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03.05.2018 | Chemical routes to materials | Ausgabe 15/2018

Journal of Materials Science 15/2018

Synthesis of a novel cardanol-based compound and environmentally sustainable production of phenolic foam

Zeitschrift:
Journal of Materials Science > Ausgabe 15/2018
Autoren:
Caiying Bo, Lihong Hu, Yong Chen, Xiaohui Yang, Meng Zhang, Yonghong Zhou
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10853-018-2362-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

A novel phosphorus-containing cardanol (PCC) derived from cardanol—a renewable meta-substituted phenol and harmful by-product of the cashew industry—in combination with 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) was used to produce bio-based phenolic foams (PFs). The properties of the PFs were then characterized in detail. The PCC was fully characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), while the thermal degradation was studied and monitored by thermogravimetry coupled to FTIR (TGA/FTIR) and TGA coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA/MS). It was found that PCC exhibited high thermal stability. The total heat release, peak heat release rate and mean heat release rate of PF containing 4% PCC decreased by 13.55, 33.43 and 13.42%, respectively, in comparison with pristine PF. The enhanced flame-retardant behavior was attributed to the free radicals PO· produced during combustion, which captured free radicals in the gas phase; moreover, the phosphaphenanthrene group may create a char residue barrier against the further combustion of the polymer. Meanwhile, bio-based PFs showed excellent mechanical properties, as the compressive and flexural strength of PF with 4% PCC increased by 79.59 and 20.98%, respectively, in comparison with pristine PF. The pulverization ratio of bio-based PFs was reduced with the increase in PCC content. The findings in this study demonstrate that PCC could be used as a phenol substitute in the synthesis of PFs to overcome their intrinsic brittleness and high flammability.

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Zusatzmaterial
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 17 kb)
10853_2018_2362_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Supplementary material 2 (TIFF 36 kb)
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Supplementary material 3 (TIFF 7920 kb)
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Supplementary material 4 (TIFF 1115 kb)
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Supplementary material 5 (TIFF 7920 kb)
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Supplementary material 6 (TIFF 6727 kb)
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Supplementary material 7 (TIFF 7920 kb)
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Supplementary material 8 (TIFF 7761 kb)
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Supplementary material 9 (TIFF 7920 kb)
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Supplementary material 10 (TIFF 7920 kb)
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Literatur
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