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Über dieses Buch

The brief is the first to focus exclusively on environmentally friendly delivery of pesticides (controlled-release nanoparticulate formulation of pesticides using biodegradable polymers as carriers). The brief also introduces pesticides like Chlorpyrifos and biodegradable polymers like guar-gum. The brief will be extremely useful to the researchers in the field of agrochemicals and will be equally useful for advanced professionals in the field of biology, chemistry, environmental biology, entomology and horticulture.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
The world population is increasing massively, and it is said that there has been an increase from 2.5 billion in 1950 to 6.1 billion in the year 2000. This means that the population of Earth has grown more than double in the past 50 years. It is expected that by the year 2050, the world population will be about 9.1 billion
Arnab De, Rituparna Bose, Ajeet Kumar, Subho Mozumdar

Chapter 2. Worldwide Pesticide Use

Abstract
The worldwide consumption of pesticides is about two million tonnes per year: Out of which 45 % is used by Europe alone, 25 % is consumed in the USA, and 25 % in the rest of the world. India’s share is just 3.75 %. The usage of pesticides in Korea and Japan is 6.6 and 12.0 kg/ha, respectively, whereas in India, it is only 0.5 kg/ha.
Arnab De, Rituparna Bose, Ajeet Kumar, Subho Mozumdar

Chapter 3. Pesticide Application in India

Abstract
The main use of pesticides in India deals with agriculture and public health sector so as to control the numerous pests and diseases that can affect man and crop as well (Gupta 2004).
Arnab De, Rituparna Bose, Ajeet Kumar, Subho Mozumdar

Chapter 4. Food Contamination and Wastage by Insects

Abstract
Insects are found in all types of environment and occupy a little more than two-thirds of the known species of animals in the world. Insects can infest all kinds of plants (including crop plants, forest trees, medicinal plants, and weeds). Moreover, they can feed on the food and other stored products in warehouses, bins, storage structures and packages, causing huge amount of loss to the stored food and also deterioration of the food quality.
Arnab De, Rituparna Bose, Ajeet Kumar, Subho Mozumdar

Chapter 5. Pesticide Formulations

Abstract
Pesticide formulation is the process of transforming a pesticidal chemical into a product, which can be applied by practical methods to permit its effective, safe, and economical use.
Arnab De, Rituparna Bose, Ajeet Kumar, Subho Mozumdar

Chapter 6. Trends and Limitations in Chemical-Based Pest Management

Abstract
Until the beginning of the twentieth century, farmers relied exclusively on cultural practices such as crop rotation, healthy crop variety, manipulations in sowing dates, etc. to manage the insect pests.
Arnab De, Rituparna Bose, Ajeet Kumar, Subho Mozumdar

Chapter 7. Biological Control of Insect Pests

Abstract
Natural enemies of insect pests play a key role in reducing the levels of pest populations below those causing economic injury. Both natural and applied biological control tactics can be important in successful management of pest populations. Biological control has the advantage of being self-perpetuating (once established), and it usually does not harm non-target organisms found in the environment. In addition, it is non-polluting or (as disruptive to the environment) as chemical pesticides, nor does it leave residues on food (a concern of many people today). However, the use of biological control does require detailed knowledge of the pest’s biology and the natural enemies associated with the pest and their impact.
Arnab De, Rituparna Bose, Ajeet Kumar, Subho Mozumdar

Chapter 8. Management of Insect Pests Using Nanotechnology: As Modern Approaches

Abstract
The above mentioned limitations and less efficiency of traditional methods have led to the development of new and modern approaches for management of insect pest, and this has become the need of the hour. Keeping in the mind the applications of nanotechnology in agriculture, it can be suggested that the use of nanomaterials will result in the development of efficient and potential approaches toward the management of insect pest. However, the literature available on this topic brings to a close conclusion that only a few researchers all over the world are working in this area, and hence, there is a pressing need to apply nanotechnology and this warrants detailed study in this field. Keeping this idea in mind, the research studies carried out (related to management of insect pest) have been reviewed here.
Arnab De, Rituparna Bose, Ajeet Kumar, Subho Mozumdar

Chapter 9. A Brief Overview of Nanotechnology

Abstract
Nanotechnology has emerged in the last decades of the twentieth century with the development of new enabling technologies for imaging, manipulating, and simulating matter at the atomic scale. The frontier of nanotechnology research and development encompasses a broad range of science and engineering activities directed toward understanding and creating improved materials, devices, and systems that can exploit the properties of matter emerging at the nanoscale. The results promise benefits that can shift paradigms in biomedicine (e.g., imaging, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention); energy (e.g., conversion and storage); electronics (e.g., computing and displays); manufacturing; environmental remediation; and many other categories of products and applications.
Arnab De, Rituparna Bose, Ajeet Kumar, Subho Mozumdar

Chapter 10. Nanoparticulate Delivery Systems

Abstract
A nanoparticulate system, typically, comprises particles or droplets in the submicron range, i.e., below 1 μm, in an aqueous suspension or emulsion, respectively. This small size of the inner phase gives such a system unique properties in terms of appearance and application. The particles are too small for sedimentation, and they are held in suspension by the Brownian motion of the water molecules. They have a large overall surface area, and their dispersions provide a high solid content at low viscosity.
Arnab De, Rituparna Bose, Ajeet Kumar, Subho Mozumdar

Chapter 11. Nanoparticulate Formulations for Pesticide Applications

Abstract
The following sections give details of the nanoparticulate formulation developed by various researchers. The innovative technology to formulate the nanoparticle is briefly discussed along the entrapment strategies. Few biological models for testing the efficacy of these developed formulations on insect model have also been included.
Arnab De, Rituparna Bose, Ajeet Kumar, Subho Mozumdar

Chapter 12. Characterization and In Vitro Release Techniques for Nanoparticulate Systems

Abstract
Following a successful synthesis of nanoparticle, it becomes necessary to define the size and quality of the nanoproducts formed. Modern analytical techniques can handle this responsibility with greatest accuracy, and a few of them are being discussed briefly.
Arnab De, Rituparna Bose, Ajeet Kumar, Subho Mozumdar

Backmatter

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