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Although there have been considerable technological advances over the past decade, particularly in terms of mobile applications, much remains unknown about their effect on societal progress. This book focuses on how inequality and entrepreneurship are both by-products of technological change. The book provides insights into how society has shifted from consumer division to human centricity, and helps readers gain a better understanding of the positive and negative effects of entrepreneurship.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Technological Progress, Inequality and Entrepreneurship: From Consumer Division to Human Centricity

Abstract
During the past decade changes made as a result of technological innovation have been profound and impacted society. The aim of this chapter is to examine the inequality and entrepreneurship that has resulted from this technological progress in order to understand better how to manage the change. This is important as there has been a growing inequality gap in society in terms of access to emerging technology that needs the help of entrepreneurs and policy planners to readdress. The role of consumers in this change is discussed as a way of progressing the literature on technological innovation and entrepreneurship. Practical and theoretical implications from technological progress in terms of human centricity are stated.
Vanessa Ratten

Transformative Changes and Developments of the Coworking Model: A Narrative Review

Abstract
Modern times have seen an emergence of new type of office spaces. Coworking spaces are commonly viewed as hybridised workspaces that are not solely perceived as optimal places to work, but as a source of social support for independent professionals and as physical entities that sprung the creation of collaborative communities. These spaces facilitate interactional effects with the use of mediation mechanisms and through serendipitous encounters with individuals from outside of one’s own social circle. By co-constructing a sense of community, these environments have reshuffled the flexible work practice and are significantly impacting the lives of flexible workers across the globe. The chapter presents a narrative review of available resources framing historical development of the flexible workspaces and their evolvement into the contemporary coworking environments. The chapter also highlights the role of collaborative workspaces in the modern economy and it proposes challenges for future research.
Marko Orel, Ondřej Dvouletý

The Role of ICT in Involving the Tourist and in Sustainability of Tourism Destinations

Abstract
A tourist destination, in addition, to attracting tourists, both national and international, must take care of the interests of the local community in order to obtain economic development, improve the quality of life of the resident and meet the satisfaction of visitors. The quality of experiences perceived by tourists, about a tourist destination, contributes to their satisfaction and to the creation of richer memories. In this context, the role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) can be the way to improve and add value to the experience, through the involvement of tourists and residents, taking into account the search made by tourists about their tourist destination before and during travel, through the dissemination of its authenticity, values and heritage of the destination by other tourists, residents and by official destination management organizations. The present research intends to analyse the role played by ICT to improve the competitiveness of the destination, in order to meet the needs of tourists, taking in consideration the quality of life of its residents. The methodology used considers descriptive statistical analysis and non-parametric tests applied to research questions. The research concluded that tourists use ICT at any time during their travel, both in planning and in the consumption phase, and that they use the technology in order to find information on the destination, make reservations and share their experiences on the social networks.
Célia M. Q. Ramos, Georgette Andraz, Irene Cardoso

Technology-Based Tourism Businesses: Extracting Actionable Knowledge and Insights from Social Networks

Abstract
There are currently many technologies that are changing all types of professional ecosystems around the world. New technologies and business models based on the internet are producing the evolution of the tourism sector towards Digital Tourism, which uses innovation and the interconnection of products and services. The research aim of this study is to identify the main technologies and business models that are transforming the tourism sector into the new digital ecosystem. The trends that will influence the future of Digital Tourism can then be identified. To do this, an original approach is proposed, using textual analysis with data mining and visual data mining techniques with the User Generated Content (UGC) on the Twitter social network. The sample consisted of n = 25,434 tweets downloaded from the Twitter API with the hashtags #DigitalTourism and #Tourism. These were used to get insights and knowledge about the digital tourism industry using the technological innovations in the sector. The results of the research showed the main technologies and business models in the Digital Tourism sector, as well as the trends and future applications for the digital tourism sector. This research fills a gap in the existing research by using data mining techniques to obtain insights and knowledge from UGC about the Digital Tourism industry.
Jose Ramón-Saura, Pedro R. Palos-Sanchez, María de la Cruz del Río-Rama

Digital Accessibility on Institutional Websites of Portuguese Tourism

Abstract
In this chapter we address the problem of accessibility and accessible tourism concerning the various types of information and communication, namely, the digital information resulting from technological innovation implemented in recent years in various websites.
As we have been developing studies on the impacts of accessibility and accessible tourism, we consider it fundamental to analyse the compliance of Portuguese institutional sites in the tourism area with the new European directives and Portuguese legislation.
In this sense, the main objective of this chapter is to understand how the institutional Web content related to Portuguese tourism meets the accessibility requirements of the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0), of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The sample reflects the Portuguese panorama of institutional websites related to Portuguese tourism activity and promotion.
Overall, with respect to accessibility practices, it is possible to conclude that none of the websites analysed meets the compliance levels of WCAG 2.0. The results point to an inequality in the dynamics and development of the Portuguese territory.
Fátima Matos Silva, Isabel Borges

The Ethical Assumptions in Higher Education

Abstract
Higher Education Institutions (HEI) have been challenged to rethink their action and to adequate their mission to new contemporary realities. These challenges have been posed by the characteristics of democratic societies which led to the expansion of compulsory schooling, increased cultural, ethnical and gender diversity of students, and also the volatility, internationalization of labour market, and by the ephemerality of knowledge caused by accelerated scientific and technological development.
Considering this perspective, it is the responsibility of HEI to support the development of knowledge and skills that allows young people to make free and ethic choices, based on shared values, including respect and participation. Living in society, at the macro, meso or micro level, requires technical and scientific knowledge, enabling individuals to pursue a profession, contribute for their integration, independence and autonomy, and to contribute to the social and economic development. This requires complex competences that empowers them to take ethical decisions in their profession and in their lives, assume and share responsibilities, to respect diversity and differences of perspective, to negotiate, to build consensus and relations of reciprocity. HEIs should include these ethical assumptions in their actions and organizational practices, making visible the values of freedom, equality, equity and solidarity. The incorporation of these ethical principles becomes more challenging at micro level, in the context of the classroom.
This chapter describes the ethical challenges that teacher/researcher faces during the teaching-learning process and his interaction with all the actors and how they can be applied in a teaching-learning activity. A case study is also presented, with two teachers and 40 students of an Informatics Engineering and 35 students of Basic Education programme. It highlights the importance of supporting pedagogical innovation in higher education, based on strong ethical foundations and on the development of collective learning goals and a shared vision.
Rui Pedro Lopes, Cristina Mesquita, Amador Durán-Sánchez, Juan R. Coca

Geotourism in Latin America and Caribbean UNESCO Global Geoparks: Contribution for Sustainable Development Goals

Abstract
A key feature of the UNESCO Global Geoparks (UGGps) is their contribution to regional sustainable development through initiatives and strategies of geoconservation, geoeducation and geotourism, promoted in cooperation with the local communities. In this sense, UGGps are committed to promote and carrying out activities that contribute to Agenda 2030 and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This Agenda, established in 2015 by United Nations, is assumed as a plan for planet, people, peace, prosperity and partnerships.
The geotourism as one of the main axes of the UGGps, sensu Arouca Declaration (2011, aroucageopark.​pt/​documents/​78/​Declaration_​Arouca_​EN.​pdf), and the geotouristic initiatives developed on UGGps could be an effective tool to contribute for the sustainable development of these territories.
This work is part of a broader research that aims to characterize the contribution of UGGps in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region to the Agenda 2030 and its 17 SDGs. However, in this work we focused mainly on the impacts of geotourism in the UGGps. The main objective is to show some evidences on how the geotourism strategies and activities carried on the four UGGps in LAC until early 2019 (Araripe UGGp in 2006—Brazil; Grutas del Palacio UGGp in 2013—Uruguay, Comarca Minera UGGp and Mixteca Alta UGGp in 2017—Mexico) are contributing in the scope of the SDG 8, SDG 9, SDG 10, SDG 11 and SDG 15.
The field work research was composed on the application of questionnaires and the development of workshops with the local communities of these four territories. The obtained results were based on the perception of the local communities and the impression they have of the impacts of the UGGps on their territories. This allowed to describe the evidences on how UGGps contribute on different ways to the Agenda 2030, particularly showing the impact of geotourism in specific targets, such as employment promotion, establishment of sustainable infrastructures, reduction of inequalities and the environmental conservation, among others. This work explains with a concrete case study the benefits that each territory can gain with a good promotion of geotourism strategies under the UGGp label.
Emmaline M. Rosado-González, José Luis Palacio-Prieto, Artur Abreu Sá

Social Innovation in Refugee Support: Investigating Prerequisites Towards a Conceptual Framework

Abstract
This paper investigates the required elements in the advancement of social innovation (SI) produced by entrepreneurial organisations. These efforts are to assist the establishment of a new conceptual framework including the voices of those, most vulnerable and ferociously impacted by not only local but also global crisis. Qualitative data by an organisation which educates social workers and refugees fuel the concept of social innovation by pointing to the interplay of structure and agency as well as social issues and impact on economy. Our existing knowledge on the role of social enterprises and refugee support through social innovative services are limited. Social innovation is closely linked to social entrepreneurship (SE) in practice and in literature. SE in context of refugee support is a concept currently gaining attention. Social innovation could be equally relevant in this regard. SI is a broad, versatile term, believed to hold a yet fully to be discovered potential. While SI is not a new revelation it is, however contested as a term and is yet to be fully understood, defined and diffused for it to be exploited at its maximum potential.
Phyllis McNally, Nikolaos Apostolopoulos, Haya Al-Dajani
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