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Chapter 5 traces the evolution of policies related to trans-European gas infrastructure from 1980 to 2016. This major building block of the European gas security architecture has received little attention from academia so far. This is partially because some major legislation on European infrastructure was passed only recently. The number of occasions when the Commission could use its formal powers was therefore limited. Instead, the Commission had to rely more on networked governance and personal leadership of its Commissioners. In particular, given that the Commission still lacks a clear competence in external energy policy, the development of new gas links proved to be difficult.
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