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Über dieses Buch

This book outlines issues related to massive integration of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles into power grids. Electricity is becoming the preferred energy vector for the next new generation of road vehicles. It is widely acknowledged that road vehicles based on full electric or hybrid drives can mitigate problems related to fossil fuel dependence. This book explains the emerging and understanding of storage systems for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. The recharging stations for these types of vehicles might represent a great advantage for the electric grid by facilitating integration of renewable and distributed energy production.
This book presents a broad review from analyzing current literature to on-going research projects about the new power technologies related to the various charging architectures for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. Specifically focusing on DC fast charging operations, as well as, grid-connected power converters and the full range of energy storage systems. These key components are analyzed for distributed generation and charging system integration into micro-grids. The authors demonstrate that these storage systems represent effective interfaces for the control and management of renewable and sustainable distributed energy resources. New standards and applications are emerging from micro-grid pilot projects around the world and case studies demonstrate the convenience and feasibility of distributed energy management. The material in this unique volume discusses potential avenues for further research toward achieving more reliable, more secure and cleaner energy.



Overview of Technologies


Chapter 1. Vehicle Electrification: Main Concepts, Energy Management, and Impact of Charging Strategies

In this chapter the main issues related to the displacement of conventional vehicles in favor of electric vehicles, which is needed for the eventual decarbonization of the transportation sector, are discussed. First, an introduction to the various vehicle propulsion concepts and their pros and cons is provided, followed by smart energy management considerations for plug-in electric vehicles. Then, energy systems, economic and environmental considerations, as well as the impacts of charging strategies on the electric grid are discussed. Finally, some further issues which are important for the acceptance of electric vehicles—including safety, battery lifetime and optimal sizing, charging infrastructure, and business models—are analyzed.
Reinhard Madlener, Vincenzo Marano, Ottorino Veneri

Chapter 2. AC and DC Microgrid with Distributed Energy Resources

Renewable power generation and the prospect of large-scale energy storage are fundamentally changing the traditional power grid. Arising challenges occur in terms of energy management, reliability, system control, etc. Microgrid, as an active subsystem of modern power grid, has revealed its promising potential in dealing with intermittent clean power generation and emerging energy storage, partially brought by electrical vehicle batteries. In this chapter, the concept of microgrid is introduced. The main focus is placed on the basic issues of control, operation, stability, and protection of DC microgrids.
Dong Chen, Lie Xu

Chapter 3. Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into the Transportation and Electricity Sectors

The challenge for the next few years in the auto industry is to improve vehicle fuel economy, and make them independent of oil supply, as well as reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. To achieve these stringent industrial goals, the trend in the auto industry is to move towards transportation electrification, by introducing sustainable and nonpolluting electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs/PHEVs). Innovative transportation penetration has affected energy production in a major way. Energy production is already reaching its peaks. Hence, it has become imperative to find a solution, to manage energy production and usage accurately, especially within the context of EV/PHEV energy storage systems.
Vamsi Krishna Pathipati, Arash Shafiei, Giampaolo Carli, Sheldon S. Williamson

Chapter 4. Charging Architectures for Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

This chapter provides an overview of the different charging architectures available for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The charging architectures are addressed following two main categories: onboard chargers, used mainly for slow and semi-fast charging (generally AC connection), and off-board chargers, used for fast charging (DC connection). The chapter focuses on the mainstream solutions available in the industry, and also presents some recent advances and trends found in the literature. In addition, the chapter provides an introduction to well-established charging standards being used by manufacturers. Finally, the control schemes used in charging configurations, including the control schemes for DC–DC and AC–DC converter stages, are discussed, the latter considering both single- and three-phase control schemes.
Sebastian Rivera, Samir Kouro, Bin Wu

Chapter 5. Battery Technologies for Transportation Applications

More than a fifth of the greenhouse emissions produced worldwide come from the transport sector. Several initiatives have been developed over the last few decades, aiming at improving vehicles’ energy conversion efficiency and improve mileage per liter of fuel. Most recently, electric vehicles have been brought back into the market as real competitors of conventional vehicles. Electric vehicle technology offers higher conversion efficiencies, reduced greenhouse emissions, low noise, etc. There are, however, several challenges to overcome, for instance: improving batteries’ energy density to increase the driving range, fast recharging, and initial cost. These issues are addressed on this chapter by looking in depth into both conventional and non-conventional storage technologies in different transportation applications.
Javier Campillo, Erik Dahlquist, Dmitri L. Danilov, Nima Ghaviha, Peter H. L. Notten, Nathan Zimmerman

Overview of Applications


Chapter 6. Plug-In Electric Vehicles’ Automated Charging Control: iZEUS Project

This chapter examines how plug-in electric vehicles can be managed to balance the fluctuation of renewable electricity sources. The evaluations of this chapter were object of the iZEUS Project “Intelligent Zero Emission Urban System” funded by the German Federal Minister for Economic Affairs and Energy. In this context, different control strategies are introduced and, in order to investigate indirect control via electricity tariffs, an electricity market analysis of a system with a high share of generation from renewable electricity sources has been conducted. The analysis uses driving data collected from battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles in a research project which means that real charging and driving behavior can be considered. The results show that it is difficult to implement smart charging based on economic arguments because the incentives from day-ahead electricity markets are relatively small. In addition, a novel, autonomous control approach is being discussed for plug-in electric vehicles. While measuring the voltage at the grid connection point, plug-in electric vehicles are able to fully independently generate operation schedules that can avoid load peaks and integrate fluctuating power outputs from distributed renewable generation sources. The results reveal that combining indirect, price-based control to consider the system level with autonomous voltage-based control to consider the situation in distribution grids is a very promising control approach that allows electric vehicles to benefit from sustainable renewable generation and avoids load peaks due to simultaneous charging.
David Dallinger, Robert Kohrs, Michael Mierau, Simon Marwitz, Julius Wesche

Chapter 7. Experiences and Applications of Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles in Power System Networks

Transportation electrification is inevitable driven by rising energy costs, climate and emission control requirements, and availability of petroleum supplies. Even a realistic 10 % electrification of transportation is expected to impact the electricity generation, transmission, and distribution capacities, and hence the world economy. In this chapter, the authors seek to enlighten the reader on electric vehicle usage around the world by discussing their applications, electric vehicle trials, and key learnings from these trials across three continents: America, Europe, and Australia. Special emphasis has been given to discussing the commuting trends across the three continents and how that effects the transition into the electrification of transportation. The chapter continues with an impact analysis of electric vehicles on car users, the power quality of grids, and finally carbon emissions. Finally, examples of charging infrastructure and worldwide vehicle-to-grid applications are reviewed. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the need for interoperable communication standards, as an enabling technology for the management of the transactions between the grid and electric vehicles.
Cagil Ozansoy, Taha Selim Ustun, Aladin Zayegh

Adoption and Market Diffusion


Chapter 8. Perceptions and Adoption of EVs for Private Use and Policy Lessons Learned

Electric vehicles (EVs) are considered one of the most promising solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced in the transport sector. EVs have many potential advantages (e.g., in terms of avoided local and global pollutant emissions and noise reduction), but may also create new problems (e.g., in terms of stress on the electric distribution network or congested public transport lanes). The ultimate pollution emission benefit depends strongly on the fuel mix for electricity generation. Numerous governments at all levels worldwide have started to provide monetary and other incentives to render EVs more attractive for users, including research, development, and dissemination (RD&D) support, vehicle subsidies, provision of charging infrastructure, and privileged usage of bus lanes and dedicated parking lots. This chapter presents the different barriers explaining the slow market penetration of EVs so far, consumer perceptions and misconceptions, as well as lessons learned by policy makers and new empirical evidence and insights. Early adopter characteristics and selected examples where EV uptake has been particularly fast are also described. The conclusions show that subsidy and other incentive programs need to be carefully designed in scope, contents, and duration. In light of information deficiencies and misperceptions, information provision to potential EV adopters seems to be a no-regret policy option.
Iana Vassileva, Reinhard Madlener


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