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24.08.2018 | Original Paper | Ausgabe 10/2018 Open Access

Cellulose 10/2018

Synthesis and structure characterization of polymeric nanoporous microspheres with lignin

Zeitschrift:
Cellulose > Ausgabe 10/2018
Autoren:
M. Goliszek, B. Podkościelna, K. Fila, A. V. Riazanova, S. Aminzadeh, O. Sevastyanova, V. M. Gun’ko
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10570-018-2009-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

Nanoporous microspheres with divinylbenzene (DVB), styrene (St), and lignin were synthesized by an emulsion-suspension polymerization method. Several types of lignins were used: (1) kraft lignin before (L-unmod) and after modification with methacryloyl chloride (L-Met) and (2) low-molecular-weight kraft lignin unmodified (LWL-unmod) and modified with methacrylic anhydride (LWL-Met). LWL was prepared by ultrafiltration of industrial black liquor using a ceramic membrane with a molecular weight (Mw) cut-off of 5 kDa. The synthesis was optimized by addition of different amounts of lignins. The microsphere texture was characterized using low-temperature nitrogen adsorption and small angle X-ray scattering analyses. The microspheres were nano- and mesoporous with a specific surface area in the range of 0.1–409 m2/g. The morphology of the copolymers was studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The thermal properties were studied using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis methods. A significant difference in the microsphere roughness is affected by lignins due to the presence of lignin nanoparticles at the surface of the microspheres. Molecular modeling was used to predict the sorption properties of the copolymers affected by various fields around the particles. The particle size, polydispersity and zeta potential of the St + DVB, L-Met + St + DVB and L-unmod + St + DVB samples were measured by dynamic light scattering. Additionally, the point of zero charge of the samples was determined using potentiometric titration. The materials studied have a great potential for sorption processes due to their developed porosity and the presence of a number of active surface functionalities.

Graphical Abstract

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Zusatzmaterial
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 316 kb)
10570_2018_2009_MOESM1_ESM.docx
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