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Über dieses Buch

This book details current developments in all natural polymers, with a focus on animal and microbial polysaccharides. The book examines, compares, and contrasts the efficiency of plant and algae based natural polymers in inducing immune reactions. Additionally, the book details the safety and toxicity profiles with respective regulations.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Mammalian Polysaccharides and Its Nanomaterials

Abstract
Mammalian polysaccharides based nanomaterials emerged as potential drug delivery and diagnostic candidates for their wide applications in therapeutic world. Recently a variety of mammalian polysaccharides have been explored with their diverse derivatives and their role in drug delivery as nanomaterials. Recent research has explored various mammalian polysaccharides such as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate and heparin and their wide applications in biomedical research. This chapter emphasized on the nanoapplications of mammalian polysaccharides based nanomaterials with their applications in biomedical research.
Saurabh Bhatia

Chapter 2. Microbial Polysaccharides as Advance Nanomaterials

Abstract
The microorganisms offer great amounts of polysaccharides in the presence of additional carbon source. Certain polysaccharides serve as storage compounds. The polysaccharides excreted by the cells, called as exopolysaccharides, are of industrial importance. The exopolysaccharides may be reported in association with the cells or may remain in the medium. The microbial polysaccharides may be neutral (e.g. dextran, scleroglucan) or acidic (xanthan, gellan) in nature. Acidic polysaccharides possessing ionized groups such as carboxyl, which can function as polyelectrolytes, are commercially more important. These emerging microbial polysaccharides are recently explored as nano-materials for diverse biomedical applications. This chapter emphasize on nano-applications of microbial polysaccharides in diverse discipline of biomedical science.
Saurabh Bhatia

Chapter 3. Chitosan Based Nanomaterials and Its Applications

Abstract
Chitosan-based nanomaterials with good biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity display immense potential as carriers for controlled delivery of various therapeutic agents. Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed b-(1-4)-linked d-glucosamine and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine. It is one of the major cationic polymers and the second most abundant polysaccharides in nature. It is extensively used to the biomedical and the industrial fields. Particularly, chitosan has been investigated much in the field of gene therapy during the last decade for its biocompatibility and non-cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, it has a number of problems such as solubility, low transfection efficiency, and low specialty on targeted disease. To circumvent these issues, different approaches have been reported to enhance them.
Saurabh Bhatia

Chapter 4. Advance Polymers and Its Applications

Abstract
Recent advancements in polysaccharide chemistry led to the exploration of various potential derivatives which offers outstanding results as carrier in drug delivery system. Recent researches have explored various polysaccharides in different forms such as physically crosslinked hydrogels, smart polymers, auto-associative amphiphilic polysaccharides, supramolecular hydrogels, star polymers, ordered polysaccharides, interpenetrating polymer networks polysaccharide hydrogels, polysaccharide-based antibiofilm surfaces and polymers, and their complexes used as stabilizers for emulsions, having tremendous potential in biomedical research. This chapter covers these potential polysaccharides to augment their future applications in biomedical field.
Saurabh Bhatia

Chapter 5. Advanced Application of Natural Polysaccharides

Abstract
One of major contributing factor in the development of biomedical research are the number of researches carried out for the advancement of polymeric materials with their advance drug delivery systems to explore their potential applications in the similar area. This chapter has covered some of the recent hot topics of polymeric science directing its prospects towards biomedical sector.
Saurabh Bhatia

Chapter 6. Modern Polysaccharides and Its Current Advancements

Abstract
Polysaccharides based nanomaterials have diverse applications in biomedical research. This chapter covers one of the major achievements in modification of polysaccharides using microwave irradiation and cationization methods. Additionally chapter focused on mucoadhesive polysaccharides and its recent advancement in nano drug delivery system. Applications such as gene transfection, bone regeneration and vaccine delivery are also separately discussed.
Saurabh Bhatia

Chapter 7. Toxicity of Nanodrug Delivery Systems

Abstract
The study of the potential toxicity of NPs is essential for the safe development of these vehicles. The lack of strategies, regulatory requirements, and validated protocols, along with the particular physical, chemical and biological properties of these materials, makes the evaluation of the preclinical toxicity very complex. Taking into consideration the outcomes of the toxicological investigations reviewed here, it seems that the toxicity of these nanocarriers is quite low. Most of the in vivo toxicological investigations did not demonstrate effects at very high doses whereas in vitro studies showed some toxic effects. However, more in vitro and in vivo toxicity assessments are required to reach a apparent conclusion about the potential toxic effect of these nanocarriers; the progress of validated protocols and the performance of chronic studies are of immense importance.
Saurabh Bhatia
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