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Über dieses Buch

This book offers readers essential insights into system design for deep space probes and describes key aspects such as system design, orbit design, telecommunication, GNC, thermal control, propulsion, aerobraking and scientific payload. Each chapter includes the basic principles, requirements analysis, procedures, equations and diagrams, as well as practical examples that will help readers to understand the research on each technology and the major concerns when it comes to developing deep space probes. An excellent reference resource for researchers and engineers interested in deep space exploration, it can also serve as a textbook for university students and those at institutes involved in aerospace.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

1. Introduction

Abstract
Deep space exploration is the first step to understand the Earth, the solar system and the universe and then to survey, explore and settle on other celestial bodies in the solar system. Deep space exploration will be an important approach for human beings to develop and utilize space resources and make space-based scientific and technological innovations in the twenty-first century. At present, deep space exploration goes forward in six key directions: lunar exploration, Mars exploration, exploration of asteroids and comets, solar exploration, exploration of Mercury and Venus, exploration of giant planets and their satellites.
Zezhou Sun

2. Characteristics of Deep Space Environment and Corresponding Impact

Abstract
Different from Earth-orbiting spacecraft, during missions, deep space probes are subject to the influences of geospace environment, interplanetary space environment, and the surrounding or surface environment of celestial bodies.
Zezhou Sun

3. System Design Technology

Abstract
Deep space probe is a complex system consisting of multiple subsystems (modules) with different functions and performances. Generally, these subsystems (modules) are completed under the cooperation of different teams of professionals. To ensure that the subsystems are coordinated and unified and the probe design satisfies requirements of explorations, the system design of the probe is required; namely, the design should be broken down level by level, top to bottom, and then iterated bottom to top for multiple times using systems engineering approaches. In addition, specific verifications should be conducted accordingly to gradually form a coordinated, well-matched design scheme that is optimal at system level and meets customers’ demands [1, 2].
Zezhou Sun

4. Technology of Orbit Design

Abstract
Orbit design is very crucial for spacecraft design. Orbit design for deep space exploration missions includes transfer trajectory design, mission orbit design, orbital control strategy design, etc. General procedures of orbit design are as follows.
Zezhou Sun

5. Payload Technology

Abstract
In deep space exploration, the roles of the payloads are mainly to carry out on-orbit exploration or surface exploration of extraterrestrial objects and obtain exploration data so as to provide basic materials for solving scientific problems under the conditions provided by the probe.
Zezhou Sun

6. Guidance, Navigation and Control Technology

Abstract
The guidance, navigation and control (GNC) technology of deep space exploration covers an extensive range of applications, including deep space orbital control, extraterrestrial celestial landing, extraterrestrial celestial patrol and high-velocity reentry in addition to the attitude and orbital control of conventional near-Earth spacecrafts.
Zezhou Sun

7. Atmospheric Braking Technology

Abstract
Atmospheric braking plays a key role in the process of entry, descent and landing (EDL) to atmospheric planets. The main functions required for atmospheric braking include braking to a specific terminal descent speed, providing stability (preventing the parachute from rolling or meeting the pointing requirements of instruments and devices) as well as providing differences in the ballistic coefficients of various components for separation and providing the altitude and time scale required for the EDL process.
Zezhou Sun

8. TT&C and Communication Technology

Abstract
Similar to the TT&C and communication system of a near-Earth spacecraft, the deep space TT&C and communication system has also three basic missions. The first mission is to measure and predict the position of the spacecraft. The second mission is to obtain the health status and scientific exploration data of the probe through the downlink. The third mission is to make corresponding controls on the probe based on the remote commands transmitted via the uplink. The three basic missions are also commonly referred to as TT&C, namely tracking, telemetry and command.
Zezhou Sun

9. Thermal Control Technology

Abstract
The design of thermal control system for a deep space probe is to incorporate advanced active temperature control technology and advanced system design method into the thermal control design of low Earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft fully used for reference, to ensure that the temperature of equipments and structural elements of the deep space probe is within the required range.
Zezhou Sun

10. Propulsion Technology

Abstract
The targets for deep space exploration are far away from the Earth. In order to reach the target and complete the exploration mission, the probe needs long-distance flight and complex orbit maneuver. Therefore, the propulsion system of the probe is particularly important. Deep space exploration requires high thrust, high specific impulse, long life, high-precision variable thrust and adaptability to harsh environment. As the probe is required to provide sufficient propulsion capability to meet the delta-V required for orbital maneuver, the traditional chemical propulsion systems are increasingly difficult to meet the actual needs of deep space exploration, and the application requirements of new technologies such as electric propulsion and special propulsion have become increasingly strong.
Zezhou Sun

11. Power Supply Technology

Abstract
Nowadays, deep space probes have traveled much farther in more complicated environments in diversified missions, bringing about higher demands on power systems [1]. The characteristics of the power supply systems of the deep space probes are closely related to the location and mission type of the target celestial body. For inner planets (e.g., Mercury, Venus), the probes will be subject to high-temperature and high-illumination-intensity environment. Therefore, heating resistance and radiation resistance measures should be considered for power system design, especially solar arrays; while for outer planets (e.g., Mars, Jupiter, Saturn), the probes will be subject to low-temperature and low-illumination-intensity environment, so solar array should have high conversion rate, large area, high power and low mass, and MPPT-type power controllers should be applied as possible to maximize the utilization of solar energy for the power system. For landing exploration on the celestial bodies and sample return missions, the impacts of factors such as the atmosphere and dust of the celestial bodies on the solar spectrum should also be considered for the power system design [2], or nuclear energy should be applied to eliminate the effects of sunlight and other environmental conditions [3, 4].
Zezhou Sun

12. Autonomous Management and Tele-operation Technology

Abstract
With the continuous development of space technology, space competition is becoming increasingly fierce. And it has become a highlight and tough task to improve the on-orbit survivability of spacecraft and performance of the spacecraft. In deep space exploration missions, it has become the key research content in spacecraft operation and control to improve the efficiency of completing deep space exploration missions. The technical approaches to solve this problem include autonomous management technology and tele-operation technology, focusing on improving the autonomy of the probe and the level of ground operation and control technology, respectively.
Zezhou Sun

13. Mechanism Technology

Abstract
There are many definitions of mechanism. The traditional definition is: Mechanism is a physical combination with a certain motion, which has a component system with a frame, which is connected by moving pairs to transfer motion and power. Spacecraft mechanism is a mechanical component that enables spacecraft and its components or accessories to complete specified actions or movements. It is generally composed of moving components and power supply. The research scope of spacecraft mechanism technology covers the transmission of mechanism motion, the force between various components, as well as the functional performances to be realized, mechanism manufacturing technology, test technology, transmission technology and reliability technology.
Zezhou Sun

14. Ground Test Verification Technology

Abstract
There are many similarities between deep space probe and Earth orbit spacecraft in terms of environmental adaptability and environmental testing, but there are also differences between them. Especially, to adapt to the special space environment, entry environment, landing environment and the surface environment of celestial bodies in the orbiting and landing exploration missions, a series of specific technical challenges to the simulation test of the ground environment need to be solved. At the same time, it is necessary to build and improve the relevant environmental testing facilities.
Zezhou Sun
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