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Chapter 4 traces the European Commission’s activities and initiatives during the EU’s efforts to liberalise its natural gas market. The observations made in this chapter suggest that when faced with opposition from a number of powerful states and during times of low incentives for new energy policies, the Commission utilises its informal powers such as usage of networked governance in order to advance policymaking. During times when member states have high incentives for new energy policies, the Commission employs its full legislative power. After the third energy package, the Commission could extend its executive reach with the help of the Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) by delegating policymaking to sectoral groups.
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