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Über dieses Buch

This book builds on the cutting edge research presented in the previous edition that was the first of its kind to present the technology behind an emerging power systems management tool still in the early stages of commercial roll-out. In the intervening years, synchrophasors have become a crucial and widely adopted tool in the battle against electricity grid failures around the world. Still the most accurate wide area measurement (WAMS) technology for power systems, synchronized phasor measurements have become increasingly sophisticated and useful for system monitoring, as the advent of big data storage allows for more nuanced real-time analysis, allowing operators to predict, prevent and mitigate the impacts of blackouts with enhanced accuracy and effectiveness. This new edition continues to provide the most encompassing overview of the technology from its pioneers, and has been expanded and updated to include all the applications and optimizations of the last decade.



Phasor Measurement Techniques


Chapter 1. Introduction

Phase angles of voltage phasors of power network buses have always been of special interest to power system engineers. It is well known that active (real) power flow in a power line is very nearly proportional to the sine of the angle difference between voltages at the two terminals of the line.
Arun G. Phadke, James S. Thorp

Chapter 2. Phasor Estimation of Nominal Frequency Inputs

Consider a constant input signal x(t) at the nominal frequency of the power system f 0, which is sampled at a sampling frequency Nf 0. The sampling angle θ is equal to 2π/N, and the phasor estimation is performed using Eqs. (1.​25)–(1.​27).
Arun G. Phadke, James S. Thorp

Chapter 3. Phasor Estimation at Off-Nominal Frequency Inputs

Phasors are a steady state concept. In reality, a power system is never in a steady state. Voltage and current signals have constantly changing fundamental frequency (albeit in a relatively narrow range around the nominal frequency) due to changes in load and generation imbalances and due to the interactions between real power demand on the network, inertias of large generators, and the operation of automatic speed controls with which most generators are equipped.
Arun G. Phadke, James S. Thorp

Chapter 4. Frequency Estimation

Power system frequency measurement has been in use since the advent of alternating current generators and systems. The speed of rotation of generator rotors is directly related to the frequency of the voltages they generate.
Arun G. Phadke, James S. Thorp

Chapter 5. Phasor Measurement Units and Phasor Data Concentrators

The history of Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) evolution was discussed in Chapter 1.
Arun G. Phadke, James S. Thorp

Chapter 6. Transient Response of Phasor Measurement Units

As has been mentioned before, phasor is a steady-state concept.
Arun G. Phadke, James S. Thorp

Phasor Measurement Applications


Chapter 7. State Estimation

Before the advent of state estimation, the power system operator had responsibility for many real-time control center functions including scheduling generation and interchange, monitoring outages and scheduling alternatives, supervising scheduled outages, scheduling frequency and time corrections, coordinating bias settings, and emergency restoration of the system.
Arun G. Phadke, James S. Thorp

Chapter 8. Control with Phasor Feedback

Prior to the introduction of real-time phasor measurements, power system control was essentially used by local signals. Feedback control with such locally available measurements is widely used in controlling machines. In other situations, control action was taken on the basis of a mathematical model of the system without actual measurement of the system.
Arun G. Phadke, James S. Thorp

Chapter 9. Phasor Measurement-Enabled Decision Making

The controls developed in the previous chapter were continuous feedback controls, i.e., the control, u(t), depends on the state, x(t), at each instant of time. If x(t) changes, then u(t) changes with a small delay induced by communication latency (actually u(t) = f(x(t − Δt)). The power system, however, has other types of control which can be characterized as discrete in their dependence on state.
Anamitra Pal

Chapter 10. Protection Systems with Phasor Inputs

Synchronized phasor measurements have offered solutions to a number of vexing protection problems. These include the protection of series compensated lines, protection of multiterminal lines, and the inability to satisfactorily set out-of-step relays. In many situations, the reliable measurement of a remote voltage or current on the same reference as local variables has made a substantial improvement possible.
Arun G. Phadke, James S. Thorp

Chapter 11. Electromechanical Wave Propagation

Several different events connected with the early application of phasor measurements prompted consideration of the propagation of transient events in power systems. The first is typical of what is shown in Fig. 11.1.
Arun G. Phadke, James S. Thorp


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Die Entwicklung des mitteleuropäischen Energiesystems und insbesondere die Weiterentwicklung der Energieinfrastruktur sind konfrontiert mit einer stetig steigenden Diversität an Herausforderungen, aber auch mit einer zunehmenden Komplexität in den Lösungsoptionen. Vor diesem Hintergrund steht die Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen symbolisch für das ganze sich in einer Umbruchsphase befindliche Energiesystem: denn der Notwendigkeit einer Schaffung und Bildung der Hybridnetze aus systemischer und volkswirtschaftlicher Perspektive steht sozusagen eine Komplexitätsfalle gegenüber, mit der die Branche in der Vergangenheit in dieser Intensität nicht konfrontiert war. Jetzt gratis downloaden!