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Über dieses Buch

This is the first book of a series that will focus on MMS (Mechanism and Machine Science). This book also presents IFToMM, the International Federation on the Promotion of MMS and its activity.

This volume contains contributions by IFToMM officers who are Chairs of member organizations (MOs), permanent commissions (PCs), and technical committees (TCs), who have reported their experiences and views toward the future of IFToMM and MMS. The book is composed of three parts: the first with general considerations by high-standing IFToMM persons, the second chapter with views by the chairs of PCs and TCs as dealing with specific subject areas, and the third one with reports by the chairs of MOs as presenting experiences and challenges in national and territory communities.

This book will be of interest to a wide public who wish to know the status and trends in MMS both at international level through IFToMM and in national/local frames through the leading actors of activities. In addition, the book can be considered also a fruitful source to find out “who’s who” in MMS, historical backgrounds and trends in MMS developments, as well as for challenges and problems in future activity by IFToMM community and in MMS at large.



General Considerations


Activity and Trends in MMS from IFToMM Community

Mechanism and Machine Science (MMS) has been the core of mechanical engineering, and indeed of industrial engineering, since the beginning of engineering practice and particularly in modern times. A short survey is presented to outline the main characteristics of mechanisms and their evolution with the aim to identify challenges and the role of MMS in future developments of Technology for the benefit of Society. The significance of IFToMM, the International Federation for the Promotion of MMS, is also stressed as the worldwide community that in the past 40 years has contributed the most to aggregate common views and developments with an important role for future improvements yet to come. Modern systems specifically with mechatronic design and operation still need careful attention from mechanism design viewpoints to properly achieve the goals of forwarding technological developments for supporting or replacing human operators in their activity.

Marco Ceccarelli

Promoting Novel Approaches of MMS for Sustainable Energy Applications

Sustainable product design and development has gone global by involving teams from all over the world, developing new/innovative, high-tech products, aiming to implement sustainability in our knowledge-based society. RT&D and education in product design must comply with these requirements. Mechanical Systems (MS), as product components must also comply, thus general methods for MS modelling and design are compulsory. The paper discusses the involvement of MMS in promoting sustainable energy systems; mechanical and mechatronic systems in renewables are presented along with energy efficient applications in automotives. A proposal to establish a new IFToMM Technical Committee for Sustainable Energy systems is also presented and justified.

Ion Visa

Role of MMS and IFToMM in Iberoamerican Community and Open Perspectives

TMM (now MMS) has been an important basis and a fecundus area for developing Spanish engineering overall and then extending that development to the Iberoamerican community within international frames of collaboration. The Spanish society has also been a promoter also for an Iberoamerican federation within the Iberoamerican communities, that now has a well-established presence and plays a role that is similar and indeed is linked to IFToMM.

Emilio Bautista Paz, Justo Nieto Nieto

India’s Contributions Over the Last 40 Years in Turbine Blade Dynamics

India is one of the founding members of IFToMM and took keen interest in its activities since its inception. It took full advantage of organizing and participating in events worldwide in various MMS areas. The contributions over the last 4–5 decades in Turbine Blade Dynamics from India are recounted here.

Jammi S. Rao

A Brief History of Legged Robotics

Research in the area of legged robotic systems has spanned almost the entire history of modern robotics. IFToMM has played a crucial role in this history by providing a channel of communication between East and West during the cold war period, and


its Technical Committee on Robotics in more recent years. In this chapter we have attempted an overview of what has become a vigorous field of research.

P. J. Csonka, K. J. Waldron

Viewpoints by Chairs of IFToMM Technical Committees and Permanent Commissions


The History of Mechanism and Machine Science (HMMS) and IFToMM’s Permanent Commission for HMMS

In this paper we put machines and mechanisms, Mechanism and Machine Science (MMS) and the foundation of the International Federation for the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (IFToMM) in the wide perspective of the economic history of the world and we devote some attention to the activities of IFToMM’s Permanent Commission for the History of MMS.

Teun Koetsier, Hanfried Kerle, Hong-Sen Yan

On the Development of Terminology and an Electronic Dictionary for Mechanism and Machine Science

This chapter describes the work of PC Standards and Terminology, starting with the recording of the relevant terminology. With the development of the personal computer and the internet, attention moved from a printed version to an electronic version of the dictionary. This required working methods to be adapted and the development of software to create the intended webpage. The chapter describes the principal problems, discussions and decisions in the process which eventually resulted in the current version of the electronic dictionary.

A. J. Klein Breteler

The Role of Mechanism Models for Motion Generation in Mechanical Engineering

The paper gives a historical overview of the development of mechanism or kinematic models for motion generation in mechanical engineering. Models can serve for teaching purposes and also serve as small test rigs when investigating the running behaviour and estimating the running quality of a mechanism or machine. So the development of mechanisms and machines through the last centuries since Antiquity is also coupled to the development of design of virtual and physical mechanism models.

Hanfried Kerle, Burkhard Corves, Klaus Mauersberger, Karl-Heinz Modler

Development of Computational Kinematics Within the IFToMM Community

With the advent of symbolic computation and the development of new methods and algorithms in numerical mathematics the classical field of kinematics has undergone a renaissance. But it was not only the new methods that caused this renaissance. Where classical kinematics studied mainly mechanisms and one-parameter motions, the emergence of robotics changed the focus of kinematics to multi-parameter motions and new topics such as workspace computations, direct and inverse kinematics and singularities of sophisticated robots and machines. Therefore it is not surprising that researchers of the IFToMM community entered the new field of robot kinematics. Consequentially the TC Computational Kinematics was established within IFToMM. In this paper we introduce the basic topics and the research methods that define Computational Kinematics and report the short history, aims and activities of the IFToMM TC Computational Kinematics.

Doina Pisla, Manfred L. Husty

Theory and Practice of Gearing in Machines and Mechanisms Science

Some tendencies of theory and practice of gearing development, a bit of history with the names of outstanding scientists and engineers, the up-to-data directions of research and development activity in the field of gears are given in the chapter.

Veniamin I. Goldfarb

ThinkMOTION: Digital Mechanism and Gear Library Goes Europeana

The most important aim of the IFToMM is “to promote research and development in the field of Machines and Mechanisms by theoretical and experimental methods, along with their practical application” (see article 2.1 of the statutes [12]). This is strongly connected with access to current knowledge, experience and skills in the field of mechanism and machine science (resp. motion science). However this content is characterized by a high diversity and heterogeneity, because it is mostly scattered, represented in different forms (physical model, drawings, textbooks etc.), languages and mediums. Therefore there is a need to establish an open access, multilingual digital library in this field of techno-cultural heritage. Against this background, members of three IFToMM-Commissions initiated a joint project called thinkMOTION. In this project, which promotes the idea of open access, the techno-cultural heritage and the current developments in motion science will be widely accessible via Europeana, which is the search platform for European digital libraries initiated by the European Commission. The content is useful for a wide range of user groups, such as interested laymen, engineers, scientists, lecturers, pupils, students all over the world, in that it opens new possibilities in multilingual searching, browsing and using of information sources.

Burkhard Corves, Torsten Brix, Ulf Döring

Micromachines: The Role of the Mechanisms Community

Micromachines is a mature field today, although it is usually known by other names in various parts of the world. We briefly review the genesis of this field and how mechanisms researchers became involved. The successes of the field are many and have led to creation of a number of commercial products. This success is partly due to mechanisms research but more significantly due to rapid developments in microfabrication technology. We discuss the influence of the limitations of microfabrication techniques on the mechanisms used in this field. Interestingly, the strategies that were developed for overcoming these limitations have extended the scope of mechanisms and machines and are influencing technologies beyond the realm of micromachines. Many challenges lie ahead and multi-disciplinary approaches combined with mechanisms techniques will prove to be beneficial in the coming years.

G. K. Ananthasuresh

Role of MMS and IFToMM in Multibody Dynamics

An important application of multibody dynamics is mechanism theory. Rigid and flexible bodies are widely applied for modeling of planar and spatial machines, for their dynamical analysis with respect to motion and strength, vibration and control, and for their optimization. Interacting machine parts result in a variety of contact problems. Some fundamentals and typical mechanism and machine problems will be presented.

Javier Cuadrado, Jose Escalona, Werner Schiehlen, Robert Seifried

State-of-the-Art and Trends of Development of Reliability of Machines and Mechanisms

Today Reliability is a subject of increasing scientific interest and practical application with considerable multidisciplinary issues. A survey and basic problems are outlined with the aim to stress current significance of Reliability both in engineering and education frames. IFToMM role is also discussed as focused in the activity of the Technical Committee for Reliability.

Irina V. Demiyanushko

Role of MMS and IFToMM in Robotics and Mechatronics

Robotics and mechatronics are multi-disciplinary subjects sharing some common fundamental knowledge and technical development. This article briefly outlines areas of works in robotics and mechatronics respectively, and explains the commonalities and differences of the two subjects. The roles of MMS in the robotics and mechatronics are explained and reflected in the current IFToMM events. With the merger of IFToMM Technical Committee on Robotics and Technical Committee on Mechatronics, this article also points out the missions and topics of the newly established Technical Committee on Robotics and Mechatronics (TC R & M) and its future role in the larger Robotics and Mechatronics community.

I.-Ming Chen

Role of MMS and IFToMM in the Creation of Novel Automotive Transmissions and Hybrids

Over the past few decades, mechanism and machine science has helped lay a very solid foundation for the topological representation of mechanisms and linkages. This has allowed the sorting and classification of industrial devices and machinery based on topological structure. This has been most useful for developing a sound understanding of the possible mechanism-based solutions for a given engineering problem. It has also allowed the exploration of novel solutions wherein an understanding of the degrees-of-freedom necessary to accomplish a particular set of functions has guided the search for new devices. In the present offering, we describe the use of this approach for the creation of novel gear schemes for automotive transmissions and hybrid drive units.

Madhusudan Raghavan

Advancements and Future of Tribology from IFToMM

A Tribology Committee, focused on tribology in machines, was set up in 2005 as a Technical committee of the IFToMM, an organization that has historically supported tribological activities. Tribology has been developed very rapidly in the last 20 years. Several new areas have been identified, such as nano-tribology, bio-tribology, superlubricity, and surface texture. In the present and following years, these topics as well as tribology in nanomanufacturing, green-tribology, tribology in extreme conditions, surface texture, and tribology in new energy fields will play important roles in the study of machines and mechanisms. We describe here some of the major advances in these areas in recent years and project some future needs in the next 10 years

Jianbin Luo

Experiences and views by IFToMM Member Organizations

MMS and IFToMM in Armenia: Past, Present State and Perspectives

A brief overview of the genesis and evolution of TMM and other MMS related research fields in Armenia is given and the main achievements are underlined. Based on this overview, present trends and critical problems in the development of MMS are identified in the context of social-economic transition. The role and influence of IFToMM on the development of MMS are highlighted. The paper concludes with an outline of possible ways for promoting the further development of MMS and its active involvement in revitalization and restructuring of industrial machinery in Armenia.

Yuri Sarkissyan

Role of MMS and IFToMM in Belarus

The chapter reviews the system of scientific support for designing modern and competitive machines in the Republic of Belarus, comprising state programs, academic institutions and universities, scientific and technical centers within various types of enterprises. The main international forums in the field of mechanics and machines science that are hosted in Belarus, its leading periodicals and the websites of its participating organizations are described. Furthermore, the chapter illustrates the basic tendencies and results of investigations in Belarus, reflected in publications for the period from 2006 to 2010, and discusses its prioritization of directions of fundamental and applied scientific research for 2011–2015.

Vladimir Algin

The Role of ABCM in Engineering and Mechanical Sciences in Brazil and Its Relationship with IFToMM

This paper presents a historical record regarding ABCM – Brazilian Society of Engineering and Mechanical Sciences, its relationship with IFToMM and its important role in engineering and mechanical sciences in Brazil.

João Carlos Mendes Carvalho

Contributions to the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science by the IFToMM Canadian Community (CCToMM)

The Canadian Committee for the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (CCToMM) has been a committee member of the International Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science (IFToMM) for almost 40 years. This article summarizes CCToMM’s contributions to the promotion of mechanism and machine science both within Canada and internationally. Despite its mercurial beginnings, membership has grown to be stable, and has seen a steady growth in the past few years. CCToMM has organized its own successful technical symposium biennially since 2001, as well as a symposium within another forum. Prior to that, CCToMM sponsored annual theory of machines and mechanisms (TMM) symposia within other forums. Members of CCToMM regularly participate in IFToMM sponsored conferences. CCToMM also vigorously promotes student membership. An elected student representative sits on the Executive Council. CCToMM has thus fulfilled its mandate by being successful in promoting Canadian interest in, and the visibility of, mechanism and machine science.

M. J. D. Hayes, R. Boudreau, J. A. Carretero, R. P. Podhorodeski

Some Recent Advances in Mechanisms and Robotics in China–Beijing

Mechanisms and robotics are two long-lasting and most popular areas in the community of mechanical science and engineering in China. On the basis of a brief review of the historical evolution of the fields and communities, this article reports some recent advances in mechanisms and robotics in China–Beijing, covering a wide range of topics closely in connection with theoretical developments and practical applications in terms of lower mobility parallel mechanisms, micro-robots and compliant mechanisms, metamorphic mechanisms, humanoid robots, dexterous hands, surgery robots, underwater vehicles and special service robots. The future challenges and trends in the fields are also addressed.

Tian Huang

Development of Mechanism, Machine Science and Technology in Taiwan

We give a brief historical perspective of IFToMM China-Taipei activities in mechanism and machine science and its involvement in the IFToMM World Congress. The systematic generation of all possible mechanisms for required topological characteristics with design requirement and constraints was proposed by H. S. Yang in 1980 by the so-called “Methodology for the Conceptual Design of Mechanisms”. The gearing machines, such as CNC hobbing, shaving, grinding, and hypoid gear generator have been developed in Taiwan with aid of IFToMM China-Taipei community. For classification of geared mechanisms, a methodology is developed using concept of kinematic fractionation. Finally the tendon drive mechanism and nanometer positioning mechanism are included.

Hong-Sen Yan, Zhang Hua Fong, Ying Chien Tsai, Cheng Kuo Sung, Jao Hwa Kuang, Chung Biau Tsay, Shyi Jeng Tsai, Dar Zen Chen, Tyng Liu, Jyh Jone Lee, Shuo Hung Chang

Czech Contribution to the Role of Mechanism and Machine Science and IFToMM

In the paper, the history of Czechoslovakia’s involvement (later that of the Czech and the Slovak Republics) in the IFToMM organization was depicted. Moreover, the contribution of the so-called “Czech School” MMS to the development of this science discipline is described. An important event in MMS is a regularly arranged conference about MMS at the Technical University of Liberec. That conference is very popular among specialists from MMS and has become an important place of meeting and exchange of experience. The history of the Slovak IFToMM National Committee is given. Further, the prospects of the branch in the Czech Republic were presented.

Miroslav Václavík, Ladislav Půst, Jaromír Horáček, Jiří Mrázek, Štefan Segľa

Role of MMS in the Development of Mechanical Engineering Research in Georgia

In this paper we discuss the influence of Mechanisms and Machines Science in the development of Mechanical Engineering in Georgia. The historical perspective of the beginning of MMS in Georgia and its affiliation as an IFToMM member country is outlined and we explore the scientific and educational progress of MMS research fields in Engineering Science. The development of novelties in MMS is described and the influence of IFToMM on scientific research in Georgia is acknowledged. We also indicate the critical problems of MMS development that Georgia will be addressing.

Nodar Davitashvili

The Role of MMS (Mechanism and Machine Science) and IFToMM in Greece

Based on the results of a postal ballot among the Chairs of the International Federation for the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (IFToMM) members in 1999, Greece was accepted for membership by the National Member Committee. With addition of this new membership, IFToMM had 45 members all over the world. The late Professor A. Dimarogonas (1938–2000) had advocated for the establishment of a Greek Section of IFToMM since the 1980s. The historical evolution of the Greek committee of the Greek Section of IFToMM and its influence on the structure of the courses of Machine Design, Synthesis of Mechanisms and the History of Technology in the Mechanical Engineering Department is presented here. The contribution of IFToMM to the development of Engineering Design and the Theory of Machines in Greece is also described.

Thomas G. Chondros

MMS at University Level in Hungary Within the IFToMM Community

This paper gives an outline of the history of Hungarian higher technical education to show how it developed, in spite of the different obstacles it faced, and to show how its growth was always determined by economic and social conditions. (Strandl, A history of the machine, A&W Publishers, Inc., New York, 1978; Varga, The Technical University of Budapest, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Centenary Memorial Volume, Akadémiai Nyomda, Budapest, 1972; Moon, The Machines of Leonardo Da Vinci and Franz Reuleaux, Springer, The Netherlands, 2007; Ginsztler, The impact of globalization on engineering education and practice, J Ideas, 6, Logod Bt, Budapest, 1999). Soon after IFToMM was created, it became a leading Federation of the World, operating in a nurturing atmosphere for the sake of both academic science and industrial practice. This paper gives an outline of this history, as well.

Elisabeth Filemon

Developments in the Field of Machines and Mechanisms in India over the Ages

In this article we examine the growth of MMS in India. The earliest machines were powered by humans or animals. Subsequently there has been a long era during which machines were imported and later built based on reverse engineering. As the economic conditions began improving there has been a spurt in MMS and the same continues today and is likely to grow significantly during the next decade.

C. Amarnath

The Influence of IFToMM and MMS in Present Day Italian Culture

IFToMM activity in Italy has scored many successes, as evidenced by the strong development of Mechanics in Italy and the applications that Italian industries have created in mechatronics and its technologies. The Federation and its cooperating Institutions have had positive results in connecting with people in the forefront of other cultures. My own experience extends from the first years of IFToMM, in the early 1970s, through the International Congress of IFToMM in 1995, in Milan, up to today when science and technology have become interpreters of a globalized world. Regrettably, support for scientific research has decreased in Italy in recent years due to a lack of funds, a fact that effects above all the younger generation. It is necessary for IFToMM programs to take strong steps now to alleviate this situation.

Alberto Rovetta

Achievements in Machine Mechanism Science in Lithuania

Lithuania – one of the Baltic countries – has deep roots in mechanical engineering. The famous seventeenth century scientist Kazimieras Simonavicius wrote the first book on the art of artillery. The educational material related to TMM studies in the Applied Mechanics course was first read in Vilnius University at the end of the eighteenth century. In the beginning of the twentieth century mechanical sciences were studied in the Vytautas Magnus University – in Kaunas, temporal capital of Lithuania. From 1950 Kaunas Polytechnic institute became the leader of engineering studies; when the biggest research center in the former Soviet Union, dedicated to “Vibroengineering”, was established, the MMS related to IFToMM activities were the main priority of the research.

Vytautas Ostasevicius

The Mexican Contribution to Mechanism and Machine Science and Technology

An overview of current activity related to mechanism and machine research and development in Mexico is presented. Examples of some significant accomplishments are described to illustrate this activity. Historical trends and events that have been influential in promoting work in this area are identified. These include the creation of the National Council for Science and Technology, the implementation of post graduate educational programs, the creation of the Mexican IFToMM Commission, and the establishment of a considerable number of government and private research centers.

Ricardo Chicurel-Uziel, Alberto Caballero-Ruiz, Leopoldo Ruiz-Huerta, Alfonso Pámanes-García

The Significance and Role of IFToMM Poland in the Creative Development of Mechanism and Machine Science

Machines are motors of the economy. This domain of the theory of machines and mechanisms may be regarded to be a determinant of the development of technology. The developed study of mechanisms and machines is characterized as an interdisciplinary science with the possibility of motion-controlled programming. The dynamic development of many disciplines of technical sciences and nanotechnology has led to activities inspired by various bases of knowledge. Such an interaction has led to creating in the past neomechanics, the present mechatronics and in the future may be neuromechanics. Mechatronics, which was first created out of mechanical engineering as a theory of controlled motion, can be regarded as a discipline, the paradigm of which is apparent from the imposition of formalism, rights and principles of scientific disciplines, in particular principles of the science of mechanisms and machines. In this meaning the science of mechanisms and machines is dominant in formulating and solving engineering problems, and this is a key factor formulating twenty-first century civilization. Intelligent machines operate on the principle of the synergistic interaction of mechanical subsystems, hydraulic, electronic and optical computing.

The IFToMM Poland -the Polish Committee of the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (PC TMM) has taken upon itself to solve problems of importance for the development of technology and the creation of new mechanisms. Thanks to the activity of IFToMM Poland our country is one of the most important links of the International Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science.

Józef Wojnarowski

The Romanian Association for Mechanisms and Machines Science – Past, Present and Future

The Romanian Association for the Mechanisms and Machines Science, ARoTMM celebrates, in 2010, 40 years of activity. Developed with the contribution of the Romanian academic groups working in the field, ARoTMM represented a forum for joint cooperation, supporting high level research and education. The leading names that founded and contributed to the ARoTMM development are presented in this paper, along with the significant outcomes: scientific events, publications, international networking. The future, targeting intra-and transdisciplinary integration of mechanisms science into the high-tech product design and development, is also discussed.

Ion Visa

Formation and Development of MMS in Russia with Participation of Russia in IFToMM Activity

The participation of Russian scientists in the development of the theory of mechanisms and machines is considered. The most attention is paid to the efforts of scientists working in the Mechanical Engineering Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Nikolay V. Umnov, Victor A. Glazunov

Role of MMS and IFToMM in Slovakia

The paper describes the development of machines and mechanisms science and its achievements in Slovakia, along with problems concerning further development. This area of science has had an interesting and far-reaching tradition since the Middle Ages in this country. Following World War II, a systematic research and development base was built in the former Czechoslovakia, including the institutions of higher learning - universities of technology. In 1993 Slovakia became an independent republic and during the social and economic transformation of the last two decades, it has had to face further challenges. An important role in this process has been played by international cooperation, including participation of Slovak scientists in IFToMM activities.

S. Segla, P. Solek

The Role of MMS and IFToMM Influence in Spain

In this paper a retrospective vision of the development of MMS in Spain is presented. A historical perspective is first outlined and the research carried out in MMS and vehicle engineering is also described. The evolution and changes in education in Spain have been also addressed regarding MMS in the last half century. Not only has the development of new degree plans been analyzed, but also the increase in the number of engineering schools and their impact. Afterwards, future trends in the evolution of MMS in Spain are analyzed. Finally, expectations and critical problems in relation with the field and the scientific community are discussed.

Fernando Viadero, Vicente Díaz, A. Fernández, Y. A. Gauchía

Ultra-High Precision Robotics: A Potentially Attractive Area of Interest for MM and IFToMM

New miniaturized products include more and more functions in a limited volume. This evolution leads to a drastic reduction of component size and the miniaturization requires very high precision for manufacturing, assembly and packaging operations.

This chapter presents several concepts of high precision robots that meet the permanent issue of product miniaturization.

The works that will be presented directly connect to fields of interest to the IFToMM and also demonstrate how they can generate attractive opportunities for Swiss companies.

Clavel Reymond, Le Gall Bérangère, Bouri Mohamed

Teaching and Research in Mechanism Theory and Robotics in Tunisia

Teaching and research in robotics and mechanisms in engineering schools in Tunisia can be a very challenging task. Indeed, most engineering schools in Tunisia are relatively young, and only four out of about ten engineering schools in Tunisia have mechanical engineering curricula. This paper tries to delineate the place of mechanisms and robotics in these curricula and the evolution of teaching and research in this discipline during the last two decades. Especial attention will be paid to the ways and means used to teach this type of courses. The role of IFToMM in promoting this field in Tunisia is also highlighted.

Lotfi Romdhane, A. Mlika

Contributions to MMS and IFToMM from USA

Many of the important developments in mechanism and machine science of the past 50 years originated with work in the USA. In this chapter we will attempt to review the most significant of these. Space is limited, so some valuable topics cannot be addressed.

Kenneth J. Waldron


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