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2021 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

7. Technocracy, Corporatism, and the Development of ‘Economic Parliaments’ in Interwar Europe

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Abstract

In Interwar Europe corporatism was mainly used to refer to the comprehensive organization of political society seeking to replace liberal democracy with an anti-individualist system of representation. In fact, in many cases corporatist, or ‘economic parliaments’, either co-existed with and assisted parliaments or replaced them with a new type of legislature with consultative functions, which provided the government with technical assistance. The most influential theorist of Quadragesimo Anno, the Jesuit Heirich Pesch, did mention the ‘economic parliament’ as a ‘central clearing house’ of his organic view. In 1937 Karl Loewenstein saw ‘this romantic concept of organic representation’, in new legislatures trying to be a ‘true mirror of the social forces of the nation and a genuine replica of its economic structure’. However, the role of corporatist bodies in dictatorships was certainly much less romantic. The chapter explores the processes of corporatist institutional reform, both under democracy and dictatorship, in interwar Europe and its ideological legitimation.

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Fußnoten
1
Like Alfred Stepan (1978) and Juan Linz (2000, 215–17), we use this expression to refer to the `vision of political community in which the component parts of society harmoniously combine… and also because of the assumption that such harmony requires power and the unity of civil society by `the architectonic action of public authorities-hence ‘organic-statism’”.
 
2
For a development of the themes of this chapter, see Pinto (2017a), Pasetti (2016), Pinto and Finchelstein (2019) and Pinto (2020).
 
3
For a typology of outcomes of diffusion in this period, see Weyland (2010).
 
4
My definition in Pinto (2017b, 89).
 
5
Cited in Gómez Navarro (1991, 234).
 
6
See Mirkine-Guetzevitch (1928) and the revised and expanded edition of 1938, and Velez (2018).
 
7
And ‘those chambers are only components in their regimes…no legislature in an authoritarian regime has either the formal or de facto power to question the ultimate authority of a ruler or ruling group’. See Linz (1979, 91, 95).
 
8
The predominance of Roman Catholicism in Poland did not give rise to strong Catholic parties, and although the ‘detailed model of a corporatist system that made provision for setting a new vertical power system at whose head would be a corporatist national chamber’ was part of the small Christian Democratic Party’s program, this did not influence Pilsudski’s institutional reform. See Kuk (2004, 157).
 
9
The general electorate could send a delegate to these electoral commissions only with 500 notarised signatures, which was a worthless procedure. See Polonsky (1972, 397) and Wynot (1974, 26).
 
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Metadaten
Titel
Technocracy, Corporatism, and the Development of ‘Economic Parliaments’ in Interwar Europe
verfasst von
António Costa Pinto
Copyright-Jahr
2021
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-47102-6_7