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Über dieses Buch

The book is a collection of peer-reviewed scientific papers submitted by active researchers in the 37th National System Conference (NSC 2013). NSC is an annual event of the Systems Society of India (SSI), primarily oriented to strengthen the systems movement and its applications for the welfare of humanity. A galaxy of academicians, professionals, scientists, statesman and researchers from different parts of the country and abroad are invited to attend the conference. The book presents research articles in the areas of system’s modelling, complex network modelling, cyber security, sustainable systems design, health care systems, socio-economic systems, and clean and green technologies. The book can be used as a tool for further research.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Green Supply Chain: An ISM-Based Roadmap to Boundaries of Environmental Sustainability

Managing the green (environmentally sustainable) supply chain is an important step toward broader adoption and development issue for industry. This paper presents an approach to effectively adapt sustainable practices in a supply chain by understanding the dynamics between various enablers. Using interpretive structural modeling, the research presents a hierarchy-based model and the mutual relationships among the enablers of sustainability in a supply chain. The research shows that there exists a group of environmental sustainability boundary enablers having a high driving power and low dependence requiring maximum attention and of strategic importance while another group consists of those enablers which have high dependence and are the resultant actions. This classification provides a useful tool to supply chain managers to differentiate between independent and dependent variables and their mutual relationships which would help them to delineate those key enablers that are imperative for effective implementation of sustainability concepts in the design of a supply chain.

Navin K. Dev, Ravi Shankar

Chapter 2. An Optimum Setting of PID Controller for Boost Converter Using Bacterial Foraging Optimization Technique

In this paper, a maiden attempt is made to examine and highlight the effective application of bacterial foraging (BF) algorithm to optimize the PID controller parameters for boost converter and to compare its performance to establish its superiority over other methods. The proposed BF-PID controller maintains the output voltage constant irrespective of line and load disturbances than particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based PID controller and conventional PID controllers.

P. Siva Subramanian, R. Kayalvizhi

Chapter 3. A Command Splitter for a Mini–Macro-Manipulator for Online Telemanipulation

A mini–macro-system consists of two manipulators cascaded to each other, one of them being much lighter than the other. The advantage is that the lighter manipulator which has better dynamic response can quickly respond to the command and the sluggish partner can start contributing when it is ready. The control systems of both the manipulators are good enough to execute any joint motion independently, but they need precise individual reference velocity signals for all the joints in real time so that it could move all of them appropriately even in cascaded condition. This paper presents an algorithm to compute the joint rates in real time so that both the manipulators cooperate with each other in moving the end-effector in best possible way.

Amar Banerji

Chapter 4. A Modified NSGA-II for Fuzzy Relational Multiobjective Optimization Problem

This study presents a multiple objective optimization problem with the solution space designed by a system of fuzzy relational equations based on max-product algebraic composition. The solution set of the fuzzy relation equation is generally characterized by a unique maximal solution and finite number of minimal solutions and is non-convex by nature. Owing to the nature of feasible space, the traditional metaheuristics cannot be applied in their original form. To overcome this situation, a modified version of NSGA-II has been presented. The original NSGA-II has set standards in the area of multiobjective optimization in terms of efficiency. But in our case, the algorithm fails to give feasible solutions at the end. For this, the algorithm is modified to adapt the algorithm in our problem domain. The whole procedure is illustrated by some test problems.

Garima Singh, Dhaneshwar Pandey, Antika Thapar

Chapter 5. Ground-Based Measurement for Solar Power Variability Forecasting Modeling Using Generalized Neural Network

The primary aim of this paper is to analyze solar power variability. Ground-based measurements of solar photovoltaic power are used for the forecasting of 43-kW A-Si SPV system. In this study, we describe the variability in the power production of solar photovoltaic plant at IIT, Jodhpur. Solar PV generation forecasting is playing a key role in accurate solar power dispatchability as well as scheduling of PV power for hybrid power generation systems. The actual power produced by a PV power system varies according to variation in meteorological parameters and efficiency of PV system components. For the purpose of forecasting as per the schedule in the Indian power sector, a time slot of 15 min is considered for each forecasting. The proposed generalized neural network technique will be appropriated for modeling of solar power variability forecasting. In this paper, we used generalized neural network for forecasting the PV power variability.

Vikas Pratap Singh, Vivek Vijay, B. Ravindra, S. Jothi Basu, D. K. Chaturvedi

Chapter 6. Soft Calibration Technique with SVM for Intelligent Flow Measurement

Design of an adaptive soft calibration circuit with support vector machine (SVM) for flow measurement using orifice flowmeter is reported in this paper. The objectives of the present work are the following: (i) to extend linearity range of measurement to 100 % of full-scale input range and (ii) to make measurement technique adaptive to variations in ratio of orifice hole to pipe diameter (

β

), liquid density, and liquid temperature. SVM model is trained to map output voltage of data conversion unit to produce linear characteristics with input flow rate, and independent of variations in ratio of orifice hole to pipe diameter, liquid density, and liquid temperature all within certain range. Further, the proposed technique is tested with simulated data. Results show that the proposed technique has fulfilled its set objectives.

K. V. Santhosh, B. K. Roy

Chapter 7. Load Frequency Control Considering Very Short-term Load Prediction and Economic Load Dispatch Using Neural Network and Its Application

The paper presents a new technique for the load frequency control (LFC) of interconnected power system. The LFC system monitors, at a minimum, power system frequency, generator output, net interchange schedule and tie-line power flows. It compares the actual frequency and tie-line values to the desired or scheduled values and generates an error value called the area control error (ACE). ACE is the instantaneous estimate of load demand in the area. However, due to relatively fast area load demand fluctuations and the relatively slow area generation response rate, only the instantaneous estimate of load demand cannot provide us with a good dynamic response. For this purpose, a look-ahead load forecasting feature is needed for effective LFC. To improve performance for LFC strategies neural network use for very short-term load prediction. From this forecasted load every 5-min ahead find out load change or error of the system can be recorded. This total load change divided all the units by concept of the unit’s participation factor. Because of load is always changing so a fixed integral controller is not suitable for LFC, a fuzzy logic controller is used for this purpose.

Kalyan Chatterjee, Ravi Shankar, T. K. Chatterjee

Chapter 8. A Systems View of Pathological Tremors

In this paper, we consider a specific case of movement disorders, i.e., resting tremors and attempt to formulate a simple mathematical description of these tremors. A novel aspect of the paper is that it is a first attempt at using standard tools from systems theory, such as state space and Lyapunov stability analysis, to model resting tremors. We formulate tremor control as a disturbance rejection problem, and derive conditions under which disturbance rejection is achievable.

Viswanath Talasila, Ramkrishna Pasumarthy, Sindhu S. Babu, Sudharshan Adiga

Chapter 9. Recognition of Medicinal Plants Based on Its Leaf Features

Ayurveda is one of the oldest forms of medicine, and the use of medicinal plants is a crucial aspect in Ayurvedic treatment. In this paper, we develop an automated system to identify the vast number of medicinal plants relevant for Ayurveda. We focus on the use of image processing and pattern recognition algorithms for plant identification. A unique feature identifier is computed, and this feature algorithm is tested on ten different medicinal plants for accurate identification. The main result in this paper is a demonstration that the features attributed to the leaf of each plant are Gaussian distributed.

E. Sandeep Kumar, Viswanath Talasila

Chapter 10. CLOSENET—Mesh Wi-Fi in Areas of Remote Connectivity

The availability of high-speed network connectivity in Indian villages can have significant socioeconomic impact. This can have a positive influence on many aspects of development such as telemedicine, smart agriculture, and education among others. In this paper, we describe our attempts to develop and deploy CLOSENET, a wireless mesh network (WMN) in rural areas facing insufficient network coverage. The network topology is chosen based on a case study on a specific village (C.K.Pura in Tumkur, Karnataka), taking several constraints into account such as terrain interference, population of users, and available power sources. We analyze factors such as normalized routing load, packet delivery ratio, data throughput, and data latency in order to demonstrate the efficiency, reliability, and durability of the network through a simulation model developed using the NS2 simulation tool. Advanced reactive routing protocols such as the ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) have been chosen in order to guarantee good performance in terms of scalability, reliability, throughput, load balancing, congestion control, and efficiency. Furthermore, the terrain is mapped onto an appropriate attenuation model implemented in NS2; this helps decide the throughput and latencies at each node, as well as the number of nodes required to obtain acceptable data transfer rates. The network is self-adaptive in nature. The work presented in the paper is a part of a planned long-term initiative to develop connectivity in remote areas, which will have significant benefits to society.

Sriragh Karat, Sayantani Goswami, Aparna Sridhar, Aakash Pathak, D. S. Sachin, K. S. Sahana, Viswanath Talasila, H. S. Jamadagni

Chapter 11. Hybrid Backstepping Control for DC–DC Buck Converters

This paper presents a backstepping control technique in combination with the sliding-mode mechanism for simultaneous control of the capacitor voltage and inductor current in a DC–DC buck converter. The proposed hybrid controller is capable of tackling both the matched and mismatched types of uncertainties like input voltage change and load current variation. The backstepping control can reject both matched and mismatched types of uncertainties, whereas the sliding-mode control is robust against matched uncertainties only. The systematic controller design procedure of backstepping and invariance property of SMC for matched uncertainty have been utilized for robust tracking of both the capacitor voltage and inductor current simultaneously. It is found that by switching between these two different control structures, one exclusively for the matched and the other for the mismatched uncertainties, excellent transient and steady-state performances can be ensured. In the case of backstepping control, performance of the buck converter is largely dependent on design parameters. Hence, these design parameters are judiciously selected to assure optimum performance. Simulation studies have been carried out to verify the effectiveness of proposed hybrid control structure. Transient performances like peak overshoot, peak undershoot, settling time, and also steady-state error have been measured under widely varying changes in input voltage and load current. Simulation results demonstrate that as compared to existing controllers, the proposed hybrid control strategy offers superior transient and steady-state performances.

Tousif Khan Nizami, Chitralekha Mahanta

Chapter 12. Power Optimization of Refrigerator by Efficient Variable Compressor Speed Controlled Driver

Nowadays, refrigerator is an important domestic electrical device, but at the time of load shading or when the electricity is not available at that time, because of some drawbacks, we cannot operate this device on any inverter. The main reason why refrigerator does not work on inverter is because of switching. Since the pressurized compressor of refrigerator get continuously switched between ON and OFF, in order to maintain the temperature, it draws more current because of blocked rotor induction motor, and as switching occurs frequently, compressor requires minimum 3 min to start again for proper working in refrigerator. All these things have severe effect on the system such as nonlinear behavior of the device, and also, power quality gets deteriorated which needs to be controlled at any cost and requires some practical measures on this field, and the project’s theme mainly works in this area and provides a solution to this problems. The project includes an idea and provides a design of a driver circuit which operates the compressor of refrigerator with minimum frequency and voltage at minimum temperature. Using this driver, the compressor of a refrigerator can be operated using solar panel photovoltaic cell (P-V Cell) operated inverter. The various advantages of this project are that the driver circuit eliminates the difficulty in operation of compressor while continuous ON–OFF switching of power supply across it. Instead of continuous ON–OFF switching, the driver circuit controls the temperature by gradually varying the speed of single phase induction motor.

S. D. Zilpe, Z. J. Khan

Chapter 13. Power Quality Assessment of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Plant

In the twenty-first century, the cost of production of electrical power from solar and wind energy has become highly competitive to the power from conventional sources of energy. Besides the stand-alone and comparatively smaller photovoltaic systems, large photovoltaic plants for the generation of electrical power have become quite common. These large sources integrate the electrical power with existing power grid. In this work, an assessment of the quality of electrical power was made by the measurement supplied by two 50-kW grid-connected photovoltaic plants at IIT Jodhpur. The requirements of power quality by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) have been taken into consideration. Parameters, for example, total harmonic distortion (THD) and crest factor (CF), and AC indices such as apparent power, real power, and power factor are analyzed with the help of power analyzer. The quality of DC power delivered by PV module and measured at DC/DC boost converter was also analyzed. It is a great concern for the operation of DC/DC microgrid. It was found that the quality of power supplied to the grid was highly affected by inverter design. The maximum THD in the voltage supplied to the grid was measured to be within the limits. The voltage swells and sags were found to be absent at both the plants. The ripple in DC power delivered by the PV modules was measured to be greater than the permissible limits.

Anurag, Ravindra Arora

Chapter 14. Online Frequency Domain Identification Method for Stable Systems

An online estimation method for single-input single-output (SISO)-type stable systems is discussed based on frequency transformation technique. Reported method based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) is an off-line identification method means the controller is required to remove from the closed loop at the time of autotuning test. So the modified method is suggested for online identification and has been tested on several systems to show the effectiveness of the method. A relay with hysteresis in parallel with proportional–integral (PI) controller induces stationary oscillation cycle whose frequency and amplitude are used for system identification. We consider the development of a non-iterative approach with less computational efforts and a reasonable amount of data. A simulation study is given to illustrate the potential advantage of the presented method.

Priti Kshatriy, Utkal Mehta

Chapter 15. High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating

Solar energy has maximum potential in comparison with other renewable energy sources. Solar thermal conversion is one of the direct methods for harnessing solar energy using solar selective absorbers. This review article summarizes the recent research progress on the high-temperature solar selective coatings, methodology, and process involved in coating, computer modeling, as well as designs of coatings, optical, compositional, and structural properties of selective coatings. The major bottleneck in developing a solar selective coating is its stability in air at temperature higher than 450 °C that possess thermal and structural stability in both individual and combined layers. New possibilities to overcome the above-mentioned problems on the performance of solar selective coatings are discussed.

Belal Usmani, S. Harinipriya

Chapter 16. Performance Analysis of IOCL Rawara Photovoltaic Plant and Interpretation

Solar Energy intensity varies geographically in India, but western Rajasthan receives the highest annual radiation energy. The present work will describe the performance parameters of IOCL Rawara Plant which have capacity of 5 MW. The technology used is polycrystalline silicon. The generated power is fed to the 32 kV grid. The data have been recorded from October 2012 to May 2013. The AC power generated by different blocks is plotted against hours of a day, and also, wind speed and module temperature are taken into account. The accumulated energy of all operating month has been recorded.

Anurag, Piyush Kapoor, Belal Usmani, S. Harinipriya

Chapter 17. Wearable Cardiac Detector

India has the highest incidence of heart-related diseases in the world. The early detection of various heart conditions can be a significant aid for immediate medical intervention. In rural communities, access to healthcare facilities is limited, and early detection of diseases is difficult. For the aged in urban areas, it is desirable to have portable devices to monitor and diagnose such diseases. Here, we propose the development of a wearable cardiac detector (WCD) which is designed to detect four kinds of arrhythmia—ventricular tachycardia, ventricular bradycardia, myocardial infarction, and hypertrophy. The detection includes a signal processing system based on Pan–Tompkins algorithm which detects the QRS complexes of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, as well as standard methods to filter noise present in the ECG signals. The proposed WCD is portable, cheap, and lightweight unlike the widely used Holter monitor which is bulky, expensive, and cannot be worn all the time. It is specially designed for patients who have had a surgery and are at potential risk of relapse. It allows heart risk patients not to be restricted to the hospital. The device sends alarm messages about the location of the patient and stores the ECG signal data for further analysis. The proposed WCD is part of a long-term initiative to enhance the medical facilities to people from all walks of life and hopeful to be beneficial to the society. The effort is a joint collaboration along with the Community Medicine and Cardiac Specialty departments of MS Ramaiah Medical College.

R. Harshitha, Manasa Manohar, P. Dhanya, P. Manoj, S. Swathi, M. Amogh, Viswanath Talasila, H.S. Jamadagni, B.S. Nanda Kumar

Chapter 18. LQR-Based TS-Fuzzy Logic Controller Design for Inverted Pendulum-Coupled Cart System

In this paper, an effective design technique for heuristic Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy logic controller (TS-FLC) for nonlinear inverted pendulum (IP) and cart system has been proposed. IP is linearized around distinct combinations of localized points and their respective linear quadratic regulator (LQR) gains are obtained. Set of these localized points are used to decide the range of input fuzzy membership function, and the LQR controller gains are used to obtain basic TS rule base for nonlinear model. Angle and angular velocity are used to design the controller for upright stabilization of pendulum. Cart position and cart velocity are the inputs for cart control. The main aim is to control pendulum in upright unstable equilibrium point and cart position at desired value simultaneously. Physical constraints of the system such as cart track length and controller output are considered in the designing of FLC. The results obtained by FLC are compared with LQR. The results show that FLC is better than LQR because it can be further tuned to satisfy the constraints. Simulation results show the effectiveness and robustness of proposed TS-FLC over LQR controller.

Bharat Sharma, Barjeev Tyagi

Chapter 19. An Effective Analysis of Healthcare Systems Using a Systems Theoretic Approach

The use of accreditation and quality measurement and reporting to improve healthcare quality and patient safety has been widespread across many countries. A review of the literature reveals no association between the accreditation system and the quality measurement and reporting systems, even when hospital compliance with these systems is satisfactory. Improvement of healthcare outcomes needs to be based on an appreciation of the whole system that contributes to those outcomes. The research literature currently lacks an appropriate analysis and is fragmented among activities. This paper aims to propose an integrated research model of these two systems and to demonstrate the usefulness of the resulting model for strategic research planning. In this paper, we discuss how to improve the overall performance of quality in healthcare systems and, additionally, what methods a researcher needs to adopt for system effectiveness.

Alok Trivedi, Shalini Rajawat

Chapter 20. Paper Batteries

This paper gives a thorough insight on this relatively revolutionizing and satisfying solution of energy storage through paper batteries and provides an in-depth analysis of the same. A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and production device formed by combining carbon nanotubes with a conventional sheet of cellulose-based paper [

1

]. A paper battery can function both as a high-energy battery and supercapacitor, combining two discrete components that are separate in traditional electronics. This combination allows the battery to provide both long-term steady power production and bursts of energy. Being biodegradable, lightweight, and non-toxic, flexible paper batteries have potential adaptability to power the next generation of electronics, medical devices, and hybrid vehicles, allowing for radical new designs and medical technologies. The paper is aimed at understanding and analyzing the properties and characteristics of paper batteries, to study its advantages, potential applications, limitations, and disadvantages. This paper also aims at highlighting the construction and various methods of production of paper battery and looks for alternative means of mass production.

Critika Agrawal, Bhaskar Sharma, Deepak Bhojwani, Shalini Rajawat

Chapter 21. Adaptive Control of Nonlinear Systems Using Multiple Models with Second-Level Adaptation

Adaptive control of a class of single-input single-output (SISO) nonlinear systems with large parametric uncertainties has been investigated in this paper. Control of nonlinear systems using adaptive schemes suffers from the drawback of poor transient responses in parametrically uncertain environment. The use of multiple models presents a solution to this problem. In this paper, state transformation and feedback linearization have been used to algebraically transform nonlinear system dynamics to linear ones. The unknown parameter vector for the plant is assumed to be bounded within a set of compact parameter space. Indirect adaptive control using multiple identification models has been used to improve transient response and convergence time. The observer-based identifier model is used for all these models. Lyapunov stability analysis is used to obtain tuning laws for estimator parameters. Further, second-level adaptation using combination of all the adaptive estimator models is used. Simulations have demonstrated that multiple models with second-level adaptation yield better transient performance with faster convergence.

Vinay Kumar Pandey, Indrani Kar, Chitralekha Mahanta

Chapter 22. Chattering-Free Adaptive Second-Order Terminal Sliding-Mode Controller for Uncertain System

In this paper, an adaptive second-order terminal sliding-mode (SOTSM) controller is proposed for controlling uncertain systems. The design procedure is carried out in two parts. A linear sliding surface is designed first, and then, using the linear sliding surface, the terminal sliding manifold is obtained. Instead of the normal control input, its time derivative is used by the proposed control law. The actual control is obtained by integrating the derivative control input. The discontinuous sign function is contained in the derivative of the control input, and hence, chattering is eliminated in the actual control. An adaptive tuning method is designed to deal with the unknown system uncertainties, and their upper bounds are not required to be known apriori. System stability is proved by using the Lyapunov criterion. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller for both the single-input single-output (SISO) and multi-input multi-output (MIMO) uncertain systems.

Sanjoy Mondal, Chitralekha Mahanta

Chapter 23. Modelling and Simulation of Mechanical Torque Developed by Wind Turbine Generator Excited with Different Wind Speed Profiles

Proper representation of the wind speed and the mechanical torque is necessary in designing the wind turbine generator system (WTGS) and its components. This paper presents the effects of different wind speed profiles on mechanical torque output of the WTGS. Mechanical torque model consists of mathematical models of wind speed, mechanical power, mechanical torque and power coefficient of WTGS. For the case study purpose, wind speed data of Chalkewadi, Satara location, are used. Four different wind speed profiles are modelled according to the wind speed data of Chalkewadi, Satara location. WTGS is excited with the modelled wind speed profiles, and response to these wind speed profiles on mechanical torque produced by WTGS is observed. There is a reduction of 56 % in mechanical torque for three cases when compared to wind speed with all four designed components. The presented model, dynamic simulation and simulation results are tested in MATLAB/Simulink and presented.

Parikshit G. Jamdade, Shrinivas G. Jamdade

Chapter 24. A Methodology to Design a Validated Mode Transition Logic

Autopilot mode confusion has resulted in many aircraft accidents. This brings out the importance of design validation for the complicated mode transition logic (MTL) for aircraft autopilot systems. A method of implementing mode transition tables in terms of transition and condition tables was developed for the Indian SARAS autopilot. This method is used for designing the mode transition for a generic aircraft. A practical method of reviews, assertions, safe states, and safe transitions is experimented for this design as a process. This practical process has yielded good results and helped the team to come up with the validated MTL. This approach is presented here as an industry experience paper.

Manjunatha Rao, Atit Mishra, Yogananda Jeppu, Nagaraj Murthy

Chapter 25. A Model for Systematic Approach Towards Solving Environmental Problems Based on Knowledge from Critical Case Studies

Our world is today in a position where the survival of the human race requires a managerial approach towards the protection of the environment and also needs optimisation in the use of available resources as they are now getting limited unlike olden times. But it is time to think different. It is time to make a change by learning from our mistakes, by learning from the cases that we encountered at various places. This paper focuses on creating a model that could provide a plan of action or in some cases a solution to the various critical, unapproachable problems existing in the world, wherein the problem is either due to the topography of the places or maybe due to the resources, and so on. This model provides a new hope, to make the conditions better by providing the optimum solution which may also bring up the utilisation of the unused resources. The applications of this systematically arranged levelled model could lead to the formation of a self-dependant bio-system which utilises itself to feed itself and its components (i.e. us). The model includes the generation of a criticality constant, which could show the relative criticality of the current state (of a particular place) with the standard critical state present in the model. If individual case studies can help to solve critical environmental issues, then imagine what can a systematically structured model, consisting of the knowledge harnessed from these critical cases, and with a prioritised and heuristic approach towards solution do!

R. Prashant Singh

Chapter 26. Numerical Study of Variable Lung Ventilation Strategies

Mechanical ventilation is used for patients with a variety of lung diseases. Traditionally, ventilators have been designed to monotonously deliver equal-sized breaths. While it may seem intuitive that lungs may benefit from unvarying and stable ventilation pressure strategy, recently it has been reported that variable lung ventilation is advantageous. In this study, we analyze the mean tidal volume in response to different ‘variable ventilation pressure’ strategies. We found that uniformly distributed variability in pressure gives the best tidal volume as compared to that of normal, scale-free, log-normal, and linear distributions.

Reena Yadav, Mayur Ghatge, Kirankumar Hiremath, Ganesh Bagler

Chapter 27. Development of a Technique for Measurement of High Heat Flux

High heat flux measurement is necessary for various experiments and industrial applications. For example, to estimate a very high irradiance onto a surface as in solar thermal and in testing of plasma facing component in ITER. In order to estimate high heat flux of the order of MW/m

2

, an experiment with plasma jet of non-transferred 9MBM type is employed. This paper describes the design of a non-intercepted calorimeter. This is for estimation of average incident heat flux of the plasma jet along the axial direction. Temperature at different axial locations on the surface of calorimeter and at the outlet is measured. The heat flux associated with the incident plasma is estimated from these measured values of temperature. Rate of heat transfer from plasma jet to the employed target surface at different axial position is measured with the help of intercepted calorimetric method. Based on the estimated heat flux and heat transfer rate, the electrothermal efficiency of 9MBM plasma torch is estimated. Torch heat efficiency (THE), plasma heat efficiency (PHE) and heat transfer effectiveness (HTE) of the plasma jet are also estimated for copper materials. PHE and HTE are required for mathematical modelling of plasma surface interaction.

Ram Niwas Verma, P.K. Jaya Kumar, Laltu Chandra, Rajiv Shekhar

Chapter 28. A Defaultable Financial Market with Complete Information

We consider a Markov-modulated defaultable Brownian market and price the defaultable contingent claims with the intensity-based methodology using the fair price concept under the benchmark approach. We also derive the locally risk-minimizing hedging strategy for defaultable contingent claims under the benchmark approach. We assume that the default intensity and the stock price parameters are modulated by a Markov process. The recovery processes are assumed to have random payments at default time as well as at the maturity of the claims.

I. Venkat Appal Raju

Chapter 29. Application of Voltage Source Converter for Power Quality Improvement

This article presents an application of a four-leg voltage source converter (VSC) in a distribution network for the mitigation of power quality problems such as burden reactive power, unbalanced load, waveform distortion, and flow of high neutral currents. Fast and accurate compensation depends upon the used control algorithm for estimation of fundamental load currents. Classical theory-based enhanced phase-locked loop (EPLL) control algorithm is applied for estimation of fundamental components of distorted load current. In this algorithm, extracted fundamental load current components are applied for extraction of reference supply currents. The VSC is controlled using a digital signal processor (DSP) for implementation of control algorithm for the compensation of reactive linear and nonlinear loads. Test results on a developed VSC-based system are presented to prove the functions for improving the power quality.

Bhim Singh, Sabha Raj Arya, Chinmay Jain, Sagar Goel, Ambrish Chandra, Kamal Al-Haddad

Chapter 30. Sensor Reduction in a PFC-Based Isolated BL-SEPIC Fed BLDC Motor Drive

This work presents an improved power quality-based isolated bridgeless single-ended primary inductance converter (BL-SEPIC) fed brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive using a single voltage sensor. The voltage of DC bus of voltage source inverter (VSI) feeding BLDC motor is varied for controlling the speed of BLDC motor and operating the VSI in low frequency switching for electronically commutating the BLDC motor for minimal switching losses. A front-end isolated bridgeless configuration of SEPIC is used which offers reduced conduction losses. The BL-SEPIC is designed to operate in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM), thus utilizing a simple control of voltage follower. The sensorless control of BLDC motor is also used for elimination of rotor position sensors. The performance of proposed drive is evaluated over a wide range of speed control with unity power factor (PF) at AC mains. The obtained power quality indices are under the recommended limits of IEC 61000-3-2.

Bhim Singh, Vashist Bist, Ambrish Chandra, Kamal Al-Haddad

Chapter 31. A Frequency Shifter-Based Simple Control for Solar PV Grid-Interfaced System

This paper deals with a grid-interfaced solar photovoltaic (SPV) energy conversion system for three-phase four-wire (3P4W) distribution system. The solar energy conversion system (SECS) is a multifunctional as it not only feeds SPV energy into the grid but also serves the purpose of grid current balancing, reactive power compensation, harmonic mitigation, and neutral current elimination. In a two-stage SPV system, the first stage is a boost converter, controlled with incremental conductance (InC) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, and a second stage is a four-leg voltage source converter (VSC). A simple frequency shifter-based control is proposed for the control of VSC. A proportional integral (PI) controller along with feedforward term for SPV power is used for fast dynamic response. Simulations are carried out in MATLAB along with Simulink and Sim Power System toolboxes, and detailed simulation results are presented to demonstrate its required multifunctions.

Chinmay Jain, Bhim Singh

Chapter 32. Development of Green Manufacturing System in Indian Apparel Industry

Green manufacturing defines the reduction of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture and application of products or processes that can affect the environment and causes the concern towards global warming. It refers to a wide area including but not limited to, air, water and land pollution, energy usage and efficiency, waste generation and recycling. It is known that carbon footprint, which is a measure of production of greenhouse gases (CO

2

, CH

4

and N

2

O), prominently affect the global warming. Hence, it is important to reduce the carbon footprint of an industry to preserve the environment. Being a significant contributor in Indian industrial production and export, textile and apparel industry is an important engine for the nation. Due to the alarming situation of global warming, in recent years, both researchers and practitioners have devoted attention towards the impact of garment and textile industry on environment. Despite the significant relevance of the subject, a structured analysis of the problem is missing even though there is significant research work going on for reducing carbon footprint in different manufacturing industries, but not much work has been reported for garment and apparel industry. India is a significant and large emitter of greenhouse gases and most of it because of the industrial production; hence, there is a certain need to reduce these emissions, Therefore, present research work is focused to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases in garment and apparel industry. Through this research, the researcher is investigating the level of awareness towards green manufacturing particularly of carbon footprint in garment manufacturers/decision-makers. A detailed system/instrument which will calculate CFP per garment and covers all possible aspects and concept of green manufacturing has been developed and used to attain this objective.

Ankur Saxena, A. K. Khare

Chapter 33. Significant Patterns Extraction to Find Most Effective Treatment for Oral Cancer Using Data Mining

Development of cancer in oral mucosa as classified by the World Health Organization is a two-stage process that initially shows up as a premalignant, precancerous sore and that subsequently develops into the malignant cancerous stage. Early evaluation of oral precancerous lesions has a dramatic impact on oral cancer mortality rates as the medicine is very effective in early stage diagnosis. This paper aims at extracting the patterns that help finding the most effective course of oral cancer treatment and its post-treatment management. The Apriori algorithm is used to mine a set of significant rules for prevention of oral cancer by adopting the most efficient treatment. We attempt to find the association among various treatments, histopathology, follow-up symptoms, and follow-up examination. The experimental results show that all the generated rules hold the highest confidence level, thereby making them very useful for deciding effective treatment to cure oral cancer and its follow-up.

Neha Sharma, Hari Om

Chapter 34. Admission Control in Communication Networks Using Discrete Time Sliding Mode Control

Discrete sliding mode control (DSMC) has been investigated since last three decades. It has reached to point wherein a well-established theory as well as implementation reports is available in the literature. Advances in computer communication network with wired and wireless configurations have imposed a challenging problem for control community. The paper explores the utilization of DSMC approach for the admission control (AC) in communication network. To provide better QoS, communication networks require proper admission, congestion traffic, and collision and power control mechanisms. For the past several years, many feedback control methods have been used for the control of various parameters of communication networks. The work presented here proposes a new application of sliding mode control for AC in communication network. Proper AC mechanism may avoid uncertain congestion and traffic access in the network which may reduce power wastage. As computer communication networks deal with digital data and are inherently discrete in nature, the DSMC has been applied to discrete time system. AC mechanism restricts the number of users in the network to maintain better QoS by considering available bandwidth, congestion indicator, and buffer size as feedback.

Rutvij C. Joshi, Vishvjit K. Thakar

Chapter 35. A Comparison of NMRS with Other Market Power Indices in Deregulated Electricity Market

Assessment of market power becomes an important issue when more than one firm/supplier and buyer enters the market. As the electricity market has moved from the conventional bundled system to the deregulated environment, the market power assessment has become vital. Most of the researchers have used Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) and must-run share (MRS) as an index in their literatures for determining the market power of a generation company. In this paper, a comparative study is made on the market power indices such as HHI, MRS with nodal must-run share (NMRS) under various system constraints such as generation and transmission line outages, and loading conditions. To illustrate and for better understanding, IEEE 24-bus reliability test system (RTS) is taken for which the indices are calculated and compared. It is found that NMRS reflects the complete information about the generation company’s market power on any load at any bus. All simulations are carried out using MATLAB (R2009a) version.

S. Prabhakar Karthikeyan, I. Jacob Raglend, D. P. Kothari, Sarat Kumar Sahoo, K. Sathish Kumar

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