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Über dieses Buch

In this book, a more detailed analysis is performed on the basis of quarter-hourly time series of the supply of wind energy and photovoltaics. The end use including electromobility is also presented with more detailed time series of the load profiles for summer and winter and thereby for weekdays and weekends in each case. The subsequent analysis clarifies whether the renewable potentials are sufficient, what the optimal generation scenarios and infrastructures of the future could look like, and what the situation is with regard to affordability and environmental compatibility.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Abstract of the Book: System Efficiency by Renewable Electricity

Abstract
This chapter is a summary of the book and provides the key results. The background and detailed analyzes can be found in the corresponding chapters.
Günther Brauner

Chapter 2. Energy Demand, Potential and Resources

Abstract
The energy demand for Austria, Germany and the European Union of 28 countries (EU-28) is compared. Seen from the renewable potential, which is economical and ecological available there is a need to reduce the energy demand by 50% through switching to sustainable electricity and by efficiency and sufficiency improvement.
Günther Brauner

Chapter 3. Energy Economy of the Efficiency

Abstract
The cost of electricity in residential, industrial or in commercial end-use during the transition to a predominantly renewable electricity supply is of great importance to household affordability or industrial and commercial competitiveness.
Günther Brauner

Chapter 4. Efficiency and Sufficiency

Abstract
The energy efficiency describes the ratio of the given benefit to the necessary energy input to achieve it. Efficiency is primarily related to generation plants or to plants or devices for the end use of energy. From the point of view of the overall system, it is appropriate to also include the infrastructures of the transmission and distribution networks and the energy storage in the consideration of efficiency.
Günther Brauner

Chapter 5. Efficiency of Storage Technologies

Abstract
Renewable energy supply from wind energy and photovoltaics has low full load hours per energy unit. Periods of several days with high overproduction can alternate with longer periods without sufficient supply (dark dolsdrums). The storage technologies must be designed for more flexible use with more frequent charge-discharge cycles and larger storage capacities, i.e., longer charge and discharge times.
Günther Brauner

Chapter 6. Efficiency of Grids

Abstract
The expansion of regenerative energy sources for predominantly sustainable energy supply has major impact on the future diesign of electricity networks. Wind farm far away from the load centers have to be integrated in the 380kV transmission grid. Photovoltaics arepart of the more autonomous operated distribution grid.
Günther Brauner

Chapter 7. Efficiency of the Decentralized Energy Supply

Abstract
The integration of renewable energy sources into the distribution grids transforms them from passive to active networks. Customers convert from passive consumers to producers and consumers, so-called prosumers. Since the renewable energy sources for the provision of the final energy demand have high power with low full load hours, the unplanned integration of the renewable energy can lead to a significant grid expansion with a short usage period and thus to inefficient grids.
Günther Brauner

Chapter 8. Efficiency of Buildings and Heating Demand

Abstract
The buildings are subdivided into residential buildings and non-residential buildings. The residential buildings need to become energy efficient in their heating demand. Heat pumps with low temperature floor heating systems and biomass heating systems with pellets will replace oil and gas heating systems in the long term.
Günther Brauner

Chapter 9. Efficiency of Mobility

Abstract
The transport sector in Germany had a share of 29.5% of the total final energy demand in 2015 [BMWi 2017]. Rail transport has a share of only 2.5%, air transport 13% and inland waterways transport less than 1%. At 84%, road traffic is predominantly responsible for the energy demand of the transport sector. The energy demand of the internal combustion engines or flight turbines have a share of 98% and the electric propulsion represents only 2%.
Günther Brauner

Chapter 10. Efficiency Through Sector Coupling

Abstract
Renewable energy supply is dominated by energy sources whose characteristics consist in the conversion of volatile environmental energy into electricity. The variable supply leads to periods of high overgeneration and periods of prolonged generation shortage. The use of renewable surplus energy through coupling to other sectors of energy application represents a possibility to use this energy direct with a high degree of efficiency.
Günther Brauner

Chapter 11. Options for Action

Abstract
Options for action are in the field of end-use and renewable generation. Building efficiency, electric mobility and industrial renewable and efficient production form the main targets. Expansion of wind energy and photovoltaics are the main goals in renewable generation.
Günther Brauner
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