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Über dieses Buch

Der MHI e.V. ist ein Netzwerk leitender Universitätsprofessoren aus dem deutschsprachigen Raum, die sowohl grundlagenorientiert als auch anwendungsnah in der Montage, Handhabung und Industrierobotik erfolgreich forschend tätig sind. Die Gründung der Gesellschaft erfolgte im Frühjahr 2012. Der MHI e.V. hat derzeit 20 Mitglieder, die über ihre Institute und Lehrstühle zurzeit ca. 1.000 Wissenschaftler repräsentieren.
Die übergeordnete Zielsetzung des MHI e.V. ist die Förderung der Zusammenarbeit von deutschsprachigen Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftlern untereinander, sowie mit der Industrie im Bereich Montage, Handhabung und Industrierobotik zur Beschleunigung der Forschung, Optimierung der Lehre und zur Verbesserung der internationalen Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der deutschen Industrie in diesem Bereich.
Das Kolloquium fokussiert auf einen akademischen Austausch auf hohem Niveau, um die gewonnenen Forschungsergebnisse zu verteilen, synergetische Effekte und Trends zu bestimmen, die Akteure persönlich zu verbinden und das Forschungsfeld sowie die MHI-Gemeinschaft zu stärken.



Kapitel 1. Task-based Potential Analysis for Human-Robot Collaboration within Assembly Systems

The human-robot collaboration (HRC) is an integral part of numerous research activities. The combination of the positive capabilities of human workers and robots ensures a high resource efficiency and productivity. However, especially the planning and implementation of HRC applications requires the consideration of several issues like the economic feasibility, acceptance of employees and in particular technical practicability. Based on the study of existing approaches which consider different technical or economic issues, we present a new method to identify suitable areas of HRC applications within assembly systems and to estimate the optimal allocation of human-related and automated subtasks. Finally, our approach is verified in an assembly line for terminal strips which in turn arises from an industrial use case.
Matthias Linsinger, Martin Sudhoff, Kai Lemmerz, Paul Glogowski, Bernd Kuhlenkötter

Kapitel 2. Assembly workshops for acquiring and integrating expert knowledge into assembly process planning using rapid prototyping model

For the integration of experts’ and non-experts’ knowledge from the assembly planning into the product development process, assembly workshops are used to acquire the knowledge and to transfer it back to the product development. A workshop was conducted using a 3D printed model of a large-volume assembly group from the aviation industry. For a repeatable implementation of the assembly workshops with a changeable assembly sequence, individual components and connecting segments are structurally simplified, so that a non-destructive assembly and disassembly can be ensured. By using questioning and observation methods the expertise of assemblers and laymen are documented. The findings of the workshops from the laymen and expert groups are evaluated to show the ability of the probands for transferring the assembly structure. For the laymen, the simplification of the components mainly influences this ability. The workshop provides a basic understanding of what experiences or learnings, generated during the assembly, can be considered in order to plan assembly processes. The prerequisite is that the participants can recognise the restrictions and the assembly effort of the real assembly, while using the simplified 3D printed model.
Katharina Gebert, Ann-Kathrin Onken, Kirsten Tracht

Kapitel 3. Development of a manufacturing cell for fixtureless joining in car body assembly

The integration of electric drivetrain components into the chassis of automobiles dramatically increases the variety of car body designs and calls for changes to the production processes. One approach is to replace the typical assembly line manufacturing process with a workshop production system, as has already happened in machining, where transfer lines have been replaced by flexible manufacturing systems. One requirement for this shift is the development of a flexible joining cell which can perform different stages of joining operations on different variations of a vehicle. One step in the development of such a cell is the replacement of mechanical positioning elements, used to define the parts’ relative positions before joining. In this work, the positioning of the components is done using a camera-based measuring system and a control loop to reorient the robots holding the parts. This paper describes how the system is developed and implemented in a demonstration cell.
Daniel Kupzik, Simon Haas, Dominik Stemler, Jens Pfeifle, Jürgen Fleischer

Kapitel 4. An Architecture for Intuitive Programming and Robust Execution of Industrial Robot Programs

Industrial robots are established tools in a variety of automation processes. An important goal in actual research is to transfer the advantages of these tools into environments in small and medium sized enterprises (SME). As tasks in SME environments change from time to time, it is necessary to enable nonexpert workers to program an industrial robot in an intuitive way. Furthermore, robot programs must concern unexpected situations as many SME environments are unstructured, because humans and robots share workspace and workpieces. The main contribution of our work is a robot programming architecture, that concerns both aspects: Intuitive robot programming and robust task execution. Our architecture enables users to create robot programs by guiding a robot kinesthetically through tasks. Relevant task information are extracted by an entity-actor based world model. From these information we encode the demonstrated task as a finite state machine (FSM). The FSM allows the reproduction and adaption of a task by the robot in similar situations. Furthermore, the FSM is utilized in a monitoring component, which identifies unexpected events during task execution.
Eric Mathias Orendt, Dominik Henrich

Kapitel 5. Augmented Reality for teaching collaborative robots based on a physical simulation

Augmented reality as a technology for programming a collaborative robot is in comparison to existing practice a more intuitive, safe and quick approach. This paper shows a novel concept for connecting a physical robot with its virtual twin, using augmented reality as a visual output and a device for interacting with the simulation model. The core of the system is a station control that contains all interfaces, sequencing logics and databases. For programming the robot, the coordinates are created by the operator by interaction and voice input in the augmented reality environment. All information is stored in a shared database which contains assembly plans and instructions for both workers and robots. A demonstration platform is presented, that allows to implement the concept of the system design for an experimental assembly station for human-robot collaboration. The work station includes a Universal Robot 5® that assists the worker in handling of objects and is operated by coordinates from the station control. A Microsoft Hololens® is used for programming the robot in an augmented reality environment which is based on the output of the physical robot and the work system simulation.
Patrick Rückert, Finn Meiners, Kirsten Tracht

Kapitel 6. Visualizing trajectories for industrial robots from sampling-based path planning on mobile devices

Production lines are nowadays transforming into flexible modular and interconnected cells to react to rapidly changing product demands. The arrangement of the workspace inside the modular cells will vary according to the actual product being developed. Tasks like motion planning will not be possible to precompute. Instead, it has to be solved on demand. Planning the trajectories for the industrial robots with respect to changing obstacles and other varying environment parameters is hard to solve with classical path planning approaches. A possible solution is to employ sampling-based planning techniques. In this paper we present a distributed sampling-based path planner and an augmented reality visualization approach for verification of trajectories. Combining the technologies ensures a confirmed continuation of the production process under new conditions. Using parallel and distributed path planning speeds up the planning phase significantly and comparing different mobile devices for augmented reality representation of planned trajectories reveals a clear advantage for hands-free HoloLens. The results are demonstrated in several experiments in laboratory scale.
Jan Guhl, Axel Vick, Vojtech Vonasek, Jörg Krüger

Kapitel 7. Force-controlled Solution for Non-destructive Handling of Sensitive Objects

There is a high demand for the automated handling of sensitive objects, e.g. pressure-sensitive pastries, fruit or sensitive cell material. However, easy-touse and flexible solutions for an automated handling of such objects are not available yet. Furthermore, the forces and torques are only considered during the grab or release process. Current methods do not support a complete monitoring of the forces and torques nor the dynamic behavior of the object during the entire handling process. The paper describes an approach for a continuously controlled handling of sensitive objects. It introduces a concept for an overall control of the handling device as well as a concept for the design of a gripping module.
Stefanie Spies, Miguel Angel Villanueva Portela, Matthias Bartelt, Alfred Hypki, Benedikt Ebert, Ricardo E. Ramirez, Bernd Kuhlenkötter

Kapitel 8. Bag Bin-Picking Based on an Adjustable, Sensor-Integrated Suction Gripper

Robot-based separation and handling of flexible packaging bags filled with small individual parts is a special challenge in the field of bin-picking. Reasons for this are challenges in the field of orientation and position recognition of bags within the extraction station, the damagefree and reliable handling of these bags as well as a precise bag deposition inside a target region (e.g. final packaging). This paper presents an adjustable, sensor-integrated suction gripper optimized for bag binpicking. The multi-modal sensing hardware used for the gripper is based on weight force measurement and vacuum sensors for the separation. Additional ultrasonic sensors are used to reduce the risk to damage the bag’s content and the gripper. The performed tests proof the feasibility of the approach in terms of robustness and achievable cycle times.
Andreas Blank, Julian Sessner, In Seong Yoo, Maximilian Metzner, Felix Deichsel, Tobias Diercks, David Eberlein, Dominik Felden, Alexander Leser, Jörg Franke

Kapitel 9. A Gripper System Design method for the Handling of Textile Parts

This paper presents the first results in the development of a method for designing gripper systems for handling non-rigid flat parts such as textiles. The work focuses on the use of multiple small individual grippers instead of large-scale grippers to reduce the weight on the end-effector. As a result, not every area of the non-rigid part has a direct contact to a gripper and, therefore, the material between the gripper elements deforms. The goal is to find a gripper system design which takes into account these deformations. Therefore, a first approach to the arrangement of the individual grippers on the non-rigid part will be presented. Furthermore, a reconfigurable gripper system is introduced which makes it possible to set up a wide range of gripper configurations.
Fabian Ballier, Tobias Dmytruk, Jürgen Fleischer

Kapitel 10. Automated Additive Manufacturing of Concrete Structures without Formwork - Concept for Path Planning

At the Digital Building Fabrication Laboratory in Braunschweig, automated additive manufacturing of concrete structures without formwork is researched. The system consists of a six-axis robot and a three-axis milling machine, which are each connected to a three-axis portal. At the robot a shotcrete sprayer is installed to generate concrete structures. In this paper a first path planning concept for the robot is described. The given algorithm calculates from the CAD data of an object a path for the robot. A difficulty of path planning is that the shotcrete application depends on various parameters. Therefore, a simplified model for the shotcrete application is developed. For the purpose of error minimization while spraying, an online monitoring approach by using a laser scanner is presented.
Serhat Ibrahim, Alexander Olbrich, Hendrik Lindemann, Roman Gerbers, Harald Kloft, Klaus Dröder, Annika Raatz

Kapitel 11. Sensor-Based Robot Programming for Automated Manufacturing of High Orthogonal Volume Structures

This paper introduces an innovative method for the programming of welding robots in the area of steel volume structure production. The objectives of this programming method are reducing the effort of creating robot programs as well as increasing productivity in production. Starting point of the programming method is a three-dimensional digitalization of the current workpiece. Based on the 3D sensor data of the workpiece the individual components of the construction are identified automatically as well as the weld seams required for connecting them. In this process, 3D sensor data of the components are transformed into simplified regular geometric shapes that will be used later on for collision testing. Collision testing is part of a postprocessor with specially developed path planning algorithms to determine the robot movements required for welding the identified seams. Finally, the robot movements are converted into a system-specific robot program. The developed programming method has been integrated into an existing production facility at Warnow shipyard in Rostock-Warnemünde and was tested under real production conditions.
André Harmel, Alexander Zych

Kapitel 12. Finite Element Analysis as a Key Functionality for eRobotics to Predict the Interdependencies between Robot Control and Structural Deformation

The design and usage of a robot requests knowledge from many different disciplines, like mechatronics, materials science, data management etc. Nowadays, computational simulations are an acknowledged method to assure an effective development process of a robotic system. Nevertheless, those simulations are limited to the analysis of single components. This leads to a negligence of the overall picture, which can be fatal, as the failure of a system is often caused by a defective interplay of different components. The concept of eRobotics proposes a framework for an Overall System Simulation, where all occurring interdependencies are explicitly considered. Still missing is an interaction with Finite Element Analysis, which calculates the structural deformation of a component with respect to the actual load case. This work closes the gap and gives a newkey functionality to eRobotics, which allows analyzing the impact of structural deformation on robot control and vice versa.
Dorit Kaufmann, Jürgen Roßmann

Kapitel 13. Semantically enriched spatial modelling of industrial indoor environments enabling location-based services

This paper presents a concept for a software system called RAIL representing industrial indoor environments in a dynamic spatial model, aimed at easing development and provision of location-based services. RAIL integrates data from different sensor modalities and additional contextual information through a unified interface. Approaches to environmental modelling from other domains are reviewed and analyzed for their suitability regarding the requirements for our target domains; intralogistics and production. Subsequently a novel way of modelling data representing indoor space, and an architecture for the software system are proposed.
Arne Wendt, Michael Brand, Thorsten Schüppstuhl

Kapitel 14. Comparison of practically applicable mathematical descriptions of orientation and rotation in the three-dimensional Euclidean space

In the handling technique, the orientation in the three-dimensional Euclidean space is considered or predefined for several assembly tasks. There are different mathematical methods to describe them. Euler presents 24 different conventions that describe any rotation in the space by a rotation about three orthogonal axis. These conventions are singularitydependent and their deployment is restricted to certain applications and domains. Quaternions overcome the disadvantages of the above mentioned conventions. They are numerically stable and efficient and describe the orientation by a rotation about one axis. This article deals with the comparison of practice-relevant mathematical descriptions.
Rainer Müller, Matthias Vette, Ali Kanso

Kapitel 15. “Human-In-The-Loop”- Virtual Commissioning of Human-Robot Collaboration Systems

Human-robot collaboration (HRC) has the potential to increase the degree of automation, and thus productivity, throughout many industries. However, complex safety considerations and a lack of appropriate planning tools still prohibit a more widespread application. In this paper, the use of virtual commissioning (VC), an established tool for the validation of common automated systems, for the validation of HRC-systems is proposed. For this, the structure of a traditional VC environment is combined with a digital human model (DHM). To ensure adequate behavioral fidelity, a real-time overlay of human action and the virtual automated system, using motion capture technology, is imperative. This also requires the live visualization of the simulation environment via virtual reality (VR). The structure of such a simulation system is presented and evaluated. Furthermore, the cost and benefit for this new method is contrasted.
Maximilian Metzner, Jochen Bönig, Andreas Blank, Eike Schäffer, Jörg Franke

Kapitel 16. Simulation-based Verification with Experimentable Digital Twins in Virtual Testbeds

As modern systems become more and more complex, their design and realization, as well as the effective management of engineering projects evolve to increasingly challenging tasks. This explains the continuous need for appropriate cross-domain methodologies in order to handle complexity and thereby create reliable systems. One important aspect is the substantiation that a specific system design is suitable for its intended use, which is usually achieved by testing. Unfortunately, those tests are carried out after the system has been produced so that the elimination of possible errors and defects causes high efforts and costs. This paper introduces a systematic approach for a simulation-based verification and validation support by using experimentable digital twins during the entire product life cycle. It allows to test the system under development in various virtual scenarios before it is implemented and tested in reality and thus reduces the risk of lately detected system design errors which increases the reliability of the development process.
Ulrich Dahmen, Jürgen Roßmann

Kapitel 17. A Flexible Framework to Model and Evaluate Factory Control Systems in Virtual Testbeds

Modern decentralized factory control systems promise to beat traditional hierarchical systems with regard to flexibility and fault tolerance. Despite the benefits, many companies hesitate to make the switch because they have little experience with decentralized systems and cannot fathom the specific implications for their production scenario. To support companies in evaluating specific solutions, we recommend to use Virtual Testbeds, which provide close-to-reality multi-domain simulations and interactive 3D visualizations of production systems. In order to represent different control strategies in Virtual Testbeds, we propose a new framework in which control strategies consist of modular control units. By mixing these control units in different ways, centralized, decentralized and hybrid approaches can easily be implemented. We evaluate the framework by building and controlling a digital twin of a real production system. Together with the unique features of Virtual Testbeds, the proposed framework is an essential step towards a case-bycase decision support for factory control decentralization projects.
Tim Delbrügger, Jürgen Roßmann

Kapitel 18. System architecture and conception of a standardized robot configurator based on microservices

The design and integration of robotic-based automation solutions is a common problem for robotic component providers and especially for their consumers. In this work, a standardized robot configurator is introduced, based on a modular system architecture and best-practice solutions. Starting with a minimum viable prototype providing an intuitive web-based configurator, customized robot applications can easily be planned, visualized, simulated and finally realized. The presented robotic configurator is based on microservice architecture, which is a modern, scalable and complexity-reducing solution for the overall system. This paper demonstrates how an exemplary configuration process could be handled to get an impression about the prospective use of pre-configured robotic solutions.
Eike Schäffer, Tobias Pownuk, Joonas Walberer, Andreas Fischer, Jan-Peter Schulz, Marco Kleinschnitz, Matthias Bartelt, Bernd Kuhlenkötter, Jörg Franke

Kapitel 19. Ontologies as a solution for current challenges of automation of the pilot phase in the automotive industry

The Launch Management is currently playing a more and more important role in the automotive industry. This is mainly due to increasing numbers of variants with decreasing quantities and shortening of the product-life-cycle. A launch can be divided into 2 phases: before start of production (pilot phase) and after start of production (ramp-up). Due to increasing automation in assembly shop and prototype construction, the pilot phase faces new challenges. During the pilot phase the developed facilities and processes must be adopted to fulfill the demands of the series production.
In this paper, the application of ontologies is investigated as a possible solution for the upcoming challenges. For this investigation, at first the characteristics of the pilot phase in the automotive industry are defined. Following the definition, an ontology tailored to the pilot phase’s demands is developed. Finally, an outlook will be given towards implementing ontology into future concepts. Additionally an overview of demand for further research will be provided.
Daniel Eilenberger, Daniel Berger

Kapitel 20. Reconfiguration Assistance for Cyber-Physical Production Systems

In order to overcome today´s challenges of increasing customer requirements, new methods for efficient and customized manufacturing processes have to be developed. This paper presents an approach for the reconfiguration of cyber-physical production systems (CPPS). The concept is based on state-of-theart virtual plant representations and mapping approaches. First, a suitable virtual plant representation has to be created and overall CPPS capabilities have to be determined. Then the CPPS capabilities need to be mapped with production requirements in order to identify CPPS adaptation needs. In case of necessary reconfigurations, the concept also provides a selection guide in terms of suitable best practices. The concept is applied to a human-robot interactive assembly process. The validation results prove the functionality and high practical relevance of the CPPS reconfiguration assistance.
André Hengstebeck, André Barthelmey, Jochen Deuse

Kapitel 21. Supporting manual assembly through merging live position data and 3D-CAD data using a worker information system

Most of the existing worker information systems do not base the information on a worker’s real movement. By processing live sensor data through a novel Node.js server solution this link was established. This article describes an innovative worker information system with interactive access to real movements and target positions. Especially for assembling safety-relevant components and products, which are bearing a high risk of injury, live-controlled and recorded assembling holds advantages for quality and safety. Moreover, through shortened trainings the efficiency of the whole production system can be increased. The presented worker information system facilitates the employee at the example of a screwing process.
David Meinel, Florian Ehler, Melanie Lipka, Jörg Franke

Kapitel 22. Intuitive Assembly Support System Using Augmented Reality

The rising demands of the markets with regard to product individualization and innovative technology deployment force companies to shorten product life cycle times and to use more variants in their production process. To get this flexibility, the employees in the assembly area need to be qualified and supported in an appropriate way. This work presents a concept to support workers during the assembly of products using augmented reality. Head mounted devices are used to demonstrate the correct assembly sequence of the product. The presented data is based on the 3D-CAD models of the product. The different types of parts as well as the positions are detected with the use of optical markers. In that way, changing conditions in the production can be considered. An intuitive interface is implemented to give the worker the opportunity to change program settings tailored to his requirements.
Sebastian Blankemeyer, Rolf Wiemann, Annika Raatz

Kapitel 23. GroundSim: Animating Human Agents for Validated Workspace Monitoring

In the promising field of human-robot cooperation, robot manipulators must account for humans in the shared workspace. To this end, current prototypes integrate various algorithms (e.g. path planning or computer vision) into complex solutions for workspace monitoring. The step from research to industrial use for these solutions demands rigid validation of the underlying software with real-world and synthetic data. Related fields (e.g. human factors and ergonomics) implement toolsets to create synthetic data of human-machine interactions. However, existing toolsets employ hand-crafted motion paths or motion segments for their human agents. This limits the variety of resulting motions and implies laborious composition of animation sequences. In contrast to this, we contribute a novel approach to human animation for synthetic validation: We animate our human agents through a realistic physics simulation and we expose motion paths in a flexible and intuitive high-level editing interface. We also generate photo-realistic images of resulting animations through state-of-the-art rendering techniques. Finally, we employ these synthetic images and their ground-truth backing to validate a prototype for a workspace monitoring system and a subsequent online path planner.
Kim Wölfel, Tobias Werner, Dominik Henrich

Kapitel 24. Concept of Distributed Interpolation for Skill-Based Manufacturing with Real-Time Communication

Distributed manufacturing unit control can be implemented by equipping all manufacturing components with individual controls offering standardized skills. The control of multi-component groups often requires real-time communication and a communication architecture that is adapted to the distributed control concept.We present applicable communication concepts for distributed interpolation, where the distributed interpolation use case in particular demonstrates challenges caused by the synchronous execution of skills.
Caren Dripke, Ben Schneider, Mihai Dragan, Alois Zoitl, Alexander Verl

Kapitel 25. Service-oriented Communication and Control System Architecture for Dynamically Interconnected Assembly Systems

Varying sales expectations, shorter product life cycles, and a rising product variability caused by individualization: Manufacturing companies are facing the challenge of continually adapting their assembly systems to these and other dynamic conditions. The dynamic interconnection of stations enables to design flexible and individual assembly sequences for each product. Benefit is the possibility to assemble customer-specific products and to react to dynamic conditions of the system. This paradigm shift entails a raise in the level of complexity and flexibility in terms of coordinating the different product flows, exceeding the possibility of existing control systems. Within this paper, we therefore present the concept of a service-oriented communication and control system architecture as a solution to cope with the introduced challenges and requirements of Dynamically Interconnected Assembly Systems.
Sven Jung, Dennis Grunert, Robert Schmitt

Kapitel 26. Predictive Control for Robot-Assisted Assembly in Motion within Free Float Flawless Assembly

This work focuses on the application of model predictive control (MPC) to the trajectory tracking problem for the integrated assembly of truck windshields in motion. Due to the continuous movement of the products, the handling device holding the windshield must be synchronized to the moving truck cabin to meet tolerance requirements. Using a MPC approach a model is derived to simulate the future system behavior to obtain a control law. The application of the control model is numerically simulated for effectiveness over short time periods for transient targets. The simulated results are experimentally verified on a full-scale demonstrator mimicking an actual assembly line environment. The experimental results show that the MPC approach is suitable for a windshield assembly in motion compensating system dead times and fulfilling synchronization between handling system and product. The presented approach allows for the efficient integration of automated assembly processes using state of the art handling systems into continuously moving assembly lines.
Christoph Nicksch, Christoph Storm, Felix Bertelsmeier, Robert Schmitt

Kapitel 27. Towards soft, adjustable, self-unfoldable and modular robots – an approach, concept and exemplary application

Appropriate assistive systems are used due to the demographic change, increased temporal and spatial interaction or integration of human and robots as well as necessary flexibility in respect to tasks and location. Especially safety and flexibility for effective human-robot-interaction and a broad spectrum of tasks are important. Existing technologies use different kinds of mechanisms or principles for realizing safe interaction, especially e.g. soft control, optical approaches and sensor skin in combination with conventional industrial robots. In addition, the field of soft materials robotics is becoming increasingly important, with the focus to increase E-modulus of structure elements. This paper presents an approach for soft and self-unfolding modular robots on the basis of paper lamella technology which can be used as a system for human-machine interaction as well as for robots with the ability of self-unfolding and -folding. For demonstration, a realization of a self-unfolding lamella element as well as the results of first measurements are summarized.
Robert Weidner, Tobias Meyer, Jens P. Wulfsberg

Kapitel 28. Improving Path Accuracy in Varying Pick and Place Processes by means of Trajectory Optimization using Iterative Learning Control

This paper presents a universal method for improving the path accuracy in varying, highly dynamic pick and place processes. The proposed method is based on an iterative learning control (ILC) and is valid for serial as well as parallel robots. It extends the traditional ILC approach for purely repetitive tasks by evaluating similarities between the occurring movements. Based on this, the correction term for following trajectories can be calculated and a significant improvement in the accuracy can be obtained even for previously unknown (unlearned) motions. The performance of the method is studied and verified using an exemplary four degrees of freedom delta robot. It is shown that the presented approach improves the path accuracy up to 86% even if the occurring pick and place trajectories vary with respect to start and end position. It also outperforms conventional computed torque control methods by up to 50%.
Daniel Kaczor, Tobias Recker, Svenja Tappe, Tobias Ortmaier

Kapitel 29. Path Guiding Support for a Semi-automatic System for Scarfing of CFRP Structures

In this paper, different approaches for the path guidance of a support system for scarfing of CFRP structures are presented. First, the machine concept, mechanical setup, and the control system are introduced. The system addressed is a kind of support system where the human operator is responsible for planar movement while an axis perpendicular to this plane is controlled automatically depending on the planar position. In the following chapter, concepts and findings for path guiding, i.e. the manual guidance of the tool on a specified path, are presented. Three basic questions have to be addressed: an appropriate execution strategy has to be found that determines on what kind of path the operator should guide the system, the user guidance along a predefined path deals with the question of how to guide the user along this path, and in the last subsection the visualization and possible use of augmented reality are discussed.
Rebecca Rodeck, Thorsten Schüppstuhl
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