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Über dieses Buch

This book presents the select proceedings of the international conference on Sustainable Practices and Innovations in Civil Engineering 2021 (SPICE 2021). The topics covered include the addition and replacement of cementitious materials in concrete, thereby enhancing the strength and durability characteristics of concrete, instrumentation and testing in structural engineering, ground improvement techniques, water management, waste management, and energy efficiency and sustainability in construction. It also includes few papers in the area of environmental civil engineering and discusses key issues in the field of water resources and the impact of COVID-19 on the construction industry. This book is a valuable reference to the students, researchers, and professionals in the field of civil engineering.



Experimental Study on Application of Geogrid in Concrete to Improve Its Flexural Strength

The paper deals with the experimental investigation on using geogrid in concrete for improving its flexural strength. Concrete is one of the most important and widely used construction materials in the world. The production of large quantities of concrete requires extensive amount of natural resources. Over the last several decades, researches have been focusing on improving the strength of concrete by inclusion of manufactured product. This study explores the application of geogrid in RCC beam to increase its flexural strength. The RCC beam with geogrid is investigated for two cases—(i) Geogrid reinforced in tension zone (ii) Geogrid-confined RCC beam. The four-point flexural bending test is done to compare the flexural strength of RCC beam and RCC beam with geogrid. It is observed that geogrid increases the flexural strength of the beam and reduces the number of cracks formed. The flexural strength of the geogrid-reinforced and geogrid-confined beam increased by 15% and 20%, respectively, due to the introduction of geogrid. The difference in the flexural strength of geogrid-reinforced and geogrid-confined RCC beam is negligible. Geogrid-reinforced RCC beam exhibits smaller deflection when compared to RCC beam. The reduction in the deflection in case of geogrid-reinforced and geogrid-confined RCC beam is 8% and 24%, respectively. However, geogrid-confined RCC beam is found to have least number of cracks. Also, it is seen that the cracks propagate only to a shallow depth in case of geogrid-confined RCC beam.
S. Pavithra, M. Tamil Selvi

Water Quality Assessment for Batu Pahat River Basin, Malaysia

In Malaysia, the sharp rise in the population and the expansion of urban developments across the country caused considerable pollution to the water bodies, especially to the rivers. This study aims to assess the non-compliant water quality parameters regarding the Batu Pahat river basin streams in Malaysia. Two different approaches are used: water quality index (WQI) and the new water quality index (NWQI) to categorize the classes, and both results are compared. Moreover, the comparative analysis is done using past data for validation. A distinct difference between WQI and NWQI is recognized. The NWQI method is more likely to categorize a relatively higher class for the selected water quality parameters than the WQI method. The results have shown that out of 25 stations using the WQI method, the water quality parameters of AN, DO, and pH are considered non-compliant parameters. However, using the NWQI method, only DO remains a non-compliant parameter for more than half of the sampling stations. Thus, this research shows a reduction in non-compliant parameters when the WQI method is replaced with the NWQI.
L. M. Sidek, A. Jajarmizadeh, H. A. Mohiyaden, S. M. Noh, A. H. M. Puad, A. M. D. Shahrir

Effect of Graphene Oxide and Crumb Rubber on the Drying Shrinkage Behavior of Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC): Experimental Study, RSM—Based Modelling and Optimization

Despite the amazing ductility of ECC, excessive shrinkage remains one of its disadvantages. This is mainly due to the lack of coarse aggregate and high cementitious material content of the mix. This paper aims to explain the findings of an investigation on the effect of Graphene oxide (GO) and crumb rubber (CR) on the drying shrinkage of ECC and also develop a response-based model and optimization using response surface methodology (RSM). The input factors for the RSM are the GO at 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08% addition by cement weight and CR at 1, 3, and 5% replacement levels of fine aggregate. Using the “User Defined” option of the RSM, 15 mixes were developed containing varying combinations of the GO and CR on which the response (shrinkage) was investigated for 3 months. The results indicated that the drying shrinkage of the composite significantly reduced with an increase in the GO but with completely opposite effect for CR replacement. There was a 30, 30.5, and 38.8% decrease in the drying shrinkage at 1, 3 and 5% CR contents between mixes having 0 and 0.08% GO, respectively. An increase of 13.6–96.6% in drying shrinkage was recorded at 1 to 5% CR replacement for mixes having 0% GO. The Response predictive model developed has an R2 of 98%. Using the optimized levels of the dependent variables, the model was experimentally validated and there is significant agreement between the predicted and the experimental drying shrinkage values with less than 5% error.
Isyaka Abdulkadir, Bashar S. Mohammed, M. S. Liew, M. M. A. Wahab

Experimental Study on Alternative Material for Conventional Fine and Coarse Aggregate in Concrete

This paper deals with the experimental study of physical and chemical properties of laterite sand, foundry sand, EPS beads, and recycled coarse aggregate (RCA), as a suitable replacement for conventional fine and coarse aggregate (FA & CA). The suitability of alternative materials listed above is individually studied for compressive strength of concrete by varying the percentage replacement in 20, 50, 80, and 100% to conventional materials. The physical and chemical properties of foundry sand were superior to laterite sand, whereas the increase in the percentage of replacement in concrete resulted in strength reduction in both laterite and foundry sand. Concrete with replaced foundry sand failed to reach the benchmark strength, thus making it unsuitable for structural use. RCA was found to be the best alternative considering increasing C&D wastes and strength gain properties of concrete.
V. J. Vedhanayaghi, S. Arun Bharathi, S. Muthulakshmi, K. Divya Susanna

Analysis of Traffic Signal Delays in Erode City Using Microscopic Simulation

Traffic flow in signalized intersection plays a major part in the formation of delays in the urban street network. Reduction of delays in the signalized intersections in-turn helps to reduce the travelling time and pollution. Most of the existing signals in the urban streets have not been updated according to the increase or decrease of the traffic flow at each arm of these intersections. In this paper, three signalized intersections in Erode are taken into consideration, and the junctions are redesigned by varying the red time and green time in those signals. The signal is then modelled using the computer simulation model VISSIM. Efficient modelling of vehicular traffic is efficient in India and is largely used in context of Indian heterogeneous driving conditions. By changing the red time and green time of the signal, the average waiting time of the vehicles is expected to be reduced by 50%.
S. Janani, J. Rahul

Replacement of Polyethylene Bags by Bioplastics Using Solanum Tuberosum

Humans beings are using plastic bags that are ecologically dangerous products for their routine life mainly for purchasing things as a result of which the ecological and cultivable lands are thereby being contaminated. Many alternatives have been found out to decrease the usage of polyethylene; a number of bioplastics are emerged in the recent years. In our project, bioplastics are made from solanum tuberosum, and the plasticizer used is glycerol. Strength and properties of the specimen are found out by thickness test and roughness test by undergone ten trials. With rising exposure for the environment concern, the use of starch-based plastic products will be an obligation across the world.
S. Janani, S. Sathyan

A Review on Precast Concrete Construction

Precast concrete construction (PC) is the present trend of building structures that is infrastructure development in many advanced countries of the world. In India too, it is being practiced, but at a slow pace and has to be speeded up for the country’s requirements. Certainly it is an advancement and a necessity in the field. Building a structure by this method can be of two ways: structure as a whole or segmental for size and weight constraints. In segmental construction, the component elements are required to be connected on site. Thereby connection designs have a vital role to play and govern the execution for reality, especially in seismic considerations. There is a lot of research work done already and still going on how best a specific aspect or a specific component could function and on what aspects further investigation is necessary. In this scenario, awareness on the subject and its wide applicability among the student community, faculty, construction agencies and lastly the upcoming entrepreneurs in the field is vital. This review is an attempt to come up with the wide applicability and practice of precast concrete construction, in a nutshell by collecting the available literature and the related research work done subject to accessibility and finally the scope for its further development/research for its rapid growth.
Harika Madireddy, Sivakumar Naganathan, B. Mahalingam

Evaluation of Labor Positioning Factors Influencing Construction Manpower Allocation

The emerging challenges and task demands in construction projects require manpower having the multi-skill set to reinforce the manpower allocation process. Although the organizations had competent engineers, the negatives from the workforce cause anxiety in construction manpower allocation. Construction professionals need to sustain manpower allocation. In this regard, this study identifies and evaluates twelve labor positioning factors influencing the manpower allocation in construction projects. In this study, 288 valid data samples were collected through a questionnaire survey from construction site engineers, project engineers, project managers, contractors, and civil engineering consultants. These questionnaire data were further analyzed by using the relative important index method and independent samples Kruskal–Wallis test. Analysis of data explores that the manpower assignment practices were adversely influenced by construction workers’ quality. This study concludes that the construction workers’ lack of skill, workers’ lack of experience, aging workers, workers’ lack of involvement, and workers’ absenteeism rate are the dominant factors in labor positioning in the construction manpower allocation. The results of this study suggest that by knowing the effects of labor positioning factors, construction professionals can build up their managerial skills and sustain manpower allocation in construction projects.
N. Suriya, S. Kamal, R. Sivagamasundari

A Review on Factors Influencing the Use of Personal Protective Equipment in Construction Projects

The construction sector is still considered among the riskiest industries in the world. Various surveys mention that the PPE is not interested in lots of workers all-time at construction sites. Safety problems have become a crucial problem in the management of safety in the construction industry, especially in building projects. As the labor intensive, the construction field is the most unsafe. The majority of safety problems in construction industries are caused by insufficient training, insufficient PPE usage, unawareness of safety, worker unlike PPE, and insufficient PPE maintenance; these are the critical factors impacting the use of PPE in construction projects. Many workers dislike wearing PPE on construction sites. This study aims to identify various factors influencing the use of personal protective equipments in construction projects. About thirty-four related papers from the last twenty years were studied and reviewed. The results in this study reveal that various factors influencing the safety equipment were used in construction workplaces.
S. Elavarasan, S. Kamal, R. Sivagamasundari

Thermal Properties of Concrete Containing Cenosphere and Phase Change Materials

Increment in production and deployment of energy-efficient buildings caused growing demand for environmental conservation. The most desirable by-product produced from power plant is fly ash cenosphere. It has white color, hollow structure and spherical shape. Addition of phase change materials (PCM) in concrete mixture contributed in improving thermal regulation in buildings. It was found that density, splitting tensile strength and compressive strength are decreasing when the percentage of cenosphere increased. Concrete mortar with 20% of cenosphere shown the lowest compressive strength, tensile strength as well as density. The thermal conductivity of concrete mortar also shown reduction when high percentage of cenosphere was introduced which is 0.5 W/m K. It can be concluded that the incorporation of certain percentages of cenosphere and PCM can improve both mechanical and thermal properties.
Salmia Beddu, Amalina Basri, Daud Mohamad, Nur Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur Farhana, Zakaria Che Muda, Zarina Itam, Sivakumar Naganathan, Siti Asmahani Saad, Teh Sabariah

Causes and Consequences of Dam Failures—Case Study

The purpose of dam is to store water and supply to nearby required area. The underestimated capacity, overtopping, erosion in the downstream side, geometry of the slope, sliding, high settlement, etc., are the causes of dam failure. The dam failure occurs both nationally and internationally leading to a pressing need to fathom the underlying causes for the failure and to minimize such occurrences. To understand the causes of failure, it is important to investigate the dam profile and properties. This paper primarily focuses on the major reasons for the dam failures such as overtopping, erosions, seepage, and seismic factors which also includes the details of dam and reservoirs. Thus, the paper is concluded with the lessons and practices understood from the various cases to avoid the failures in the near future.
S. V. Sivapriya, A. Anne Sherin

Seismic Analysis of Hypar Shell Foundation in Sandy Soil

The shallow foundation has opted when the required bearing capacity is at shallow depth. In case if the location of the structure is susceptible to an earthquake, hypar shell foundation can be used instead of going for a special type of foundation. In this paper, a 2D FEM analysis is done to understand the settlement behaviour of the hypar foundation in sandy soil and it is compared with flat slab behaviour. From the analysis, it is believed that hypar foundation can withstand static load. Simulating the earthquake to the hypar foundation reduces the settlement compared to the flat slab by 23.63%.
S. V. Sivapriya, A. D. Abithoo Dass, A. Bargavi, R. Lakshmipriya, S. Nandhini

Single and Group Static Laterally Loaded Vertical Pile in Horizontal and Sloping Ground—A Review

Pile, deep foundation undergo large vertical, lateral and compression load. The behaviour of the pile in the levelled terrain for all possible conditions is well studied. The pile can be placed in man-made or natural slope, where there is a lateral- capacity reduces. This condition is predominately seen in off-shore and embankment areas. The study gives a detailed view in understanding the influence of geometry of slope in lateral capacity of pile done by various researchers.
S. V. Sivapriya

Innovative Investigation on Flexible Pavement Using Bitumen Blended with Waste Plastic

In this research, an attempt was made to analyse the modified bitumen of grade 60/70 with polythene carry bags as waste plastics in two phases. In first phase, optimum bitumen volume was found as 5.5% by varying its volume from 4 to 6% at the rate of 0.5%. In second phase, several experiments were conducted on optimized bitumen volume with waste plastics at the volume of 0, 3, 6, 9,12 and 15%. Tests such as penetration test, softening point, ductility, flash and fire test, viscosity, specific gravity and Marshall’s stability test were also carried out to ascertain the stability value, flow value. From second phase, Optimum volume of waste plastics blended with bitumen was found as 12% by considering its stability value, higher strength, lower flow value and more air gaps. Nevertheless, ANOVA analysis was also revealed that the optimal amount of waste plastics to be added is 12%. From the cost analysis, about 2600 kg of bitumen of worth 76 thousand rupees was saved for 1 km DBM road construction. This indicates that bitumen can be saved up to 12% with the help of plastic waste which would directly help to save the average cost of road construction.
V. M. Rajanandhini, G. Elangovan

Use of RMC Wastewater in Concrete with Admixtures for Strength Enhancement

Water is the elixir of all of our lives. India has become a water scarce country due to its rising population and its rising needs. When it comes to the construction industry, a huge amount of water is needed to both produce concrete as well as to wash the trucks after they have unloaded. This waste wash water (WWW) that is collected after the washing of trucks is high in alkalinity, TSS, TDS, etc., since it contains cementitious materials, admixtures and other impurities from the concrete and, hence, making it toxic and bringing the requirement of a prior treatment before it can be sent for disposal. In the past, scholars have tried to reuse this wash water into concrete mix, but it had resulted in a concrete with reduced strength. Hence here, in this research, we aimed to effectively reuse this wash water in concrete mix with admixtures and other strength enhancers to produce a concrete of desired strength. The wash water did not contain any harmful constituents. The w/c ratio in this study was limited to 0.3, and super plasticiser was added as 0.5% of the total weight of cement. The study involved a mix design of M30 grade concrete. The strength in compression in conventional concrete was 33.4 MPa, and with the use of wash water, it was 29.87 MPa. The strength enhancement was improved with the usage of 10% Silica Fume as replacement for sand in concrete. This compensated for the strength reduction that was caused by using the wash water.
M. Selvakumar, S. Geetha, Christina Joby Maria, S. Pavithra, S. Rakesh, K. Udhaya

Study on Properties of Polymer Mortar with Foundry Sand

Concrete is an irreplaceable construction material worldwide. Due to many external factors, concrete structures deteriorate. Every concrete structure is liable to deterioration and needs maintenance and service by repairing the cracks and distress to maintain the service life of the structure. Polymer mortar is one such material which is used as a repair material. Urbanization has led to increased use of construction material like river sand and accumulation of industrial waste. The adverse change of too much removal of sand from river beds is a threat to ecosystem and lack of land for disposing foundry sand which is a waste from casting industries has forced to search for another possible solution. Recovery and re-use of foundry sand as an alternate source to river sand contributes to reducing the demand for sand and also provides an environmentally sound method for foundry sand disposal. In this paper, we will be using polymer mortar as control mix without changing the water to cement ratio (w/c) and partially replace foundry sand in different proportions. This paper deals with study of the properties of polymer mortar with foundry sand as an alternate source to river sand by performing a series of strength tests with different proportions of foundry sand.
M. Selvakumar, S. Geetha, B. V. Agaliya, S. Shine, R. U. Rupasudharshnee, M. Sakthivel

Characterization and Valorization of Sugarcane Press Mud in Civil Engineering Applications

Sugarcane press mud (PM) is a solid waste of economic significance generated from the sugar industry. India being a large producer of sugarcane, this solid waste is produced in abundant quantities. This solid waste has a significant proportion of calcium oxide and can be effectively valorized in civil engineering materials and practices. An attempt has been made to review the use of PM in various civil engineering applications in this paper. A sift through existing literature reveals that PM is an organic fibrous residual material generated from the filtration of cane juice. It can be potentially used in manufacture of cement, cement mortar and soil treatment. However, the beneficial effects of PM are limited because of its organic origins and pre-treatment can be considered to improve its performance.
Jijo James

A Study of Environmental Management of Construction and Demolition Waste

The construction of new multi storied building like an apartment has become a trend recently. This is due to the rapid increase in population over the past 10 years. The need for high raised buildings results in the demolition of the old buildings or renovation of the new ones generating a large amount of solid wastes known as Construction and Demolition Waste (C&D Waste). These materials are dumped along roads and in landfills without measures leading to the complete degradation of the surrounding environment. Chennai, being one of the most populous cities of South India, generates abundant C&D waste. The generated waste causes environmental destruction as well as affects human health. In order to remove these situations, there are several rules and polices implemented in the country, but it could not be effectively implemented. There are several drawbacks as well as serious issues which need to be carefully addressed, as quick as possible. In this paper we have adopted a descriptive research design. Data collection is carried out in two phases namely, Primary survey (Questionnaire survey) and Secondary survey (journals). We have used a convenient sampling technique, SPSS Software (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences or Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) and tools in it like Chi- Square test and Percentage Analysis to analyze our data. By performing these tests, we can understand the relationship between each variable and arrive at suitable recommendations that can help us improve the environmental conditions. Through this project we could suggest possible ideas that can be suitable to our society, to move towards maintaining a sustainable environment. As well as also aims to serve as an awareness to people about effective management of Construction and Demolition Waste.
P. Sabareeshwaran, S. Tharanyaa, B. Mahalingam, M. Kavitha

Study on the Compressive Strength and Water Absorption Characteristics of Mortar Blocks with Cenosphere as Partial Replacement for Cement

Cement industry is one of the major sources for global warming due to large amount of emission of carbon-dioxide. It is really important to reduce the usage of cement and replace cement with other industrial by products, which are produced in tons and used as landfill. Cenosphere is one promising waste material generated from coal power plants along with fly ash that can be used as partial replacement for cementious material. This work focuses on the usage of lightweight cementious material, i.e. cenosphere as a partial replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Cement properties such as initial setting time and consistency were measured. Compressive strength was studied using mortar cube of size 70.7 × 70.7 × 70.7 mm. Water absorption and sorptivity characteristics were measured using cylinder specimens of size 100 mm × 50 mm. Cenosphere was replaced at an amount of 5–20% of cement weight. Five different mortar mixes were prepared with 0 (control), 5, 10, 15 and 20% of weight of cement replaced with cenosphere. From the study, it was observed that the initial setting time and consistency increases with the increase in percentage of cenosphere. The measured consistency for 20% replacement of cenosphere was about 35%. The initial setting time increased from 40 min (OPC) to 147 min for the replacement of 20% of cement. There was only a slight reduction in the crushing strength with the cenosphere replacement. From the experimental work, it can be stated that effect of cement replacement with cenosphere has only a small impact on the consistency and strength. Cenosphere being a hollow lightweight particle, when added to cement reduces the density of cement products, reduces the cost and also the environmental impact. It also improves the durability, workability and shrinkage resistance of cementious mix.
R. Vijayalakshmi, Sivakumar Naganathan, S. Ramanagopal

Performance Assessment of the Perforated CFS Unlipped and Lipped Channel Section Under Compression

Cold-formed steel sections are used widely in multistorey, industrial and support structures owing to the advantage of light weight, high strength and stiffness. This paper presents the behaviour of the CFS channel section with perforation subjected to compression load. The parameters varied in study are lipped and unlipped channel section, shape of the perforation and number of perforations. The column length of 800 mm with the hinged end condition was tested to failure under UTM. The axial deformation and microstrain behaviour at mid-height of the specimen was discussed. The overall and specific local buckling failure was observed in all perforated column specimen. The dissipation of energy was observed through the perforation present in the channel section. The channel section along with lip of 15 mm and without lip specimens fails both local buckling near perforation and distortional buckling. The channel section with the lip of 15 mm reduces the overall buckling by providing lip of minimum dimension of 15 – 20 mm. All the CFS perforated columns were also analysed using ANSYS software and able to achieve good correlation between the test and analytical results.
P. Sangeetha, M. Dhinagaran, A. S. Gobinaath, R. S. Saravana Kumar, A. D. Jeevan Raj

Retrofitting of Exterior Beam-Column Joint—A Review

Repair, retrofitting and strengthening of the reinforced cement concrete (RCC) beams to column structural joints in a framed structure is the emerging and widespread areas of interest in reach for past decades. The purpose for strengthening or retrofitting these RC beam-column structural joint includes various factors as concrete which is deteriorating, changes in building utility, structure ageing, corroding reinforcement, design mistakes or construction errors and upgradation in the codal provisions. Retrofitting/strengthening methods are used in strengthening these framed structures and allow them to perform as per the updated codal requirements. Researchers over the decades are attempting and finding out a suitable technique to strengthen and in repairing RCC beam-column structural joint that would balance necessary structural requirements so as to enhance ductility and strength. The methods of strengthening should be in such a way to enhance controlling the construction cost, minimized implementation and minimum disruption of the occupants in the building during construction process, aesthetics has to be maintained, increased durability and ensuring full work safety. The earliest strengthening technique used steel jacketing which resulted in the minimum modifications of the structural geometry but simultaneously enhanced the structural capacity of the framed buildings. FRP—fibre reinforced polymers such as GFRP, CFRP, etc. are greatly being used as a substitute material to the traditional method of retrofitting techniques. The researches have significantly done efforts to develop new polymers to develop FRP strengthening techniques. This review paper will provide a detail study or various retrofitting and strengthening methods for RCC beam-column joints. A reviewed literature study was carried to find out the effectiveness of various strengthening techniques and to identify the potential areas of research to address the gaps in research.
T. Pauline, G. Janardhanan, P. Sangeetha, V. Ashok

Space Frame Structure as Roof and Floor System—A Review

In the recent years, the construction industry is focussing to develop a steel and composite structures than the concrete buildings owing to the advantage of ease and speedy construction, effective utilization of materials, lightweight and strength, etc. In modern construction, the space frames were used for industrial structures without intermediate columns and for aesthetic appearance. In practical, the space frame structures were normally used for roof covering than the floor slab. The space truss having concrete slab above the space grid with proper connection mechanism between the grid and concrete will be used as deck floor for occupants in the multistorey building. This paper explains the studies done on the space truss structures both experimentally and analytically during previous years. The parameters which affect the strength and overall stability of the space truss structures were highlighted in this paper. The double-layer grid can be used as the floor slab; discussion was also made in this review paper.
S. N. Vinothni, P. Sangeetha

Study on Microstructural Characterization of Concrete by Partial Replacement of Cement with Glass Powder and Rice Husk Ash in Concrete

Owing to globalization, privatization and liberalization, the erection of important infrastructure projects is increasing for the progress of countries like India. Significant amounts of natural resources are needed for certain construction activities. The building industry’s use of natural resources causes them to deplete at a higher pace. In view of this, lot of research works are being carried out for exploring the alternate materials for natural materials as ingredients of concrete. Usage of glass dust and rice husk ash for cementitious material is one such economical method. The tests were conducted on concrete in which glass dust and rice husk ash were used as partly substituting cementitious material in amounts of 10, 20 and 30%. The concrete strength was also investigated at the ages of 7, 14 and 28 days. The strength properties of the composite were comparable to those of standard concrete, as well as a material characteristics analysis.
R. Nirmala, P. Anusha, S. T. Dhaarini

Experimental Investigation on the Copper Slag, Silica Fume and Fly Ash in High-Performance Concrete

This study focused on investigational approach to comprehend the performance of copper slag, silica fume and fly ash replaced with aggregates in reinforced beam with certain percentage of replacement. For performing the study, four beams with different proportions of alternate mixtures were moulded. The beams were cast as control beam (CB), Beam 1, Beam 2 and Beam 3. Control beam (CB) is constructed as a conventional beam without replacement, and Beam 1, Beam 2 and Beam 3 are constructed with 10, 20 and 30% substitution of copper slag, 5, 10 and 15% alternative of silica fume and 5, 10 and 15% part substitute of fly ash for fine aggregate and cement, respectively. The values from the investigation exposed that the Beam 3 beam has high ultimate load comparatively 21.1% higher than traditional beam and the fracture found in the bending member indicates that Beam 3 has the capacity to carry higher bending stress with too lesser shear failure. The validation approach was done using the “ABAQUS” software. The outcome got from ABAQUS software was compared to experimental results.
R. Nirmala, S. Praveen kumar, K. M. Akash Nithish
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