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“Convergence” is defined as the intertwinement of species or technologies. “Tech- logical convergence,” on the other hand, refers to a trend where a single product such as a cell phone, used in the past solely for communication, evolves into a product that functions not only as a communication device but incorporates the distinct function- ities of a number of other technologies, thereby enabling users to take pictures, listen to music, access the Web, send and receive e-mail messages, find their way, and so on, equally successfully. Social networks such as Facebook, YouTube, MySpace and LinkedIn, where users congregate, discuss certain issues, entertain themselves, and share information in t- tual, audio and video formats, are among the most frequented web sites. Social networks having Web 2. 0 features offer personalized services, allowing users to - corporate their own content easily and describe, organize and share it with others, thereby enriching users’ experience. More often than not, a capable cell phone is all you need to get access to such social networks and carry out all those tasks. Such tools tend to change our private, social and professional lives and blur the boundaries among them. In other words, our private, social and professional lives are converging, too: someone using a cell phone could be communicating with his/her friend(s), accessing information services, taking an exam using a learning management system, or conducting business.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Technological Convergence and Social Networks

“My Information:” Digital Libraries, Social Networking, and the User Experience

(Keynote Paper)
Abstract
The constituents of our universities, whether they are students or members of the academic faculty, are using information systems in a wide variety of ways. Information is woven into their lives through the myriad systems that they access and the social networks in which they participate. At present, most individuals who work in the academic environment own a variety of devices and use them for varying purposes; most of their devices are used for more than one activity. For example, a mobile phone may be used to telephone others, to send and receive text messages, to take photos, and to wake up the owner in the morning with the alarm clock capabilities. It is uncertain at this stage of development whether individuals will continue to own and use a variety of devices or whether they will prefer to adopt one or two devices which allow them the functionality they need in a convenient physical package.
Joan K. Lippincott

The Implications of Information Democracy and Digital Socialism for Public Libraries

Abstract
In these times, public libraries in many countries have increasingly come under pressure from developments within the information landscape. Thus, not least because of the massive digitization of information resources, the proliferation and popularity of search engines, in particular Google, and the booming technologies of Web 2.0, public libraries find themselves in a very complex situation. In fact, the easy-to-use technologies of Web 2.0 challenge the basic principles of information services provision undertaken by libraries. The new digital information environment and social software tools such as blogs, wikis and social networking sites have fuelled a discussion of the future of public libraries as information providers. After all there seems to be a need for public libraries to reorient their aims and objectives and to redefine their service identity. At the same time search engines, and especially Google, are increasingly coming under scrutiny. Thus, analysis results referred to show that the conception of information and the underlying purpose of Google differ from those of public libraries. Further, an increasing amount of criticism is being directed at collaborative spaces (typically Wikipedia) and social networks (e.g. MySpace) and it is pointed out that these social media are not that innocent and unproblematic. In discussing the survival of public libraries and devising an updated role for libraries in the age of Google and social media, attention should be given to fleshing out a new vision for the public library as a provider of alternative information and as an institution supporting information democracy.
Esin Sultan Oğuz, Leif Kajberg

Collaboration through Communities of Practice in the Digital Age

Abstract
This paper aims to describe and explain the role of Communities of Practice (CoPs) as an informal communication mechanism in initiating, improving, and fostering collaboration in the digital age. CoPs play a critical role in the management of shared knowledge and create value for both their members and organizations. The advent of the Internet and specifically the World Wide Web (WWW) has forever changed the means of accessing and sharing data and information. With the inception of Web 2.0 technologies and social-networking sites in recent years, connections and relationships are now not only nurtured and sustained in an online environment, but also established through creating virtual communities. The authors also assert that the inception of Web 2.0 technologies and social-networking sites is a great advancement in providing a rich learning, communication, and collaborative environment, especially through the transfer of tacit knowledge that we take for granted in our face-to-face interactions. These reflections are based on personal communications with members of virtual CoPs and literature on the impact of CoPs on decision-making and knowledge management.
Fatih Oguz, Corrie V. Marsh, Cliff Landis

Let Me Tell You Something about (Y)our Culture?

Abstract
Each person is born into a culture that is mediated by the mother tongue. Further development of the person is often associated with schooling and education. At an early age some persons will come into contact with other cultures especially if living in a cosmopolitan city or through frequent travel. Such intercultural contact consists of exposure to another tongue, initially aural, and images of the other, perhaps in the form of dress, or architecture, and so on. In the digital world of 2010 those who surf the electronic wave constantly dip in and out of many cultures. Those who normally use Wikipedia in English might over time also refer to a version of an article in another tongue. Those who are frequent users of YouTube might be curious enough to watch a video clip in Turkish or in Greek as well as the usual English, in the context of a history lesson in school. Culture in the digital world needs to be supported and sustained. Are you looking for something? Try Google or Bing or...You have found something you want to share? Post a video clip, or a photograph, or a piece of music. But how shall we keep track of this digital culture? Why would we want to? In this paper we will address the fundamental problem of how to manage cultural information in an integrated fashion in the world of Art. To be specific we will use Bulgarian Art to inform one aspect of Turkish culture.
Mícheál Mac an Airchinnigh

Digital Natives and Specialised Digital Libraries: A Study of Europeana Users

Abstract
The alignment of user needs with the technical capabilities of modern digital libraries is an area attracting the interest of researchers and practitioners. Europeana, conceived with the intention of offering a single access point to European cultural heritage, has been developed in recent years with a continuous effort to identify and respond to the needs of a range of users. This paper presents a study of two user communities – young people and the general public. The study, conducted between October 2009 and January 2010, comprised a series of focus groups and media labs in Bulgaria, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK. A distinctive aspect of this study is that it combines questionnaire-based and verbal feedback gathered from users with evidence of user actions whilst undertaking a well-defined task. The paper presents the context and the methodology of the study, and some of the data gathered within the study which helps to understand better the attitude of digital natives towards specialised digital libraries. The data analysis supports several conclusions: specialised digital libraries require strong advocacy to target the “digital natives” generation which tends to prefer general purpose search engines to specialised resources; young users are confident that they know how to use advanced search yet there is little evidence of their applying these skills in contrast to general public users; the perception of digital libraries differs in groups from different countries. The study contributes to the better understanding of some behavioural characteristics of users of digital libraries.
Milena Dobreva, Emma McCulloch, Duncan Birrell, Yurdagül Ünal, Pierluigi Feliciati

Academic Libraries and Information Literacy in the Digital Age

Impact of Recent Trends in Information and Communication Technology on the Validity of the Construct Information Literacy in Higher Education

Abstract
The objective of this paper is a reflective discussion on the validity of the construct Information Literacy in the perspective of changing information and communication technologies. The research question that will be answered is: what is the impact of technological developments on the relevance of the Information Literacy concept? Technological developments that will be discussed are:
- content integration (federated search engines)
- amateur publishing (user generated content)
- use of social networks to find information
- personalisation and push technology
- loss of context / fragmentation of information.
Research methods: desk research and critical analysis of the results that were found. The analysis of the influence of the discussed technologies on the Information Literacy concept is represented by arrow diagrams.
Findings: The Information Literacy concept refers to a set of sub skills varying from retrieval skills to critical use of scholarly information. Changing technologies reduce the significance of the more instrumental sub skills of the Information Literacy concept. On the other hand, higher order cognitive skills (for instance critical evaluation of resources and analysis of content) become more and more important for students and professionals who try to solve their information problems.
The paper concludes with a description of the facets of the Information Literacy concept that need extra attention in the education of the knowledge workers of the future.
A. A. J. (Jos) van Helvoort

Exploring the Competency of Academic Library Staff Engaging in Emerging Services

Abstract
The basic capacity of library and information professionals is reexamined from two viewpoints. First, capacity is reshaped through emerging knowledge and skills under new information environments. Second, it is examined with more attention to the capability of high attainment of outcomes, i.e. ‘competency’, the core personality factors which predict job performance. This study focuses on ‘competency’ rather than knowledge and skill. In order to explore what competencies library and information professionals possess and utilize, the Behavioral Event Interview (BEI) has been administered to library staff (assistant librarians through section chiefs of libraries). Its transcript analysis confirms that interpersonal and motivational competencies are easily observable and rather dominant among three categories of competency. However the other category, (cognitive/intellectual competencies) was also identified through complimentary application of the Higher Education Role Analysis (HERA) instrument. And finally the study looks at how staff assess the required ‘knowledge and experience’ in their jobs and addresses the question of how knowledge (knowledge and skill) and core-personality (motive, traits and self-concept) competencies interact.
Haruki Nagata

Programming New Learning Spaces: The Changing Nature of Academic Library Buildings

Abstract
Greater attention to student and faculty expectations and the impact of technology on library and information operations are combining to significantly alter library physical facilities and programming. Academic institutions undertaking new library construction or renovating older buildings are rethinking how library space is used and configured. Alliances and partnerships among a variety of academic and support units are resulting in facilities more responsive to users’ work habits and their preferences for comfortable, inviting, and productive environments. This paper reports on a study of new library and learning spaces conducted for a major American university planning a campus in the Middle East.
H. Lea Wells, Jordan M. Scepanski

The Role of Information Literacy in Environmental Scanning as a Strategic Information System - A Study of Singapore SMEs

Abstract
The development of information technology and telecommunication has created both opportunities and challenges for business organizations. On the one hand, it provides various channels and applications for accessing, processing and distributing information; on the other hand, it imposes higher requirements of information literacy (IL) skills of employees for dealing with information. Despite the number of studies undertaken to investigate the role of IL in the workplace, few of them have integrated IL skills with a specific business management activity, and even fewer of them have tried to evaluate the impact of IL on real business applications. This study aims to investigate the role of IL skills in environmental scanning (ES), a strategic information system used by organizations to cope with environmental changes. It will use both quantitative and qualitative methods: the quantitative approach through questionnaire survey will focus on finding statistically significant effects; the qualitative method through face-to-face interview is expected to discover more explorative information. The scope of the research is limited to SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises), as they form a significant chunk of the economy in many countries, and they are more sensitive towards environmental uncertainties due to their limited financial resources. This study is expected to fill the knowledge gaps and build up a new model of environmental scanning as a systematic information system with consideration of the effect of IL skills and information technology applications.
Xue Zhang, Shaheen Majid, Schubert Foo

Information Management and Digital Rights Challenges

Using Internet Services for Personal Information Management

Abstract
The popularity and improvement in features provided by various Internet services are leading us to a situation where personal information items can be stored and managed online. Personal Information Management (PIM) refers to a set of activities a person performs in order to acquire or create, store, organize, maintain, retrieve, use and distribute personal information for different purposes, including preserving personal and family information assets. The main purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions of university students of Internet services for managing their personal information; the type of information stored by them; how they organize, manage, access and control information distribution; and their concerns regarding privacy and security of their personal information. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection and 212 students from two public universities took part in this study. It was found that 75% of the respondents were using Internet services for storing and managing some of their personal information items. The Internet services were mainly used by the students for storing email addresses and messages, personal text documents and photos. Only a small number of the students were using online storage for maintaining information about their appointments, telephone numbers, draft documents, audio and video recordings, and list of thing to be done. Over two-thirds of the respondents revealed that they only store non-sensitive personal information due to their concerns related to privacy and security of personal information. The paper also suggests certain measures for the improvement of personal information management skills of students and the general public.
Shaheen Majid, Myint Malar San, Saw Tin Naung Tun, Thu Zar

New Approach for Automated Categorizing and Finding Similarities in Online Persian News

Abstract
The Web is a great source of information where data are stored in different formats, e.g., web-pages, archive files and images. Algorithms and tools which automatically categorize web-pages have wide applications in real-life situations. A web-site which collects news from different sources can be an example of such situations. In this paper, an algorithm for categorizing news is proposed. The proposed approach is specialized to work with documents (news) written in the Persian language but it can be easily generalized to work with documents in other languages, too. There is no standard test-bench or measure to evaluate the performance of this kind of algorithms as the amount of similarity between two documents (news) is not well-defined. To test the performance of the proposed algorithm, we implemented a web-site which uses the proposed approach to find similar news. Some of the similar news items found by the algorithm has been reported.
Naser Ezzati Jivan, Mahlagha Fazeli, Khadije Sadat Yousefi

An Evaluation of TS13298 in the Scope of MoReq2

Abstract
TS13298 is the first Turkish standard developed for electronic records management. It was published in 2007 and is particularly important when developing e-government services. MoReq2, which was published in 2008 as an initiative of the European Union countries, is an international “de facto” standard within the field of electronic records management. This paper compares and evaluates the content and presentation of the TS13298 and MoReq2 standards, and similarities and differences between the two standards are described. Moreover, the question of how MoReq2 can be used as a reference when updating TS13298 is also dealt with. The method of hermeneutics is used for the evaluation, and the texts of TS13298 and MoReq2 were compared and reviewed. These texts were evaluated in terms of terminology, access control and security, retention and disposition, capture and declaring, search, retrieval, presentation and metadata scheme. We discovered that TS13298 and MoReq2 have some “requirements” in common. However, the MoReq2 requirements, particularly in terms of control and security, retention and disposition, capture and declaration, search and presentation, are both vaster and more detailed than those of TS13298. As a conclusion it is emphasized that it would be convenient to update TS13298 by considering these requirements. Moreover, it would be useful to update and improve TS13298 by evaluating MoReq2 in terms of terminology and metadata scheme.
Gülten Alır, Thomas Sødring, İrem Soydal

Identification of User Patterns in Social Networks by Data Mining Techniques: Facebook Case

Abstract
Currently, social networks such as Facebook or Twitter are getting more and more popular due to the opportunities they offer. As of November 2009, Facebook was the most popular and well known social network throughout the world with over 316 million users. Among the countries, Turkey is in third place in terms of Facebook users and half of them are younger than 25 years old (students). Turkey has 14 million Facebook members. The success of Facebook and the rich opportunities offered by social media sites lead to the creation of new web based applications for social networks and open up new frontiers. Thus, discovering the usage patterns of social media sites might be useful in taking decisions about the design and implementation of those applications as well as educational tools. Therefore, in this study, the factors affecting “Facebook usage time” and ”Facebook access frequency” are revealed via various predictive data mining techniques, based on a questionnaire applied on 570 Facebook users. At the same time, the associations of the students’ opinions on the contribution of Facebook in an educational aspect are investigated by employing the association rules method.
A. Selman Bozkır, S. Güzin Mazman, Ebru Akçapınar Sezer

Digital Rights Challenges in a World of Technological Convergence

Abstract
The convergence of communication, caused in part by the convergence of media and digital content, is a continuing phenomenon. Many intellectual property challenges loom in this environment. This paper focuses on the situation in the Unites States. The peculiar features inherent in digital content that exacerbate the intellectual property problem, such as non-permanent, multiple, and heterogeneous media are discussed. A few US cases that illustrate some of the problems in this area are also examined. The paper concludes by looking at the multiple goals of digital content collections and the problem of intellectual property.
John N. Gathegi

Copyright Issues Related to the Digitization of Cultural Heritage in Croatia

Abstract
A proliferation of EU programmes and action plans on digitization proves that there is a political will to digitize and make available to the public the rich cultural heritage of Europe. The article tracks the development of these ideas and actions and focuses on one of the obstacles to be overcome-the lack of consistency in approaches to intellectual property rights. The aim of the investigation described in the paper has been to find out how copyright issues related to the digitization performed by public institutions such as libraries and archives have been dealt with in Croatia. Information collected from the national electronic portal Croatian Cultural Heritage was further enriched by interviews held with the persons responsible for digitization projects in four major public institutions in the country. A lack of suitable registries or databases with data on national authors has been noted. Institutions show different approaches to digital copies they produce; some consider themselves to be the publishers and rights holders of new digital editions of works, while the others take digitization primarily as a means of protection of originals. As a rule institutions have a policy of copyright management, even if a rudimentary one. All institutions provide copyright information, sometimes with a copyright disclaimer. They use watermarking as a technical protection measure. Digitized materials are provided at no cost on the Internet for private use and research. Use of materials for commercial purposes has to be paid for and the institutions look upon it as a source of revenue to fund further digitization activities. The institutions’ policy toward derivative works, i.e. offering the opportunity to users to create their own content, is yet to be determined.
Aleksandra Horvat, Daniela Zivkovic

Information Systems and Bibliometrics

Performance Evaluation of Web Information Systems

Abstract
The quality of web information systems is closely related with their users’ expectations. In order to create good quality systems, web designers should understand how users perceive service quality of various performance attributes such as security, usability and information quality, and which ones they value the most. In this study, users’ service quality perceptions of two different web sites were investigated. Data were obtained from 1,900 users of web sites of a for-profit online bookstore and a not-for-profit national information center through the E-Qual Index that was administered online. Users were asked to rate to what extent each web site satisfied the 22 performance attributes included in the E-Qual Index along with the importance they attached thereto. Quadrant analysis and gap analysis were used to analyze the data to find out the strengths and weaknesses of the web sites investigated. Moreover, performance attributes that need to be improved or that were “undervalued” by the users were identified. Findings indicate that each web site satisfied more than half the performance attributes listed in the E-Qual Index. Users attached more importance to performance attributes such as ease of use, provision of timely and relevant information and safety. Findings can be used to remedy the shortcomings of each web site and improve the web service quality.
Yaşar Tonta, İrem Soydal

Information Science and Cognitive Psychology: A Theoretical Approach

Abstract
Information, as a human and social phenomenon, is the object of study of an emergent scientific field named Information Science (IS), which we put forward as unitary and transdisciplinary and open to a rich interdisciplinarity with other fields of knowledge. In face of the new reality, baptized the ‘Information Society’, and the emergence of a new paradigm, that we name “post-custodial, scientific and informational”, as opposed to the previous one, “historicist, custodial and technicist”, it is urgent to consolidate the theoretical and methodological foundations of IS in order to develop research, both pure and applied, and to contribute to a definition of its boundaries as a scientific area, in the scope of Social Sciences. Starting from an operative definition of Information, this paper aims to discuss the cognitive and emotional dimension of the info-communicational phenomenon and, for that, it is crucial to start a profound and hard dialogue with Cognitive Sciences. The label of ‘cognitivist’ given, in IS literature, to some authors like Bertram Brookes, because of the emphasis he put on the passage from a state of knowledge to a new state through an addition of knowledge coming from an increase of information, sounds quite equivocal, because knowledge and cognition are not synonymous and cognitive and emotional activity is not reducible to formalities. It is necessary to compare concepts and to understand the neuropsychological roots of the production, the organization and the info-communicational behaviour, so the contribution of Neurosciences and Cognitive Sciences, namely Cognitive Psychology, is indispensable.
Armando Malheiro da Silva, Fernanda Ribeiro, Fernanda Martins

Visualizing the Structure of Scientific Output of Iranian Scholars in Science Citation Index (SCI) during 2000-2006

Abstract
To visualize the structure of Iranian scientific output in Science Citation Index (SCI), accessible via Web of Science (WOS), during 2000-2006, we used scientometric techniques and HistCite software. The number of Iranian documents indexed in SCI during the study period was 24480. Generally HistCite analyzes citation data on two different levels: based on citations in WOS (Global Citation Scale), and citations in collection of retrieved documents (Local Citation Scale). The results of this study showed that, in the study period a total of 8 clusters have been formed on the two levels (GCS and LCS): Clusters 1 and 2 (with 3 sub-clusters) in GCS and clusters 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 in LCS. The subject area of whole clusters was chemistry, but different areas of this discipline. The prominent subject area in our study was organic chemistry. The most effective document in this study was an article by Zolfigol with 123 global citations and 71 local citations. The subject category of cluster 1 was analytical chemistry and membrane electrodes. Cluster 2 consists of 3 sub-clusters (sub-cluster 1 hydrocarbons, sub-cluster 2 in the field of oxidation and nitrogen, and sub-cluster 3 catalysts). Cluster 4 was crystal structure, cluster 5 electrochemical analysis, cluster 6 macro cycles, cluster 7 aliphatic and aromatic complexes and the 8th cluster was polymers.
Farideh Osareh, Maryam Keshvari

A Study on Scientific Product of the University of Tehran in Web of Science Database during 1989 – 2009

Abstract
The University of Tehran (UT) is the oldest and one of the largest academic centers in Iran. It plays an important role in education and research in the country. Due to the importance of Tehran University we decided to study its academic scientific output in the Web of Science during 1989-2009 using a scientometric approach. The purpose of this study was to identify the rank of UT among Iranian universities. The key authors and influential journals, types of documents, the rate of yearly output and the annual growth rate were also identified. We also specified the countries with whose scholars UT academic members collaborated during the studied period. In addition, we drew and analyzed two historiographical maps of UT, based on Local Citation Score (LCS) and Global Citation Score (GCS).
Farideh Osareh, Amin Zare

Contribution of Turkish Scholars to Earthquake Literature: The Impact of the Marmara Earthquake

Abstract
This paper addresses the question of whether the Marmara Earthquake of August 17, 1999, has had an impact on the contribution of Turkish scholars to the earthquake literature. We identified a total of 1,098 papers published between 1990 and 2009 by Turkish earthquake scientists. These papers were cited 7,691 times. Both the number of papers and the citations they generated increased considerably after the Marmara Earthquake. This may be explained, in part, by the increase in the number of projects being carried out since then to study the Marmara Sea basin.
Zehra Taşkın

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