Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
The health of river basins throughout the world is under pressure from economic activities and a changing climate. Water is necessary for life, agriculture and many industrial production processes. But water is also a receptor for our waste products. In Europe, diffuse pollution from agriculture and our industrial legacy, together with hydraulic engineering for navigation, water supply, hydroelectricity or flood control, is seen as the main factor adversely influencing the quality and ecology of European freshwaters and estuaries. Economic activities affect the chemical and ecological status of our rivers, lakes and groundwater and deplete available soil–sediment–water resources. The wide range of economic activities and the ecohydrological complexity of many river basins, in terms of the functioning of the soil–sediment–water system and the links between water quantity, quality and economic activities, make a more integrated management approach to river basins complex and challenging.
As the pressures from both anthropogenic and natural causes on environmental systems increase, it is no longer effective or efficient to deal with one issue at a time, since solving a singular problem often causes damaging impacts on other environmental compartments or in other places. We must consider the consequences of our actions on all parts of the environment in an integrated way and configure these actions to cope with an uncertain future. These challenges demand a different approach in order to achieve actual improvement of the ecological quality of our river basins and thus sustain the goods and services they provide for the well-being of society. Risk-informed management is this new approach. It involves the integrated application of three key principles: be well informed, manage adaptively and take a participatory approach.
Be Well Informed: This implies that a sound understanding of the functioning of the soil–sediment–water system (ecosystem) and its interaction with the social system is the basis to river basin management. A range of European Commission (EC) Framework Programme projects, like AQUATERRA and MODELKEY, have helped deliver, through a range of applied tools, new ecosystem understanding at the site-specific, catchment and river basin scales. For instance, they produced evidence that ecosystem functioning is threatened by contaminants, such as pesticides, nutrients and metals, that are propagated via groundwater pathways from the land surface to rivers, lakes and the sea. Furthermore, there is also evidence that this functioning is threatened by historic contamination mobilised by extreme floods from sediments within rivers, on riverbanks or in floodplain soils. The first generation of river basin management plans (published end of 2009) has only rarely included targeted measures to mitigate these risks. However, the Water Framework Directive (WFD, Annex IV) demands that such system understanding should be integrated in the first (to be published in 2015) or subsequent updates of these plans.
Manage Adaptively: Using our best available understanding on how river ecosystems function will certainly improve river basin management. However, when using scenarios—like the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPPC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES)—or other tools to frame plausible trajectories of change, uncertainties will always remain. This is intrinsic to social as well as ecological systems. Systems, especially at larger scales, are extremely complex and dynamic and can respond in non-linear and unexpected ways. We may be able to cope with these uncertainties by applying the concept of adaptive management, characterised as ‘learning-by-doing’ or ‘learning to manage by managing to learn’. In addressing changes in climate and hydrology, the EC Framework Programme project NEWATER delivered guidance to apply the concept in practice.
Take a Participatory Approach: Participatory processes involve stakeholders in management and aim to enable them to exchange their views and opinions on problems and bring their knowledge to the table. By learning together to understand the land–water system in a better way, better solutions can be found. This process of social learning requires a common language. The rapidly developing ecosystem services approach may provide that language. A common understanding of the value of the goods and services that a healthy ecosystem can provide, and how their present poor status due to our actions can be improved, is the key to a new approach to river basin management.
The WFD recognises several of these aspects. It is both risk-informed and ecologically centred. It also recognises the need to balance improvements to water and ecosystem quality with economic benefits including the need to supply water for human requirements. Increasingly, governments also see the need to grow and supply food as part of the balancing act we have to make.
Some examples from practice are already available where integration of these three key principles is attempted. They show very encouraging results and may inspire others. However, it is our conviction that well-designed, coordinated and monitored ‘learning catchments’ (i.e. aimed at stepwise improvement of the effectiveness of measures) are needed to transform our general framing and develop best practice. The International Risk Governance Council’s (IRGC) risk governance framework is recommended as a source of inspiration for the design and execution of such learning catchments.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Chapman A, Brils J, Ansink E, Herivaux C, Strosser P (2007) Conceptual models in river basin management. In: Quevauviller, Ph. (Eds.) Groundwater science & policy—an international overview, RSC (WSF)
European Commission (2000) Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for the Community action in the field of water policy. Directive 2000/60/EC, European Commission, Brussels (Water Framework Directive)
Brils J, Barceló D, Blum W, Brack W, Harris B, Müller-Grabherr D, Négrel P, Ragnarsdottir V, Salomons W, Slob A, Track T, Vegter J, Vermaat JE (2014) Introduction: the need for risk-informed river basin management. In: Brils J, Brack W, Müller-Grabherr D, Négrel P, Vermaat JE (eds) Risk-informed management of European river basins. Springer, Heidelberg
Vegter J (2004) Risk-based land management, Status and perspectives for policy. In: Lens P, Grotenhuis T, Tabak H (eds) Soil and sediment remediation
von der Ohe PC, de Zwart D, Semenzin E, Apitz SE, Gottardo S, Harris B, Hein M, Marcomini A, Posthuma L, Schäfer RB, Segner H, Brack W (2014) Monitoring programs, multiple stress analysis and decision support for river basin management. In: Brils J, Brack W, Müller-Grabherr D, Négrel P, Vermaat JE (eds) Risk-informed management of European river basins. Springer, Heidelberg
McClellan K (2008) Pollution-induced community tolerance as a measure of species interaction in toxicity assessment. J Appl Ecol 45:1514–1522 CrossRef
Brack W (2003) Effect-directed analysis: a promising tool for the identification of organic toxicants in complex mixtures? Anal Bioanal Chem 377:397–407 CrossRef
von der Ohe PC, Apitz SE, Arbačiauskas K, Beketov MA, Borchardt D, de Zwart D, Goedkoop W, Hein M, Hellsten S, Hering D, Kefford BJ, Panov VE, Schäfer RB, Segner H, van Gils J, Vegter JJ, Wetzel MA, Brack W (2014) Status and causal pathway assessments supporting river basin management. In: Brils J, Brack W, Müller-Grabherr D, Négrel P, Vermaat JE (eds) Risk-informed management of European river basins. Springer, Heidelberg
Van Gils J (2009) Exposure modelling on a river basin scale in support of risk assessment for chemicals in European river basins. Integr Environ Assess Manag 5:80–85 CrossRef
European Commission (2007) Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks. Directive 2007/60/EC, European Commission, Brussels (Floods Directive)
Arnell N (2004) Climate change and global water resources: SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios. Glob Environ Change 14:31–52 CrossRef
Christensen J, Hewitson B, Busuioc A, Chen A, Gao X, Held I, Jones R, Kolli R, Kwon W-T, Laprise R, Magaña Rueda V, Mearns L, Menéndez C, Räisänen J, Rinke A, Sarr A, Whetton P (2007) Regional climate projections. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate Change 2007: The Physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK
Verburg P, Eickhout B, Van Meijl H (2008) A multi-scale, multi-model approach for analyzing the future dynamics of European land use. Ann Reg Sci 42:57–77 CrossRef
Carter T, La Rovere E, Jones R, Leemans R, Mearns LO, Nakicenovic N, Pittock A, Semenov SM, Skea J, Gromov S, Jordan A, Khan S, Koukhta A, Lorenzoni I, Posch M, Tsyban A, Velichko A, Zeng N (2002) Developing and applying scenarios. In: McCarthy J, Canziani O, Leary N, Dokken D, White K (eds) Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; contribution of working group II to the third assessment report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 145–190
Berkhout F, Hertin J, Jordan A (2002) Socio-economic futures in climate change impact assessment: using scenarios as ‘learning machines’. Glob Environ Change 12:83–95 CrossRef
Müller-Grabherr D, Valentin Florin M, Harris B, Crilly D, Gugic G, Vegter J, Slob A, Borowski I, Brils J (2014) Integrated river basin management and risk governance. In: Brils J, Brack W, Müller-Grabherr D, Négrel P, Vermaat JE (eds) Risk-informed management of European river basins. Springer, Heidelberg
Jansen S, Immink I, Slob A, Brils J (2007) Resilience and water management: a literature review
Bouma G, Slob A (2014) How spatial planning can connect to river basin management. In: Brils J, Brack W, Müller-Grabherr D, Négrel P, Vermaat JE (eds) Risk-informed management of European River Basins. Springer, Heidelberg
Pahl-Wostl C (2007) Transitions towards adaptive management of water facing climate and global change. Water Resour Manage 21(1):49–62 CrossRef
Global Water Partnership (2009) A handbook for integrated water resources management in basins. Published 2009 by the Global Water Partnership (GWP) and the International Network of Basin Organizations (INBO), Printed by Elanders, Sweden.
van Maasakkers M, Duijn M, Kastens B (2014) Participatory Approaches and the Role of Facilitative Leadership. In: Brils J, Brack W, Müller-Grabherr D, Négrel P, Vermaat JE (eds) Risk-informed management of European River Basins. Springer, Heidelberg
Ridder D, Mostert E, Wolters H (Eds.) (2005) Learning together to manage together—improving participation in water management. Handbook from the project ‘Harmonizing Collaborative Planning’ (HarmoniCOP), University of Osnabrück, Osnabrück
IRGC (2005) White Paper on Risk Governance—towards an integrative Approach. IRGC, Geneva, September 2005, reprinted: January 2006
Slob A, Rijnveld M, Chapman A, Strosser P (2007) Challenges of linking scientific knowledge to river basin management policy: AquaTerra as a case study. Environ Pollut 148:867–874 CrossRef
Slob A, Duijn M (2014) Improving the Connection Between Science and Policy for River Basin Management. In: Brils J, Brack W, Müller-Grabherr D, Négrel P, Vermaat JE (eds) Risk-informed management of European River Basins. Springer, Heidelberg
Quevauviller P, Balabanis P, Fragakis C, Weydert M, Oliver M, Kaschl A, Arnold G, Kroll A, Galbiati L, Zaldivar J, Bidoglio G (2005) Science-policy integration needs in support of the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. Environ Sci Policy 8:203–211 CrossRef
Brauman KA, van der Meulen S, Brils J (2014) Ecosystem services and river basin management. In: Brils J, Brack W, Müller-Grabherr D, Négrel P, Vermaat JE (eds) Risk-informed management of European River Basins. Springer, Heidelberg
COM 216 (2006) Halting the loss of biodiversity by 2010—and beyond, Sustaining ecosystem services for human well-being. Commission of the European Communities. COM(2006) 216 final, Brussels, 22.5.2006
Gugić G (2009) Managing sustainability in conditions of change and unpredictability, the living landscape and floodplain ecosystem of the central Sava river basin. Lonjsko Polje Nature Park Public Service, Krapje, Croatia
Brils J, Quevauviller P, Slob A, Blind M, Davy T, Carere M, Amorsi N, Brack W, Borchers U, Thomspon C, Villessot D (2010) The European Water Framework Directive beyond 2010: let actions speak louder than words. J Environ Monit 12:2204–2206 CrossRef
IRGC (2008) An introduction to the IRGC Risk Governance Framework. IRGC, Geneva
Surridge B, Holt A, Harris B (2009) Developing the evidence base for integrated catchment management: challenges and opportunities. In: Quevauviller PH (ed) Water system science and policy interfacing. Wiley, UK, pp 63–100
Brauman K, Daily G, Duarte T, Mooney H (2007) The nature and value of ecosystem services: an overview highlighting hydrologic services. Annu Rev Environ Resour 32:67–98 CrossRef
- Synthesis and Recommendations Towards Risk-Informed River Basin Management
Jan E. Vermaat
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Fallstudie Überschwemmungskarten/© Thaut Images | Fotolia