decades. Able to hold and release solvents and builds, these three-dimensional polymeric structures work as a network able to reversibly change in response to small physico-chemical modifications in their surroundings. Considering the fantastic amount of available techniques described in the literature, a brief overview of the fabrication methodology is synthesized from physical/chemical cross-linking or polymerization grafting to radiation cross-linking. Thus, this review explores the fabrication and recent applications of hydrogels in various fields including imaging, optics, diagnostics, drug delivery systems or tissue engineering. Extensive use of hydrogels raises some questions about life cycle assessment and how fabricating and/or using sustainable and innovative versions of the intelligent hydrogels of tomorrow.

Cédric Delattre, Fiona Louis, Mitsuru Akashi, Michiya Matsusaki, Philippe Michaud, Guillaume Pierre

Application of Sustainable Nanocomposites for Water Purification Process

Nowadays, the rapid growth of industrialization, urbanization, population growth, and climate change have played a role in pollution of water resources. Lack of fresh and pure water is reflected as the main risk to many countries. In recent years, water purification methods are the focus and attention of the many scientist and governmental agencies. Scholars everywhere around the world are concentrating on nanotechnology centred water purification/treatment methods for efficient and effective sanitization of water bodies. Nanoscale composite materials have a huge potential to purify water in numerous ways, due to their high surface area, high chemical reactivity, excellent mechanical strength, and cost-effectiveness. Nanocomposites are intelligent to eliminate bacteria, viruses, and inorganic and organic pollutants from wastewater due to precise binding action (chelation, absorption, ion exchange). Nanocomposite materials are contributed an active role in water purification, such as metal nanocomposite, metal oxide nanocomposite, carbon nanocomposite, polymer nanocomposite and membranes nanocomposite.

Hayelom Dargo Beyene, Tekilt Gebregiorgs Ambaye

Sustainable Nanocomposites in Food Packaging

Plastics have been used extensively and exploited its usages in various applications such as packaging materials, automotive parts, tubes, pipes, and many more. The plastics have attracted many fields for its versatility, lightweight, and durability. Plastics are being used broadly as food packaging materials which come as bottle containers, food containers, and lightweight take-away food packets. However, as plastics are not degradable, they are causing a major environmental problem due to scarce of landfill sites. The plastics are also being washed into the sea and causing pollution in the ocean and being eaten by the fishes. Thus, there cause a need for developing biodegradable materials that have both mechanical strength and biodegradable. A lot of researchers are contributing to developing biodegradable materials that can substitute conventional polymers, however, there is still limit of mechanical strength and elongation-at-break as per need for food packaging. Therefore, the polymers/biodegradable polymers are being mixed with nano-sized fillers to form nanocomposites which have improved mechanical strength. In this chapter, preparations of nanocomposites are discussed thoroughly and the characterizations that are being used to study the properties of the nanocomposites are detailed in the sections below.

H. Anuar, F. B. Ali, Y. F. Buys, M. A. Siti Nur E’zzati, A. R. Siti Munirah Salimah, M. S. Mahmud, N. Mohd Nordin, S. A. Adli

Mechanical Techniques for Enhanced Dispersion of Cellulose Nanocrystals in Polymer Matrices

Cellulose nanocrystals extracted from different biomass resources have a great potential as a reinforcing agent in nanocomposite materials owing to the excellent mechanical properties and environmental sustainability. The superior properties of cellulose nanocrystals in the different polymer matrix is stifled by the non-uniform dispersion through the polymer matrix. The main approaches for the production of cellulose nanocrystals materials are improving the dispersion quality of cellulose nanocrystals in the polymer matrix with different hydrophilicities. The application of different chemical-oriented surface modification methods has been extensively reported. However, still, the need for developing new manufacturing process capable of scaling up has motivated the academia to find out innovative mechanical techniques. In this chapter, the discussion is focused on the advances of the emerging ideas about nanocellulose materials manufacturing process with a main focus on the mechanical properties of the final product.

Jamileh Shojaeiarani, Dilpreet S. Bajwa, Kerry Hartman

Processing and Industrial Applications of Sustainable Nanocomposites Containing Nanofillers

The performance properties of sustainable polymer matrix can be significantly improved by the incorporation of nanofillers (NFs) having a high aspect ratio and high active surface area. This chapter comprehensively emphasizes the processing of sustainable polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) containing NFs for potential industrial applications. Different fabrication techniques of sustainable PNCs such as intercalation method, sol-gel and direct dispersion method have been discussed briefly. The impact of these processing techniques on the properties of PNCs and their wide range of industrial applications like mechanical, electronic and biological are highlighted in this chapter. Furthermore, an overview is given on different types of NFs used for the preparation of sustainable PNCs for industrial application.

Khadija Zadeh, Sadiya Waseem, Kishor Kumar Sadasivuni, Kalim Deshmukh, Aqib Muzaffar, M. Basheer Ahamed, Mariam Al-Ali AlMaadeed

Recent Advances in Paper-Based Analytical Devices: A Pivotal Step Forward in Building Next-Generation Sensor Technology

Of late, the paper has attracted the significant attention of researchers as a substrate for sensing devices. Paper is a fibrous network of cellulose, a ubiquitous biopolymer, which is fast emerging as a sustainable raw material and replacing the non-renewable ones. Paper possesses many striking features such as hydrophilicity and low-cost, which make it an excellent choice for sensing platforms. Paper-based sensing devices are flexible, foldable, portable, economical, user-friendly and disposable. Recently, numerous works have reported the use of paper substrates for sensor fabrication in the fields of biomedical health care, environmental analysis, food and water quality, and forensics. The current chapter aims to present a concise overview of the recent developments in the area of paper-based sensing, particularly in the ongoing decade. It briefly discusses the sensing approach for the detection of various analytes and focuses on their applications in various sectors.

Charu Agarwal, Levente Csóka

Polymers and Polymer Composites for Adsorptive Removal of Dyes in Water Treatment

The discharge of wastewater containing dyes causes severe problems worldwide, which must be properly treated before entering the environment. Adsorption is believed to be one of the favourable techniques to remove dyes because of its environmental and economic sustainability. This chapter reviewed the recent development of polymers and polymer composites reported as adsorbents for treating dye-contaminated wastewater, including surface modification/functionalization of polymers, polyaniline and its composites, magnetic polymer composites, polymer/clay composites and polymer/by-products or waste composites. The adsorption performance of adsorbents was discussed in correlation with a number of factors, such as the properties of dyes, surface chemistry or structures of adsorbents, as well as operation conditions, e.g. initial dye concentration, solution pH, temperature, and the presence of other salts, etc. In addition, the regeneration and reusability of developed adsorbents were covered.

Weiya Huang, Shuhong Wang, Dan Li

Current Scenario of Nanocomposite Materials for Fuel Cell Applications

Integration of hybrid nanocomposite materials in a fuel cell (FC) provides excellent improved properties such as proton conductivity, membrane stability. Similarly, the synergetic effect of materials used in nanocomposite membranes gives better water retention property, suppression of fuel crossover with reduced cost of operation. Currently available composite materials comprising of various metals, metal oxides, carbon materials and polymers display their superior properties in fuel cell applications. However, composite membranes have drawbacks such as CO poisoning, poor water retention capacity, and fuel crossover due to the less chemical and thermal stabilities. Recently, a tremendous advancement in various nanocomposite membranes led to superior properties in terms of high membrane stability, proton conductivity, suppression of fuel crossover, less CO poisoning. In this chapter, the recent developments in FC nanocomposite technology are systematically summarized. Furthermore, the advantages of the insertion of hybrid, clean, cheap and new variety of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, chitosan and organic fillers in FC are neatly explained.

Raveendra M. Hegde, Mahaveer D. Kurkuri, Madhuprasad Kigga

Rubber Clay Nanocomposites

The use of nanofillers allows the development of nanocomposites with improved properties and novel applications. The technological goal is possible due to the new compounding method that allows a particle dispersion in the nanometer scale increasing the specific surface area.

Mariajose Cova Sanchez, Alejandro Bacigalupe, Mariano Escobar, Marcela Mansilla

Organic/Silica Nanocomposite Membranes Applicable to Green Chemistry

Generally, organic/inorganic nanocomposites consist of organic polymers incorporated with inorganic fillers in nanoscale. They integrate the benefits of the inorganic materials (e.g. thermal and chemical stability, stiffness) and the organic polymers (e.g., dielectric, flexibility, processability, and ductility). Recently, polymer-Si nanocomposites have received considerable attention and have been applied in many different applications. Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have appeared as an environmentally friendly device to meet the energy demands of the recent years. Nafion® is a commonly recognized and commercialized membrane which offers exceptional electrochemical attributes below 80 °C, and under extremely humidified environments. Nevertheless, a reduction in the proton conductivity of Nafion® over 80 °C and decreased humidity, as well as expensive membrane price, has motivated the progress of novel membranes. The incorporation of fillers, particularly nano-sized Si particulates, to the polymeric matrix was employed to partially resolve the problems. Thus, this account will provide a broad summary of the methods and techniques employed for the nanocomposites preparation as well as a short explanation about their properties, characterizations, and applications. In-depth explanations of particular subjects can be found in related references.

Mashallah Rezakazemi, Amir Dashti, Nasibeh Hajilary, Saeed Shirazian

Extraction of Cellulose Nanofibers and Their Eco-friendly Polymer Composites

Polymer-based materials are an important and promising area of research exhibiting strong developments (Sadeghi et al. in J Mol Liq 263:282–287, 2018, [1; Rezakazemi et al. in Progr Energy Combust Sci 66:1–41, 2018 [2]). They play a prominent role in the modern civilization and find application in different industries related to electrical and electronic equipment, chemicals, automotive, spacecraft, energy storage in batteries and supercapacitors and medical to cite a few.

M. Hazwan Hussin, Djalal Trache, Caryn Tan Hui Chuin, M. R. Nurul Fazita, M. K. Mohamad Haafiz, Md. Sohrab Hossain

Recyclable and Eco-friendly Single Polymer Composite

Greater awareness towards the environmental issues such as global warming, emission of toxic pollutants and contaminants in the sea, air and on land, destruction of biodiversity and the needs to meet the sustainable development goals, has stimulated interest in the development of recyclable and eco-friendly single polymer composites. These are composite materials with mechanical properties comparable to the heterogeneous composites, fully recyclable and therefore providing economic and environmental advantages. An increasing trend is the use of natural fiber reinforced composites as low-cost composites with low density and high specific properties, non-abrasive and biodegradable. The major challenge in the fabrication of single polymer composites is the small melting temperature difference between the fiber and the matrix, and in the case of natural fibers, the incompatibility of the fibers with the matrix, and the poor resistance to moisture. This review article gives an overview of the developments in single polymer composites relating to the polymer sciences, materials selection, fabrication methods and the different types of recyclable and eco-friendly single polymer composites.

Mohd Azmuddin Abdullah, Muhammad Afzaal, Safdar Ali Mirza, Sakinatu Almustapha, Hanaa Ali Hussein

Processing Aspects and Biomedical and Environmental Applications of Sustainable Nanocomposites Containing Nanofillers

The development of sustainable products based on eco-composites using natural resources, agro-wastes or cellulosic fibers are among effective strategies for waste recycling, environmental remediation, and conversion into value-added products. Composite materials based on polymer have increasingly replaced the metals and ceramics-based composite due to the low cost and ease of processability, with wide-ranging tunable properties and amenability to changes for specific applications, through the use of additives in the form of fillers, lamina, fibers, flakes, and particles. Nanofillers incorporated within the matrix of nanocomposites dramatically alter the chemical, physical and mechanical properties. These are dependant upon factors such as the processing techniques, the interaction between the nanofillers and the matrix, and the distribution and dispersion of the nano-fillers. In this review article, the processing aspects of the composite materials based on cellulose, chitosan, and magnetic nanocomposites are discussed. The applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering, biosensor, electrically conductive polymer and insulators, and the green catalysis and environmental remediation are highlighted.

Mohd Azmuddin Abdullah, Muhammad Shahid Nazir, Zaman Tahir, Yasir Abbas, Majid Niaz Akhtar, Muhammad Rafi Raza, Hanaa Ali Hussein

Smart Materials, Magnetic Graphene Oxide-Based Nanocomposites for Sustainable Water Purification

Magnetic separation, one of the potential methods for the purification of toxic pollutant contaminated water, has been found to be an alternative technique for the removal of water pollutants that effectively compares with the conventional methods of treatment. Among the synthetic magnetic adsorbents, magnetic graphene oxide based nanocomposites (MGOs) have been widely used in the removal of metal pollutants and dyes from aqueous solution, and are currently attracting much attention. This chapter reviews the status and approaches of the properties of graphene and magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposites, in view of their utilization for the adsorption removal of pollutants (heavy metals, radioactive elements, organic dyes, and other pollutants) for sustainable water purification. It also reviews the primary characterization instruments required for the evaluation of structural, chemical and physical functionalities of synthesized magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposites. It first discusses pollutants and their toxic effects, and the necessity of preparation of MGOs, and then discusses in brief MGOs preparation strategies, characterizations, and applications for sustainable water purification.

Janardhan Reddy Koduru, Rama Rao Karri, N. M. Mubarak

Functionalized Carbon Nanomaterial for Artificial Bone Replacement as Filler Material

Recently, significant advancement has achieved in the field of bone tissue engineering for the preparation of artificial bone in order to treat defects or bone loss. Biomaterials mainly used to construct devices that are associated with the biological system to co-exist for long-lasting use with limited chance of failures. Most well-known biomaterials used for bone implants include metals, ceramics, and polymers. At present carbon nanomaterials, particularly carbon nanotubes are promising biomaterials for artificial bone due to their remarkable mechanical, electrical and thermal strength. However, in biomedical applications, carbon nanotubes are restricted to use alone due to issues like toxicity, abacas sheets formation and aggregation. Functionalization techniques help to avoid such issues. Functionalization techniques are categorized into covalent and non-covalent approaches. Covalent approach primarily focuses on tailoring the sidewalls to proceed with the modification, whereas non-covalent are constrained to alter the structure. Furthermore, CNTs are among remarkable biomaterials, and immense successful studies have been conducted to analyse the effects of CNTs with/without polymers in both vivo and in vitro experiments. The purpose of this chapter is to use functionalized carbon nanomaterial, mainly CNTs as filler material for artificial bone replacement. Therefore, this chapter reviewed the bones structure and mechanics, artificial bone history, carbon nanotubes synthesis and functionalization techniques.

Fahad Saleem Ahmed Khan, N. M. Mubarak, Mohammad Khalid, Ezzat Chan Abdullah

Inorganic Nanocomposite Hydrogels: Present Knowledge and Future Challenge

This chapter introduces and discusses the nanocomposite hydrogels, based on inorganic particles, including inorganic ceramics (clays), and nanofillers of carbon, silicon, metal, and metal oxide. Various nanoparticle preparation methods will be presented in brief. Depending on the inorganic particle types, assorted preparation methods for nanocomposite hydrogels, and their corresponding characterization methods will be assessed. Inorganic particles not only improve the mechanical strength of these soft materials (gels) but also confer specific properties into the gel networks; stimuli-responsive hydrogels are good examples. Nanocomposite hydrogels have been engineered to be used in various applications, including tissue engineering, drug delivery, water treatment, conductive materials, optoelectronic, and supercapacitors. Furthermore, stimuli-responsiveness feature, the ability of bio-fabrication, and the capability of 3D printing introduce them as potential candidates for the fabrication of smart materials with complicated structures.

Nasrin Moini, Arash Jahandideh, Gary Anderson

Processing, Characterization and Application of Natural Rubber Based Environmentally Friendly Polymer Composites

Environmentally friendly natural rubber composites (NRCs)/nanocomposites (NCs) filled with natural organic fillers coming from renewable and biodegradable sources have been raising continuous and utmost interests to fulfil the increasing demand related to the minimum use of petroleum-based non-renewable resources. In order to develop the improved properties and performance characteristics of green NRCs/NCPs, continuously increasing attention has been devoted to enhance mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties through augmentation of interfacial adhesion among natural fillers and NR matrix, together with ensuring more even distribution of fillers via chemical modification of the fillers/NR and use of adhesion/dispersion promoters/additives. Therefore, mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of various NRCs/NCPs have mainly been focused, along with necessary alterations in the biodegradability. In this context, NRCs/NCPs have been categorized into four major parts, i.e., NR composites filled with plant fibers, nano-cellulose (NC) reinforced NR NCPs, NRCs based on recycled rubber granulate, and NR composites containing proteins, with special attention being paid on processing, characterization, and preparation of NR composites filled with nanocellulosic fillers. The role of new microstructures, such as honeycomb, Zn-cellulose complex, cellulose-cellulose network etc., have been analyzed to obtain environmentally friendly NR composites suited for interpenetrating polymer network (IPN), sensor, and other sophisticated materials.

Nayan Ranjan Singha, Manas Mahapatra, Mrinmoy Karmakar, Pijush Kanti Chattopadhyay

Electrical Properties of Sustainable Nano-Composites Containing Nano-Fillers: Dielectric Properties and Electrical Conductivity

Nanocomposites containing nanofillers are remarkable products of nanotechnology. The application of nanomaterials as fillers in composites can confer extraordinary properties and, therefore, are considered promising for a range of applications. In this chapter, a detailed description of nanocomposite and nanofiller material is discussed. In addition, a brief summary of the dielectric properties and electrical conductivity of nanocomposite materials is provided. It is concluded that sustainable nanocomposite materials using nanofiller may possess high electrical conductivity and dielectric properties.

Sabzoi Nizamuddin, Sabzoi Maryam, Humair Ahmed Baloch, M. T. H. Siddiqui, Pooja Takkalkar, N. M. Mubarak, Abdul Sattar Jatoi, Sadaf Aftab Abbasi, G. J. Griffin, Khadija Qureshi, Nhol Kao

Thermal Properties of Sustainable Thermoplastics Nanocomposites Containing Nanofillers and Its Recycling Perspective

Sustainable thermoplastic nanocomposites are of great importance because they possess the potential to resolve concerns on the emission of greenhouse gases, depletion of fossil fuels and pollution. The thermal characteristics of polymers and nanocomposites play a significant role in determining the suitable application of these materials. This review provides an overview of the thermal properties of sustainable thermoplastic nanocomposites incorporated with various nanofillers. Thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric analysis, DSC and thermal conductivity of various thermoplastic nanocomposites have been elaborated in detail. Further, the recycling perspectives of various polymers have been discussed. The thermal properties are essential characteristics to understand the behaviour of the raw material and final product. The performance and properties of the nanocomposite are greatly dependent on the polymer matrix, polymer dispersion in composite, properties and aspect ratio of fiber, the interface of fiber and matrix, and process parameters.

Pooja Takkalkar, Sabzoi Nizamuddin, Gregory Griffin, Nhol Kao

Application of Sustainable Nanocomposites in Membrane Technology

Nanocomposites are classified into two classes one is non-polymer based nanocomposite and another is polymer-based nanocomposites. Nowadays polymer-based nanocomposites are involved everywhere and especially in the membrane science, it is playing a key role. Recent decade researchers getting tremendous output using membrane technology. Earlier applying the membrane technology in several fields it was a challenge for the researchers but nowadays researcher are using it in different research fields. There are tremendous work was done using nanocomposite membrane for applications like water desalination, wastewater treatment, gas separation, water vapours removal from flue gas, enantiomer separation, etc. Thin film nanocomposite membrane technology has deliberated as one of the most doable technology for above-mentioned application fields. Nanoparticles (NPs) incorporated in a polymer matrix or in the thin composite layer to prepare nanocomposite membrane have become promising membrane materials owing their enhance properties such as high surface area, surface mobility, superior optical and magnetic properties. The improvement in the results is not only beleaguered at the anti-fouling properties of nanocomposites but also manifested stupendous competence to manage with the selectivity/permeability trade-off-relationship. This book chapter discusses the recent development in nanocomposite membrane technology considering several applications. The results showed that the nanocomposite membranes possess a high flux along with superior selectivity in all above-mentioned field to compare with composite membranes. Key face in nanocomposites membrane technology for the future research perspectives is also discussed in this book chapter.

Pravin G. Ingole

Reliable Natural-Fibre Augmented Biodegraded Polymer Composites

The environment and enduring issues have perceived innovative achievements in the area of materials science for the discovery of biocomposites or most favourably biodegraded polymer composites (BPC’s). BPC’s are composite materials formed by the blend of matrix or resin with natural fibres. Natural fibres offer several advantages over synthetic fibres, which make them excellent candidates in various applications. Besides having various advantages they lack in issues like resin compatibility and water absorption. This article discusses various pros and cons of BPC’s along with their source, composition, structure, manufacturing techniques, as well as mechanical properties.

Ritu Payal

An Overview on Plant Fiber Technology: An Interdisciplinary Approach

Researches on plant fibers for composite applications are increasing due to the demand of materials from renewable sources, which do not consume fossil fuels during manufacture, thus avoiding greenhouse gas emissions. An interdisciplinary approach is required to cover all aspects of plant fiber research, but the actual literature shows many gaps in this sense, where many works are limited in one field of study and may present unclear conclusions. To solve this problem, we did a systematic approach in the literature to provide a review of key aspects of plant fibers, regarding biology, chemistry, and engineering.

Alan Miguel Brum da Silva, Sandra Maria da Luz, Irulappasamy Siva, Jebas Thangiah Winowlin Jappes, Sandro Campos Amico

Nanocellulose-Reinforced Adhesives for Wood-Based Panels

Considering that the solid wood, being a heterogeneous and anisotropic product, presents several disadvantages such as unsatisfactory mechanical properties for certain uses and limitations of wood due to dimensions of wood pieces, reconstituted wood products have been developed by gluing of veener, boards, lignocellulosic fibers, etc., which are joined using adhesives. It should be noted that changes in adhesion to wood are desirable in terms of performance improvement and adhesive economy. Within the constant search for better performance of adhesives, the use of nanocelluloses appears as a viable option. Further, identification of reinforcement of adhesives with nanocellulose is being considered as an opportunity among the several opportunities offered by nanotechnology for the forest products industry. Use of nanocelluloses as reinforcements in adhesives for the production of reconstituted wood panels has several benefits such as possibility of altering the properties of adhesives, gain in mechanical and physical properties of panels and reduction in formaldehyde emissions by panels using synthetic adhesives. Accordingly, this chapter discusses the main types of reconstituted wood panels, types and characteristics of the adhesives employed, aspects that influence the bonding and use of additives in the glue mixture. Besides, it also addresses the use of nanocellulose and its effects on the properties of reconstituted wood panels. Despite all the advantages emntioned above, the Chapter ends with the conclusion that there are still some problems to be looked into suggesting need for more research either in the application of nanocellulose and its modification in different types of resin, as well as application technologies appropriate to the new conditions of the adhesives.

Elaine Cristina Lengowski, Eraldo Antonio Bonfatti Júnior, Marina Mieko Nishidate Kumode, Mayara Elita Carneiro, Kestur Gundappa Satyanarayana

Nanocellulose in the Paper Making

In recent times, nanotechnology, which has been one of the main novelties to be developed in the 21st century, has been applied to many sectors, particularly to various industrial sectors including forest-based industry. An output of this is the development of nanomaterials of which nanocelluloses have been studied as high technology biopolymers for application in various materials through the development of films and as reinforcement in papers. With this background, the main objective of this Chapter is to present the use of nanocellulose in the paper making. Accordingly, the Chapter presents characteristics of the most used wood in the world for pulp and paper production, main methods of obtaining cellulose in nature, process of bleaching of pulp, paper making, processes to obtain different types of nanocellulose (microfibrillar nanofiber and cellulose nanocrystals), applications of nanocellulose in the paper making through coating and films as well as by nanocellulose-reinforced pulp and the resulting effects of the use of nanocellulose in paper production. These include increased tensile and burst strengths, weight loss, improved barrier properties for oils, oxygen and moisture, better printing surface, etc. In the end, marketing aspects, possible future opportunities and finally concluding remarks are given. These briefly mention the use of nanocelluloses in papermaking presenting interesting possibilities, which offer improvements in cost-benefit, energy efficiency and biocompatibility, in addition to generating new products with uses are not available today.

Elaine Cristina Lengowski, Eraldo Antonio Bonfatti Júnior, Marina Mieko Nishidate Kumode, Mayara Elita Carneiro, Kestur Gundappa Satyanarayana

Impact of Nanoparticle Shape, Size, and Properties of Silver Nanocomposites and Their Applications

Silver-containing nanocomposites have recently attracted the immense attention of researchers from different fields because of the dual benefits from silver nanoparticle and matrix elements. There are four types of synthetic methods or silver nanoparticles and three types of composite systems currently used for their preparations, which are briefly described in this chapter. Silver nanoparticles are widely used for biomedical applications due to their antibacterial and antiviral properties. In addition, silver nanocomposites are extensively used in other fields including, food industries, textile industries, electronic industries etc. Silver nanoparticles embedded polymer matrix composites are promising candidates for biomaterials, photovoltaic materials, and catalysts. This chapter describes different methods employed for synthesis of silver nanoparticle-containing nanocomposites and their potential applications.

Arpita Hazra Chowdhury, Rinku Debnath, Sk. Manirul Islam, Tanima Saha

Toxicological Evaluations of Nanocomposites with Special Reference to Cancer Therapy

In the last few years, nanoparticles and nanocomposites have emerged as one of the promising candidates to scientists from various fields because of their immense potential to revolutionize science and technology. The nanoscale particles and composites are synthesized with a broad range of metals like gold, silver, iron, metal oxides and semiconductors. They are effective for water filtration, as a therapeutic agent, a very important agent for targeted drug delivery and also of immense importance in biomedical applications like Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The nanoscale particles have a wide range and have the potential to be used for the betterment of biomedical research, human health, and environment. Though these nanoscale materials are synthesized widely all over the world with various metals, carbon and graphene and other elements for research purposes and to understand their applications, the biological issues of toxicity associated with these materials and its impact on human health and environment are grossly unexplored. Detailed understanding of the factors regulating toxicity is lacking. A complete toxicological profile of these nanocomposites will ensure effective translation for a market available drug through clinical trial and other nano-based products. This chapter deals with the synthesis of nanocomposites, their applications and toxicological evaluation of the same in terms of human application.

Arpita Hazra Chowdhury, Arka Bagchi, Arunima Biswas, Sk. Manirul Islam

Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Bio-based Polyurethane Nanocomposites

Polyurethane (PUs) is gaining immense interest as a speciality polymer for various high-end applications. Vegetable oil has gained momentous attention as a valuable renewable precursor and a potential alternative to the current petro-based polyol for the synthesis of PUs. The concept of reinforcing nanofiller into vegetable oil-based PU matrix has gained huge research interest for the development of bio-based PU nanocomposites with tailor-made properties. The addition of nanofiller into bio-based PU nanocomposites has led to the improvement of thermal, mechanical, optical and physicochemical properties. This chapter will deal with the detailed insight regarding the synthesis, characterization of bio-based PUs nanocomposites from various vegetable oil incorporated with different nanofillers.

Sonalee Das, Sudheer Kumar, Smita Mohanty, Sanjay Kumar Nayak

Clay Based Biopolymer Nanocomposites and Their Applications in Environmental and Biomedical Fields

In recent decade the new discoveries in polymer-clay nanocomposites have attracted the attention of research community as it was of low cost, easily available in nature and has been expanded to a wide range of applications in various industries, in particular, their potential current status and continuous development in the field of polymer science and nanotechnology. In this chapter, we discuss in detail the most significant findings of recent literature describing a cluster of studies on clay in combination with polymeric matrixes and their fascinating applications on bone tissue regeneration, drug delivery, regenerative medicine, biosensors etc. We also discussed the environmental application of hybrid clay polymeric matrixes to remove pollutants from industrial effluent, heavy metal removal and so on. Thus we hope this chapter grasps the attention of clay scientists in terms of academic, industries as well as politics (by funding projects) to focus on this area to explore more novel materials in future to improve the quality of mankind.

K. Sangeetha, P. Angelin Vinodhini, P. N. Sudha

Thermal Behaviour and Crystallization of Green Biocomposites

The thermal behaviour of the green composites (GCs) was an interesting issue discussed in many studies of recent years. In the foreground, unquestionable is the role played by the interface between natural fibers or cellulose nanoparticles and the polymer matrix, which also is most presented in this chapter. There were presented the effects at interfaces on thermal behaviour of the different polymer matrix, most of them biodegradable, that was reinforced using various methods with natural fillers (fibers or cellulose nanoparticles) isolated and extracted from different bioresources. Before starts to present literature results, the most common thermal analytical techniques were reviewed. Thermal behaviour of the most representative from the GCs class was presented in this chapter. Because interfaces of GCs show a greater impact on thermal transitions, firstly were presented results related to the stable temperature range when the important thermal transitions like glass transition, melting or/and (cold) crystallization occurs. The modifications occurred on glass transition, melting and crystallization temperatures or on the crystallinity index were discussed as a function of their content in the GCs or by chemical treatment applied (e.g. hydrolyzation, alkalinization, silanization) or surface treatments on fillers. The role of fillers reinforced in a polymer matrix, which affects morphology development at interface region was highlighted, too. Then, in the next chapter subsection were presented representative works for a discussed domain that emphasize once again the interface effects on the thermal degradation temperatures or on the mechanism of the thermal degradation as well. Also, fibers content or applied chemical treatment showed a major effect on thermal degradation as will be seen next. Like a general conclusion on thermal behavior of the GCs, three important key factors in the preparing of a GCs were highlighted: the natural filler dimensions (high aspect ratio), a good dispersion (to prevent heterogeneity), and the last, but maybe most important, is the chemical treatment applied on the surface. If these conditions were fulfilled, a biomaterial presenting good thermal properties automatically will show good mechanical performances, too.

Vasile Cristian Grigoras

Eco-friendly Polymer Composite: State-of-Arts, Opportunities and Challenge

This work explores the prospect, challenges and opportunities in an exciting breed of the polymer composite. Though the applications of polymers matrix composites are widespread and still ever increasing, one of the concerns in developing polymer matrix composites is the overall environmental impact. Technological innovation has led to the development of state of the art methods for fabricating, optimizing and characterizing these class of materials leading to new materials that are degradable but still possess excellent properties. In this work, the effect of using renewable and biodegradable reinforcement as a replacement for synthetic fillers is discussed. Also, the opportunities and challenges faced in producing these environmental friendly composites are also highlighted.

V. S. Aigbodion, E. G. Okonkwo, E. T. Akinlabi

Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications of Hemicelluloses Based Eco-friendly Polymer Composites

Hemicelluloses are widely available natural polysaccharides that present abundant functional groups (hydroxyl, carboxyl, and acetyl groups) on their backbones to act as an ideal candidate for chemical/physical functionalization. This review summarizes the synthesis and characterization of hemicelluloses-based polymer composites including products from different modifications (zero-dimensional), particles (zero-dimensional), films (two-dimensional), and gels (three-dimensional), aiming at improving the functional properties of hemicelluloses-based materials such as mechanical strength, water vapor permeability, oxygen permeability and more hydrophobicity. The hemicelluloses-based products are more preferable for specific use in heavy metal removal, dye adsorption, drug delivery and release, tissue engineering, biodegradable packaging and so forth. The perspectives of hemicelluloses in future composites and applications are also outlined.

Xinwen Peng, Fan Du, Linxin Zhong

Self-healing Bio-composites: Concepts, Developments, and Perspective

This chapter seeks to explore different types of self-healable biocomposites and their promising aspects regarding increasing the lifetime of products. From the interaction point of view, self-healable biocomposites use covalent (such as hydrogen bonding, metal-ligand interaction, and so forth) and covalent bonding (Diels-Alder and Schiff-base reaction). These covalent and non-covalent bonds in a polymer matrix make the biocomposites intrinsically self-healable. Another category of healable biocomposites is extrinsic self-healable biocomposites in which incorporating certain external healing agents such as microcapsules lead to healing in cracked regions. The superiority of intrinsic healing compared to the extrinsic method is that it can be repeated frequently in the crack region. But for microencapsulation, the healing occurs upon the rupture of microcapsules and it can impart self-healing properties to different types of matrixes as well. Also, this chapter summarizes the studies published regarding the preparation of self-healable biocomposites and the mechanisms by which the healing occurs.

Zeinab Karami, Sara Maleki, Armaghan Moghaddam, Arash Jahandideh

Chemical Modification of Lignin and Its Environmental Application

Environmental application of lignin in the cleanup of wastewater has gained considerable attention in recent years due to the existence of phenyl, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in lignin’s macromolecules, which accounts for many possible adsorption interactions between lignin and various pollutants. The design and development of modified lignin-based materials as cost-effective polymeric adsorbents is a hot topic in adsorption science. This article highlights the literature during the past decade in the use of modified lignin-based materials for dye, heavy metal, and some other pollutants removal from the aqueous phase. Lists of modified lignin-based adsorbents with their adsorption capacity/removal efficiency of various pollutants and the operating conditions have been collected and discussed. The interaction mechanism involved between the modified lignin and the pollutants in water has also been elucidated by interpreting the adsorption isothermal and kinetic models.

Zhili Li, Yuanyuan Ge, Jiubing Zhang, Duo Xiao, Zijun Wu

Synthesis and Characterization and Application of Chitin and Chitosan-Based Eco-friendly Polymer Composites

Chitosan is derivative of chitin is obtained from natural sources, the external skeleton of crustaceans, fungi, and insects and has to be biocompatible and decomposable. It contains N-acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranose and 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranose, the monomers are joined together by (1 → 4) glycosidic bonds. The removal of the acetyl group from chitin to produce chitosan needs a reaction with highly strong NaOH solution (water or alcohol based) with maintaining safe conditions that ensure the reaction mixture does not interact with oxygen and for this purpose reaction mixture is either purged with nitrogen or by adding NaBH4 so to control unwanted depolymerization and production of reactive species. It is a pliable molecule; its chemical modification can be carried out without affecting the degree of polymerization (DP) of chitosan to anchor different functional groups including primary amine and primary and secondary hydroxyl (OH) groups. There are varieties of chitosan derivatives that are produced. The surface functionalization of chitosan also done employing different enzymes termed as an enzymatic modification. Chitosan also makes blends and composite and has been applied in different filed including electrolyte membrane for fuel cell, antimicrobial activities drugs delivery, and much more application.

Aneela Sabir, Faizah Altaf, Muhammad Shafiq

Nanocomposites for Environmental Pollution Remediation

Organic and inorganic contaminants polluting global water resources are concerning environmentalists and scientists. Generally, being non-biodegradable synthetic chemicals and/or highly soluble in water, they get easily mobilized in the environment. Their interaction with abiotic environmental components through adsorption onto natural colloids and accumulation by biotic components (bio-magnification) has adverse effects on ecosystems and human health. Consequently, water treatment to remove these contaminants is necessary. In this context, adsorptive decontamination of water has significant advantages over other water treatment methods. Bio-adsorption or sorption techniques, based on the use of materials of biological origin such as a biopolymer, are eco-friendly and best solution for remediation of heavy metals. Nanocomposites are the hybrid organic-inorganic materials which are effective in adsorptive decontamination of water. The property enhancement observed in nanocomposites when compared to the traditional composites is due to the dispersion of some of the components at the nano level. This chapter describes recent advances on nanocomposites based on biopolymers and inorganic clay minerals aimed at water decontamination through remediation of metal ions and synthetic organic chemicals, especially dyes, from wastewater.

Anjali Bajpai, Maya Sharma, Laxmi Gond

Correction to: Extraction of Nano Cellulose Fibres and Their Eco-friendly Polymer Composite

The updated version of this chapter can be found at

Bashiru Kayode Sodipo, Folahan Abdul Wahab Taiwo Owolabi
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