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Über dieses Buch

In System-on-Chip Architectures and Implementations for Private-Key Data Encryption, new generic silicon architectures for the DES and Rijndael symmetric key encryption algorithms are presented. The generic architectures can be utilised to rapidly and effortlessly generate system-on-chip cores, which support numerous application requirements, most importantly, different modes of operation and encryption and decryption capabilities. In addition, efficient silicon SHA-1, SHA-2 and HMAC hash algorithm architectures are described. A single-chip Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) architecture is also presented that comprises a generic Rijndael design and a highly efficient HMAC-SHA-1 implementation.

In the opinion of the authors, highly efficient hardware implementations of cryptographic algorithms are provided in this book. However, these are not hard-fast solutions. The aim of the book is to provide an excellent guide to the design and development process involved in the translation from encryption algorithm to silicon chip implementation.



Chapter 1. Background Theory

The word ‘cryptography’ is derived from the greek words kryptos, which means hidden and graphia which means writing. Cryptography is the art of keeping secret the contents of a message transmitted over an unsecured communication channel. For example, the sender encrypts a message and thus, transforms its contents into an unintelligible form. The encrypted message or ciphertext is then transmitted over an unsecured channel. The receiver must decrypt the ciphertext to obtain the original message by performing an inverse transformation. The secrecy and security of the system relies on only the recipient having knowledge of the decryption transformation.
Máire McLoone, John V. McCanny

Chapter 2. Des Algorithm Architectures and Implementations

The DES algorithm [35] is the best known and most widely used encryption algorithm. IBM developed DES in the mid 1970s as a modification of an earlier system known as Lucifer. In 1976, DES was adopted by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), now the NIST, as a federal standard and authorised for use on all classified government communications. It has been the standard algorithm for banking and other applications since 1977. Although the private-key algorithm has recently been replaced by the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm, DES will still remain in the public domain for a number of years because of legacy requirements. It provides a basis of comparison for new algorithms and it is also used in IPSec protocols, ATM cell encryption, the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) protocol and in Triple-DES, adopted to improve DES in the X9.17 and ISO 8732 standards [36, 37].
Máire McLoone, John V. McCanny

Chapter 3. Rijndael Architectures and Implementations

On the 2nd October 2000 the US NIST selected the Rijndael algorithm, developed by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen [56], as the new Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. It proved a fast and efficient algorithm when implemented in both hardware and software across a range of platforms. In November 2001, the AES was approved as the Federal Information Processing Encryption Standard (FIPS 197) and it is to be employed by government agencies and the private sector to encrypt sensitive, unclassified information [57]. In the future Rijndael will be the encryption algorithm used in many applications such as:
  • Internet Routers
  • Remote Access Servers
  • High Speed ATM/Ethernet Switching
  • Satellite Communications
  • Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
  • Mobile phone applications
  • Electronic Financial Transactions
Máire McLoone, John V. McCanny

Chapter 4. Further Rijndael Algorithm Architectures and Implementations

Since the selection of the AES in 2000, many Rijndael algorithm hardware implementations have been carried out with emphasis on achieving either low area or high performance designs. This is evident in the previous chapter. In this chapter, the designs described in chapter 3 are further developed and two novel Rijndael architectures are presented.
Máire McLoone, John V. McCanny

Chapter 5. Hash Algorithms and Security Applications

The security services required to guarantee a fully protected networking system are [76, 29]:
  • Confidentiality - protecting the data from disclosure to unauthorised bodies
  • Authentication - assuring that received data was indeed transmitted by the body identified as the source
  • Integrity - maintaining data consistency and ensuring that data has not been altered by unauthorised persons
  • Non-repudiation - preventing the originator of a message from denying transmission
Máire McLoone, John V. McCanny

Chapter 6. Concluding Summary and Future Work

This book has examined in detail hardware architectures of the DES and Rijndael private key encryption algorithms. Numerous generic silicon architectures of both algorithms have been presented and comparisons provided with existing designs. Hash functions, which provide authentication, have been investigated and cryptographic applications that require both authentication and encryption were discussed. The main conclusions and contributions of each chapter are now summarised.
Máire McLoone, John V. McCanny


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